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Topic 2
2.1 CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT APPROACHES
2.2 THEORIES AND MODELS OF CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT
Prepared by: Yusnitha Merang
P...
Classroom management
approaches
• Authoritarian
• Behavior modification
• Group process or socio-
psychological
• Instruct...
Authoritarian
An approach in which the teacher has full responsibility for
regulating the classroom.
The teacher devises a...
Characteristics
of an
authoritarian
teacher
or
classroom
bossy
Use sharp and unfriendly tone of voice
Tell the students wh...
Behavior modification
The basis of this approach are the
assumptions that pupils their behavior
in order to get desired re...
Type of
consequences
Positive reinforcement
punishments
Negative reinforcement
For desired behavior- reward,
praise, grade...
Steps to manage behavior through
consequences
Define the
problem,
by count or
description
Design a
way to
change the
behav...
Classification Exhibit behavior consequences Probable future
effect on behavior
Positive
reinforcement
Jane cleans her
cla...
Group processes in the classroom
Significant in developing interpersonal skills, social competence
and empathy which are ...
A social- psychological view.
Social psychology is about understanding individual behavior in a social context. (
Saul Mc...
Positive classroom
management
• Leadership occurs as
power- with rather than
power-over
• Open communication
• Friendship
...
Instructional classroom management
Teacher who use the instructional approach to classroom management
prevent most manage...
Kounin model
Some teachers are better classroom managers because
their skills in 4 areas:
Withitness: skill to know what i...
Socio- cultural
The goal of classroom management is to create an environment in which pupils
behave appropriately because ...
2.2 theories and models of
classroom management
Building the foundation
Provide the teachers an understanding of the key concepts of a
variety classroom management theor...
Skinner’s Model of Shaping
Desired Behavior
oBehavior is shaped by its consequences
oSystematic use of reinforcement can s...
Categories of
reinforcers
Social
Verbal comment,
gestures, facial
expression
Graphic
Marks
e.g: checks, happy
faces, stick...
Glasser’s Model of Choice Theory
Reduce inappropriate behavior by meeting pupils’ basic needs for
belonging, power, fun a...
Teacher’s
responsibilities
Emphasize pupil responsibility
Establish rules that lead to
success
Accept no excuses
Call for ...
Gordon’s Model
Focus on the importance of developing meaning and
mutually beneficial relationships.
a graphical tool use...
Key concept in Gordon’s Model
Authority: a condition that can be used to control over others
Problem ownership: individu...
Shifting gears: changing from confrontative to a listening posture.
Win-lose conflict resolution: ends the dispute tempo...
Application
Defining
problem
Generating
possible
solutions
Evaluating
the
solutions
Deciding
which
solutions is
the best
D...
Theories of Assertive Tactics:
Lee & Marlene Canter’s
A structured approach designed to assist educators in running an
or...
Key ideas
Reward & punishments
are effective
Teachers create an
optimal learning
environment.
Teachers apply rules and
for...
How to use assertive Discipline?
1. Dismiss the thought that here is any acceptable reason for
misbehavior.
2. Decide whic...
Theories of Democratic Teaching
Pupils should be given
a choice rather than
be forced to behave as
directed.
Teachers and ...
Teachers’
Role
View students as social being who want to
belong in society
Identify the goals of misbehavior
Allow & encou...
Key concept
Democratic
teaching
• To develop a spirit of trust &
cooperation
encouragement
• Encourage rather than
praise
...
Theories of Instructional Management
Emphasise on how teacher could manage students, lessons and classrooms to
reduce the...
Key
idea
Ripple
effect
whititness
overlapping
Effective
trasition
momentum
smoothness
Theories of Congruent Communication:
Haim Ginott
Effective classroom management depends on the way in
which the teacher i...
Application of Congruent Communication
into Classroom
Be sure to use clear communication
Use sane messages
Refrain from pu...
Thank you 
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Classroom management approaches and Theories and models of classroom management

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Classroom management approaches and Theories and models of classroom management

  1. 1. Topic 2 2.1 CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT APPROACHES 2.2 THEORIES AND MODELS OF CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT Prepared by: Yusnitha Merang PISMP TESL SEM 5
  2. 2. Classroom management approaches • Authoritarian • Behavior modification • Group process or socio- psychological • Instructional management • Socio-cultural Theories & models • Building foundation • Assertive tactics • Democratic teaching • Instructional management • Congruent communication
  3. 3. Authoritarian An approach in which the teacher has full responsibility for regulating the classroom. The teacher devises and specific rules to control pupil behaviour in the classroom. The teacher places firm limits and control on the students.
  4. 4. Characteristics of an authoritarian teacher or classroom bossy Use sharp and unfriendly tone of voice Tell the students what they should do and should not do Pupils are quiet and cannot interrupt the teacher. Pupils do very little verbal exchange and discussion Pupils are not motivated or encouraged to set personal goals.
  5. 5. Behavior modification The basis of this approach are the assumptions that pupils their behavior in order to get desired reward. (Larrivee, 2009) The use of reinforcement principle system. Behaviorist teacher believe that behavior can be changed by altering the consequences that follow their actions. All behavior is maintained, changed or shaped by the consequence of the behavior.
  6. 6. Type of consequences Positive reinforcement punishments Negative reinforcement For desired behavior- reward, praise, grade, etc For unwanted behavior-extra homework, seating arrangement changed Weaken behavior
  7. 7. Steps to manage behavior through consequences Define the problem, by count or description Design a way to change the behavior. Identify an effective reinforce. Apply the reinforce consistenly to shape or change behavior.
  8. 8. Classification Exhibit behavior consequences Probable future effect on behavior Positive reinforcement Jane cleans her classroom. The teacher praises her. Jane will continue to clean the classroom. Negative reinforcement Balin complains of headaches when it is time to do homework. Balin is allowed to go to bed without doing his homework. Balin will have headaches whenever there is homework to do. Punishment Martha sits on the arm of the chair. Marhta is apanked each time she sits on the arm of the chair. Martha will not sit on the arm of the chair.
  9. 9. Group processes in the classroom Significant in developing interpersonal skills, social competence and empathy which are essential for real life situations. Affected by peer- group relationships- a collection of interdependent, interacting individuals. Groups are not simply people in proximity, but an entity, which share and work toward a common goal. (Thelen, 1981)
  10. 10. A social- psychological view. Social psychology is about understanding individual behavior in a social context. ( Saul McLeod, 2007) Social psychology as the scientific field that seeks to understand the nature and causes of individual behavior in social situations. (Baron, Byrne & Suls, 1989) This approach looks at pupils behavior as influenced by other people and the social context in which it occurs. The group process in the ESL classroom will contribute to higher learner achievement if the social climate is positive and how their teacher manage their teaching and learning effectively.
  11. 11. Positive classroom management • Leadership occurs as power- with rather than power-over • Open communication • Friendship • High expectation • Supportive classroom norms Effective teaching • Leadership styles • Effective communication • Level of friendship • High expectation • Classroom norms • Managing conflict
  12. 12. Instructional classroom management Teacher who use the instructional approach to classroom management prevent most management problems by actively engaging pupils in the lessons to meet their interests, needs and abilities. Pupils are motivated to attend the class, participate in activity and manage their behavior. Well- planned and well- implemented instruction : the students will not engage in disruptive behavior.
  13. 13. Kounin model Some teachers are better classroom managers because their skills in 4 areas: Withitness: skill to know what is going on in all parts of the classroom at all times Overlapping: handling two or more activities or group at the same time. Group focus & movement management: ability to make smooth lesson transitions Jones model Implement 4 strategies: Limit setting: the establishment of classroom boundaries for appropriate behavior. Good body language: a set of physical mannerisms that tend to get pupils back to work. Incentive system: to keep pupils on task and get them to complete their work. Giving help efficiently: related to time on task.
  14. 14. Socio- cultural The goal of classroom management is to create an environment in which pupils behave appropriately because of a sense of personal responsibility. Five expectations that the teacher should have ( Weinstein, 2004): • Recognize his own ethnocentrism and biases • Know his pupils’s cultural backgrounds • Understand the broader social, economic and political context • Able and willing to use culturally appropriate management strategies. • Commit to building a caring classroom.
  15. 15. 2.2 theories and models of classroom management
  16. 16. Building the foundation Provide the teachers an understanding of the key concepts of a variety classroom management theorists. The knowledge of these theorists will allow effective teacher to build a management style that combine proactive and reactive elements 3 models: 1. Skinner’s Model of Shaping Desired Behavior 2. The Glasser’s Model of Choice Theory 3. Gordon’s Model
  17. 17. Skinner’s Model of Shaping Desired Behavior oBehavior is shaped by its consequences oSystematic use of reinforcement can shape pupils’ behavior in desired directions. oThe teachers shape students’ behaviors by first determining desired behaviors and selecting appropriate reinforcers to encourage students to repeat those desirable behaviors.
  18. 18. Categories of reinforcers Social Verbal comment, gestures, facial expression Graphic Marks e.g: checks, happy faces, sticker Activity Activity that the pupils prefer to do e.g: games, extra recess Tangible Real object that pupils can earn as reward
  19. 19. Glasser’s Model of Choice Theory Reduce inappropriate behavior by meeting pupils’ basic needs for belonging, power, fun and freedom. Help pupils make appropriate behavioral choices that lead ultimately to personal success. Help pupils learn to make good behavioral choices so they can become responsible individuals able to satisfy their needs in the real world.  pupils can control their own behavior. Good choices produce good behavior. Bad choices produce bad behavior. Humans have rational minds and can make rational choices. In order to get the pupils make the good choices, pupils must see the results of these choices as desirable.
  20. 20. Teacher’s responsibilities Emphasize pupil responsibility Establish rules that lead to success Accept no excuses Call for value judgment Be persistent Invoke reasonable consequences
  21. 21. Gordon’s Model Focus on the importance of developing meaning and mutually beneficial relationships. a graphical tool used to identify who owns the problem when someone’s behavior causes a problem or inconvenience. Teachers plot pupils’ behavior into a diagram called “Behavior Window’
  22. 22. Key concept in Gordon’s Model Authority: a condition that can be used to control over others Problem ownership: individual troubled by a problem is said to “own” the problem. Behavior window: a visual devise used to determine if there is a problem and who owns it. “I” messages: message that tell another person how you feel about their behavior. “you” messages: blaming statements Confrontative “I” message: message that attempt to influence another to stop the unacceptable behavior.
  23. 23. Shifting gears: changing from confrontative to a listening posture. Win-lose conflict resolution: ends the dispute temporarily with a winner and a loser No-lose conflict resolution: everyone wins Door openers: words or actions that invites folks to talk about what is on their minds. Active listening: carefully listenng and demonstrating understanding of what another is saying. Value collisions: is anything a person believes will make the quality of life better or very concrete like food or money.
  24. 24. Application Defining problem Generating possible solutions Evaluating the solutions Deciding which solutions is the best Determining how to implement the decision Assessing how well the solution solved the problem’s Manning & Bucher, 2013
  25. 25. Theories of Assertive Tactics: Lee & Marlene Canter’s A structured approach designed to assist educators in running an organized, teacher-in-charge classroom environment. Canter(2010) believe that teachers have the right to determine what is best for pupils. Assertive teachers build positive, trusting relationships with their pupils and teach appropriate classroom behavior. Assertive teachers listen carefully to what their pupils have to say, speak politely to them, and treat everyone fairly.
  26. 26. Key ideas Reward & punishments are effective Teachers create an optimal learning environment. Teachers apply rules and force consequences Teachers use “discipline hierarchy” which informs pupils consequences of misbehavior
  27. 27. How to use assertive Discipline? 1. Dismiss the thought that here is any acceptable reason for misbehavior. 2. Decide which rules you wish to implement in the class. 3. Determine negative consequences for noncompliance, 4. Determine positive consequences for appropriate behavior. 5. Conduct a meeting to inform the students of the programme. 6. Have the students write the rules and take them home to be signed by their parents. 7. Implement the programme
  28. 28. Theories of Democratic Teaching Pupils should be given a choice rather than be forced to behave as directed. Teachers and pupils work together to make decision about how the class will function.
  29. 29. Teachers’ Role View students as social being who want to belong in society Identify the goals of misbehavior Allow & encourage students to take an active role in decision. Provide a caring classroom community, use student centred instructional techniques. Promote collaboration between teacher and students.
  30. 30. Key concept Democratic teaching • To develop a spirit of trust & cooperation encouragement • Encourage rather than praise Logical consequences • Establish classroom rules& implement logical consequences. Mistaken goals • Attention, power, revenge, inadequacy
  31. 31. Theories of Instructional Management Emphasise on how teacher could manage students, lessons and classrooms to reduce the incidence of bad behavior. The technique used is most crucial aspect in classroom management of student behavior. Good classroom management depends on effective lesson management.
  32. 32. Key idea Ripple effect whititness overlapping Effective trasition momentum smoothness
  33. 33. Theories of Congruent Communication: Haim Ginott Effective classroom management depends on the way in which the teacher interacts with students. Teacher is a desicive element in the classroom, who can shape students in anyway depending on the teacher’s behavior. Both teachers and pupils should interact appropriately to maintain positive classroom behavior.
  34. 34. Application of Congruent Communication into Classroom Be sure to use clear communication Use sane messages Refrain from punishment Correct by redirecting Focus on using appreciative praise Avoid sarcasm Respect students’ privacy
  35. 35. Thank you 

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