SlideShare verwendet Cookies, um die Funktionalität und Leistungsfähigkeit der Webseite zu verbessern und Ihnen relevante Werbung bereitzustellen. Wenn Sie diese Webseite weiter besuchen, erklären Sie sich mit der Verwendung von Cookies auf dieser Seite einverstanden. Lesen Sie bitte unsere Nutzervereinbarung und die Datenschutzrichtlinie.
SlideShare verwendet Cookies, um die Funktionalität und Leistungsfähigkeit der Webseite zu verbessern und Ihnen relevante Werbung bereitzustellen. Wenn Sie diese Webseite weiter besuchen, erklären Sie sich mit der Verwendung von Cookies auf dieser Seite einverstanden. Lesen Sie bitte unsere unsere Datenschutzrichtlinie und die Nutzervereinbarung.
Classroom management approaches and Theories and models of classroom management
2.1 CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT APPROACHES
2.2 THEORIES AND MODELS OF CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT
Prepared by: Yusnitha Merang
PISMP TESL SEM 5
• Behavior modification
• Group process or socio-
• Instructional management
Theories & models
• Building foundation
• Assertive tactics
• Democratic teaching
• Instructional management
• Congruent communication
An approach in which the teacher has full responsibility for
regulating the classroom.
The teacher devises and specific rules to control pupil
behaviour in the classroom.
The teacher places firm limits and control on the students.
Use sharp and unfriendly tone of voice
Tell the students what they should do and should not do
Pupils are quiet and cannot interrupt the teacher.
Pupils do very little verbal exchange and discussion
Pupils are not motivated or encouraged to set personal goals.
The basis of this approach are the
assumptions that pupils their behavior
in order to get desired reward.
The use of reinforcement principle
Behaviorist teacher believe that
behavior can be changed by altering
the consequences that follow their
All behavior is maintained, changed or
shaped by the consequence of the
For desired behavior- reward,
praise, grade, etc
For unwanted behavior-extra
homework, seating arrangement
Steps to manage behavior through
by count or
to shape or
Classification Exhibit behavior consequences Probable future
effect on behavior
Jane cleans her
The teacher praises
Jane will continue
to clean the
Balin complains of
headaches when it
is time to do
Balin is allowed to
go to bed without
Balin will have
whenever there is
homework to do.
Punishment Martha sits on the
arm of the chair.
Marhta is apanked
each time she sits
on the arm of the
Martha will not sit
on the arm of the
Group processes in the classroom
Significant in developing interpersonal skills, social competence
and empathy which are essential for real life situations.
Affected by peer- group relationships- a collection of
interdependent, interacting individuals.
Groups are not simply people in proximity, but an entity, which
share and work toward a common goal. (Thelen, 1981)
A social- psychological view.
Social psychology is about understanding individual behavior in a social context. (
Saul McLeod, 2007)
Social psychology as the scientific field that seeks to understand the nature and
causes of individual behavior in social situations. (Baron, Byrne & Suls, 1989)
This approach looks at pupils behavior as influenced by other people and the
social context in which it occurs.
The group process in the ESL classroom will contribute to higher learner achievement if
the social climate is positive and how their teacher manage their teaching and learning
• Leadership occurs as
power- with rather than
• Open communication
• High expectation
• Supportive classroom
• Leadership styles
• Effective communication
• Level of friendship
• High expectation
• Classroom norms
• Managing conflict
Instructional classroom management
Teacher who use the instructional approach to classroom management
prevent most management problems by actively engaging pupils in the
lessons to meet their interests, needs and abilities.
Pupils are motivated to attend the class, participate in activity and
manage their behavior.
Well- planned and well- implemented instruction : the students will not
engage in disruptive behavior.
Some teachers are better classroom managers because
their skills in 4 areas:
Withitness: skill to know what is going on in all parts of
the classroom at all times
Overlapping: handling two or more activities or group
at the same time.
Group focus & movement management: ability to
make smooth lesson transitions
Implement 4 strategies:
Limit setting: the establishment of classroom
boundaries for appropriate behavior.
Good body language: a set of physical mannerisms
that tend to get pupils back to work.
Incentive system: to keep pupils on task and get them
to complete their work.
Giving help efficiently: related to time on task.
The goal of classroom management is to create an environment in which pupils
behave appropriately because of a sense of personal responsibility.
Five expectations that the teacher should have ( Weinstein, 2004):
• Recognize his own ethnocentrism and biases
• Know his pupils’s cultural backgrounds
• Understand the broader social, economic and political context
• Able and willing to use culturally appropriate management strategies.
• Commit to building a caring classroom.
2.2 theories and models of
Building the foundation
Provide the teachers an understanding of the key concepts of a
variety classroom management theorists.
The knowledge of these theorists will allow effective teacher to
build a management style that combine proactive and reactive
1. Skinner’s Model of Shaping Desired Behavior
2. The Glasser’s Model of Choice Theory
3. Gordon’s Model
Skinner’s Model of Shaping
oBehavior is shaped by its consequences
oSystematic use of reinforcement can shape
pupils’ behavior in desired directions.
oThe teachers shape students’ behaviors by first
determining desired behaviors and selecting
appropriate reinforcers to encourage students to
repeat those desirable behaviors.
e.g: checks, happy
Activity that the
pupils prefer to do
e.g: games, extra
Real object that
pupils can earn as
Glasser’s Model of Choice Theory
Reduce inappropriate behavior by meeting pupils’ basic needs for
belonging, power, fun and freedom.
Help pupils make appropriate behavioral choices that lead ultimately to
Help pupils learn to make good behavioral choices so they can become
responsible individuals able to satisfy their needs in the real world.
pupils can control their own behavior.
Good choices produce good behavior. Bad choices produce bad behavior.
Humans have rational minds and can make rational choices.
In order to get the pupils make the good choices, pupils must see the
results of these choices as desirable.
Emphasize pupil responsibility
Establish rules that lead to
Accept no excuses
Call for value judgment
Invoke reasonable consequences
Focus on the importance of developing meaning and
mutually beneficial relationships.
a graphical tool used to identify who owns the problem
when someone’s behavior causes a problem or
Teachers plot pupils’ behavior into a diagram called
Key concept in Gordon’s Model
Authority: a condition that can be used to control over others
Problem ownership: individual troubled by a problem is said to “own” the
Behavior window: a visual devise used to determine if there is a problem and
who owns it.
“I” messages: message that tell another person how you feel about their
“you” messages: blaming statements
Confrontative “I” message: message that attempt to influence another to stop the
Shifting gears: changing from confrontative to a listening posture.
Win-lose conflict resolution: ends the dispute temporarily with a
winner and a loser
No-lose conflict resolution: everyone wins
Door openers: words or actions that invites folks to talk about what
is on their minds.
Active listening: carefully listenng and demonstrating understanding
of what another is saying.
Value collisions: is anything a person believes will make the quality
of life better or very concrete like food or money.
how well the
Manning & Bucher, 2013
Theories of Assertive Tactics:
Lee & Marlene Canter’s
A structured approach designed to assist educators in running an
organized, teacher-in-charge classroom environment.
Canter(2010) believe that teachers have the right to determine what
is best for pupils.
Assertive teachers build positive, trusting relationships with their
pupils and teach appropriate classroom behavior.
Assertive teachers listen carefully to what their pupils have to say,
speak politely to them, and treat everyone fairly.
Reward & punishments
Teachers create an
Teachers apply rules and
Teachers use “discipline
How to use assertive Discipline?
1. Dismiss the thought that here is any acceptable reason for
2. Decide which rules you wish to implement in the class.
3. Determine negative consequences for noncompliance,
4. Determine positive consequences for appropriate behavior.
5. Conduct a meeting to inform the students of the programme.
6. Have the students write the rules and take them home to be
signed by their parents.
7. Implement the programme
Theories of Democratic Teaching
Pupils should be given
a choice rather than
be forced to behave as
Teachers and pupils
work together to make
decision about how
the class will function.
View students as social being who want to
belong in society
Identify the goals of misbehavior
Allow & encourage students to take an active
role in decision.
Provide a caring classroom community, use
student centred instructional techniques.
Promote collaboration between teacher and
• To develop a spirit of trust &
• Encourage rather than
• Establish classroom rules&
implement logical consequences.
• Attention, power,
Theories of Instructional Management
Emphasise on how teacher could manage students, lessons and classrooms to
reduce the incidence of bad behavior.
The technique used is most crucial aspect in classroom management of
Good classroom management depends on effective lesson management.
Theories of Congruent Communication:
Effective classroom management depends on the way in
which the teacher interacts with students.
Teacher is a desicive element in the classroom, who can
shape students in anyway depending on the teacher’s
Both teachers and pupils should interact appropriately to
maintain positive classroom behavior.
Application of Congruent Communication
Be sure to use clear communication
Use sane messages
Refrain from punishment
Correct by redirecting
Focus on using appreciative praise
Respect students’ privacy