How to Design and Test Business Models and
Value Propositions
Yves Pigneur
HEC Lausanne
Alex Osterwalder
?How to design innovative
business models?
? 2009
How to design innovative
business models?
1 million, 30 languages
The Business Model Canvas
?How to design attractive value
propositions that sell
in business models that work
?How to design attractive value
propositions that sell …
2014
Business Model Canvas
Cost Structure
Key Partnerships
Key Resources
Key Activities Value Propositions Customer
Relationshi...
The
Business Model Canvas
helps you
create value for your business
The
Value Proposition Canvas
helps you
create value for...
The
Business Model Canvas
helps you
create value for your business
The
Value Proposition Canvas
helps you
create value for...
The
Business Model Canvas
helps you
create value for your business
The
Value Proposition Canvas
helps you
create value for...
zoom out
zoom in
Canvas Design
Search Post-SearchTools
Test Evolve
The Tools and Process of
Value Proposition Design
The h...
zoom out
zoom in
Canvas Design
Search Post-SearchTools
Test Evolve
The Tools and Process of
Value Proposition Design
The h...
zoom out
zoom in
Canvas Design
Search Post-SearchTools
Test Evolve
The Tools and Process of
Value Proposition Design
The h...
zoom out
zoom in
Canvas Design
Search Post-SearchTools
Test Evolve
The Tools and Process of
Value Proposition Design
The h...
zoom out
zoom in
Canvas Design
Search Post-SearchTools
Test Evolve
The Tools and Process of
Value Proposition Design
The h...
BM Canvas
The Business Model Canvas
Revenue Streams
Channels
Customer SegmentsValue PropositionsKey ActivitiesKey Partners
Key Resou...
The Business Model Canvas
Revenue Streams
Channels
Customer SegmentsValue PropositionsKey ActivitiesKey Partners
Key Resou...
The Business Model Canvas
Revenue Streams
Channels
Customer SegmentsValue PropositionsKey ActivitiesKey Partners
Key Resou...
The Business Model Canvas
Revenue Streams
Channels
Customer SegmentsValue PropositionsKey ActivitiesKey Partners
Key Resou...
The Business Model Canvas
Revenue Streams
Channels
Customer SegmentsValue PropositionsKey ActivitiesKey Partners
Key Resou...
The Business Model Canvas
Revenue Streams
Channels
Customer SegmentsValue PropositionsKey ActivitiesKey Partners
Key Resou...
The Business Model Canvas
Revenue Streams
Channels
Customer SegmentsValue PropositionsKey ActivitiesKey Partners
Key Resou...
The Business Model Canvas
Revenue Streams
Channels
Customer SegmentsValue PropositionsKey ActivitiesKey Partners
Key Resou...
The Business Model Canvas
Revenue Streams
Channels
Customer SegmentsValue PropositionsKey ActivitiesKey Partners
Key Resou...
26
[sources: Mark W. Johnson, photo: Hilti.com]
illustration
27
[source photo: ceratizit.com]
HILTI manufactures and sells light machine tools for builders
The Business Model Canvas
Revenue Streams
Channels
Customer SegmentsValue PropositionsKey ActivitiesKey Partners
Key Resou...
The Business Model Canvas
Revenue Streams
Channels
Customer SegmentsValue PropositionsKey ActivitiesKey Partners
Key Resou...
The Business Model Canvas
Revenue Streams
Channels
Customer SegmentsValue PropositionsKey ActivitiesKey Partners
Key Resou...
The Business Model Canvas
Revenue Streams
Channels
Customer SegmentsValue PropositionsKey ActivitiesKey Partners
Key Resou...
The Business Model Canvas
Revenue Streams
Channels
Customer SegmentsValue PropositionsKey ActivitiesKey Partners
Key Resou...
The Business Model Canvas
Revenue Streams
Channels
Customer SegmentsValue PropositionsKey ActivitiesKey Partners
Key Resou...
The Business Model Canvas
Revenue Streams
Channels
Customer SegmentsValue PropositionsKey ActivitiesKey Partners
Key Resou...
The Business Model Canvas
Revenue Streams
Channels
Customer SegmentsValue PropositionsKey ActivitiesKey Partners
Key Resou...
The Business Model Canvas
Revenue Streams
Channels
Customer SegmentsValue PropositionsKey ActivitiesKey Partners
Key Resou...
1.2
Business model
mechanics Not today
The Business Model Canvas
Revenue Streams
Channels
Customer SegmentsValue PropositionsKey ActivitiesKey Partners
Key Resou...
The Business Model Canvas
Revenue Streams
Channels
Customer SegmentsValue PropositionsKey ActivitiesKey Partners
Key Resou...
Outcome
If a Pain reliever or Gain creator doesn't Fit
anything, it may not be creating customer
value. Don't worry if not...
Outcome
If a Pain reliever or Gain creator doesn't Fit
anything, it may not be creating customer
value. Don't worry if not...
put yourself in the
customers’ shoes
The focus should be on
what jobs customers
are trying to get done.
– Tony Ulwick, Founder Strategyn
“
”
44
customer
job-to-be-done
45
customervalue proposition
job-to-be-done
VP Canvas
The set of value proposition benefits that you design to attract customers.
Create Observe
The set of customer characterist...
The set of value proposition benefits that you design to attract customers.
Create Observe
The set of customer characterist...
The set of value proposition benefits that you design to attract customers.
Create Observe
The set of customer characterist...
The set of value proposition benefits that you design to attract customers.
Create Observe
The set of customer characterist...
51[source photo: dholmes.com]
the customer’s biggest job to get done is NOT to buy the tools
52[source photo: griffinindustrial.co.uk]
but to manage, maintain, and replace the tools
(right tool, right place, right t...
1
1.1 Customer Profile
1.2 Value Map
1.3 Fit
.
Customer
Profile
customer jobs
what customers are
trying to get done
in their work and in
their lives
Job
Custo
conte
may
exam
when
are d
k...
FIND
EXECUTE
CONTRACTS
RESPECT
DEADLINES
FLEET
PLANNING
SCHEDULE
The
can
cust
Wh
do
mu
Wh
are
tha
Ho
yo
mi
an
Wh
yo
sta
ge
cer
Wh
cus
afr
Wh
the
or
aw
Wh
E.g
wo
Wh
ma
wa
Wh
fro
inv
the
de...
UPFRONT
INVESTMENT BROKEN
TOOLS
THEFT
DELAYS
PENALTY
COSTS
STRESS
FIND
EXECUTE
CONTRACTS
RESPECT
DEADLINES
FLEET
PLANNING
...
The
can
cust
Wh
ha
mo
Wh
wo
Ho
ers
wh
Wh
ea
cur
shi
Wh
cus
go
Wh
sea
or
Wh
the
rel
Ho
fai
or
Wh
of
low
qu
Link
xxx
describ...
UPFRONT
INVESTMENT BROKEN
TOOLS
THEFT
DELAYS
PENALTY
COSTS
STRESS
FIND
EXECUTE
CONTRACTS
RESPECT
DEADLINES
ACCESS TO
NEWES...
.2
Value Map
UPFRONT
INVESTMENT BROKEN
TOOLS
THEFT
DELAYS
PENALTY
COSTS
STRESS
FIND
EXECUTE
CONTRACTS
RESPECT
DEADLINES
ACCESS TO
NEWES...
products & services
A list of all the products and
services a value proposition is
built around
The
can
cust
Wh
ha
mo
Wh
wo
Ho
ers
wh
Wh
ea
cur
shi
Wh
cus
go
Wh
sea
or
Wh
the
rel
Ho
fai
or
Wh
of
low
qu
Link
xxx
UPFRONT...
pain relievers
describe how your products
and services kill or alleviate
customer pains
The
can
cust
Wh
ha
mo
Wh
wo
Ho
ers
wh
Wh
ea
cur
shi
Wh
cus
go
Wh
sea
or
Wh
the
rel
Ho
fai
or
Wh
of
low
qu
Link
xxx
UPFRONT...
gain creators
describe how your
products and services
create customer gains
The
can
cust
Wh
ha
mo
Wh
wo
Ho
ers
wh
Wh
ea
cur
shi
Wh
cus
go
Wh
sea
or
Wh
the
rel
Ho
fai
or
Wh
of
low
qu
Link
xxx
UPFRONT...
.3
Fit
l
r
Customers expect and desire a lot from products
and services. Yet, they also know they can’t have
it all. Focus on tho...
l
r
Customers expect and desire a lot from products
and services. Yet, they also know they can’t have
it all. Focus on tho...
rching for Fit
1Problem-Solution Fit
2Product-Market Fit
3Business Model FitThree kinds of fit
rching for Fit
1Problem-Solution Fit
2Product-Market Fit
3Business Model FitThree kinds of fit
Understanding customers
rching for Fit
1Problem-Solution Fit
2Product-Market Fit
3Business Model FitThree kinds of fit
Understanding customers
Desi...
rching for Fit
1Problem-Solution Fit
2Product-Market Fit
3Business Model FitThree kinds of fit
Understanding customers
Desi...
MARKET FORCESINDUSTRY FORCES
MACRO ECONOMIC
FORCES
KEY TRENDS
environment
Not today
Design, Test, Repeat
design
test
design
ASSESSMENT
OBSERVATION
PROTOTYPING
TO
TESTING
FAILED
FROM
TESTING
STARTING POINTS
BU
SINE
SS
MO
DE
L
7QUESTIONS
We evaluate potential
solutions through user
observation & iterative
rapid prototyping.
– David Kelley, IDEO founder
“
”
Ideas and Starting Points Understand Customers
Prototype Possibilities
prototype possibilities
Starting points Understand ...
prototyping(pro·to·typ·ing)
def.
* the process of building quick,
cheap, and rough study models
prototyping is NOT about making a
refined picture of your first idea -
it’s about exploring alternatives
November 2012
illustration
Cost Structure
Key Partnerships
Key Resources Channels
Key Activities Value Propositions Customer
Relationships
Customer
S...
The kids’ afternoon off Date night
affordable
for group
2 hrs = right
length of
time
kids are
happy and
calm
safe
environm...
The kids’ afternoon off Date night
affordable
for group
2 hrs = right
length of
time
kids are
happy and
calm
safe
environm...
The kids’ afternoon off Date night
affordable
for group
2 hrs = right
length of
time
kids are
happy and
calm
safe
environm...
The kids’ afternoon off Date night
affordable
for group
2 hrs = right
length of
time
kids are
happy and
calm
safe
environm...
movie
website
big screen
& surround
sound
ideal for
conversation
ideal for
conversation
home
comfort
intellectually
stimul...
movie
website
big screen
& surround
sound
ideal for
conversation
ideal for
conversation
home
comfort
intellectually
stimul...
movie
website
big screen
& surround
sound
ideal for
conversation
ideal for
conversation
home
comfort
intellectually
stimul...
2.1 Prototyping possibilities
2.2 Starting points
2.3 Understanding customers
2
PROTOTYPING
2.
Prototyping
Possibilities
9796
DESIGN
96
an open peer-to-peer
Napkin sketch
1
Flesh out Ideas with Canvases
3D printing
My Product
ue proposition
Landing page
$1’150
luding a
130
3
Prototype
»
OnlineVideo
Wizard of Oz
n
Product bo...
strategyzer.com
2.2
Starting Points
STARTING POINTS
109108
DESIGN
108
The
Business Mod
helps you
create value f
The
Value Propos
helps you
create value f
zoom out
zoom in
The
External Envi
des...
Cost Structure
Key Partnerships
Key Resources
Key Activities Value Propositions
e
ition
ype
Channels
Customer
Relationship...
Cost Structure
Key Partnerships
Key Resources
Key Activities Value Propositions
e
ition
ype
Channels
Customer
Relationship...
Cost Structure
Key Partnerships
Key Resources
Key Activities Value Propositions
e
ition
ype
Channels
Customer
Relationship...
I never perfected an invention
that I did not think about in
terms of the service it might
give others... I find out what
t...
OBSERVATION
2.3
Understanding
Customers
127126
DESIGN
126
The Data Detective The AnthropologistThe Journalist
Techniques to gain customer insights
The Data Detective The AnthropologistThe Journalist
Techniques to gain customer insights
The Data Detective The AnthropologistThe Journalist
Techniques to gain customer insights
The Impersonator The Co-creator The Scientist
Google Keyword Planner
Learn what’s popular with potential
customers by finding the top five
search terms related to your id...
Social Media Analytics
Existing companies and brands should:
Identify the shakers and movers
related to their brand on soc...
terview Your Customers
in insights relevant to your context.
ue Proposition Canvas to prepare interviews and
ss of informa...
B2C: Family Homestay
Stay at one of your potential customers’ home for
several days and live with the family. Participate ...
2.4
Making
Choices
ASSESSMENT
TO
TESTING
FAILED
7QUESTIONS
BU
SINE
SS
MO
DE
L
143142142
DESIGN2.4
Questions
Is it embedded in a
great business model?
Does it focus on the
most important jobs,
most extreme pains,
and most...
Does it align with how
customers measure
success?
Does it focus on jobs,
pains, or gains that a
large number of cus-
tomer...
Jobs Important Tangible Unsatisfied Lucrative High-value jobs
= 9
= 7
create
value for
corporation
design IT
strategy
Scori...
VP Design com
well to MOOCs
executive educ
It performs sim
to the
a much
point.
factors o
progression
path to
expertise
ap...
t up to this point
Use low-fidelity
prototypes to
make your ideas
tangible
Always refer back
to customer jobs,
pains, and g...
Present early Don't judge Evolve ideas
× √ √Listen
d)
,
y
be
Master the art of critique
ASSESSMENT
TO
TESTING
FAILED
7QU
ESTION
S
BUS
INE
SS
MO
DEL
PROTOTYPING
2.5
Finding the Right
Business Model
169168
DESIGN...
?
?
?
?
? ?
?
+Zoom-Zoom
Zoom out to the
bigger picture to
analyze if you can
profitably create,
deliver, and capture
value...
?
?
?
?
? ?
?
+Zoom-Zoom
Zoom out to the
bigger picture to
analyze if you can
profitably create,
deliver, and capture
value...
?
?
?
?
? ?
?
+Zoom-Zoom
Zoom out to the
bigger picture to
analyze if you can
profitably create,
deliver, and capture
value...
129
[sources: Mark W. Johnson, photo: Hilti.com]
illustration
?
?
?
?
? ?
?
+Zoom-Zoom
Zoom out to the
bigger picture to
analyze if you can
profitably create,
deliver, and capture
value...
?
?
?
?
? ?
?
+Zoom-Zoom
Zoom out to the
bigger picture to
analyze if you can
profitably create,
deliver, and capture
value...
Design, Test, Repeat
design
test
test
SUCCESS
HYPOTHESIS
Why do businesses fail ?
. Test those first!
http://media.100firsthits.com/2013/11/Startup-Mistakes-Infographics.png
2014
?
?
?
?
? ?
?
+Zoom-Zoom
Zoom out to the
bigger picture to
analyze if you can
profitably create,
deliver, and capture
value...
?
?
?
?
? ?
?
+Zoom-Zoom
Zoom out to the
bigger picture to
analyze if you can
profitably create,
deliver, and capture
value...
4
Enter
the Learning
Loop
Learn
5A
UNCERTAIN
st more
Measure
Build
lean startup
there are no facts in the
building... so get the hell
out and talk to customers
– Steve Blank, entrepreneur & author
“
”
3
3.1 What to Test
3.2. Testing step-by-step
3.3. Bringing it all together
3.
What to Test
215214
TEST
214
Provide evidence showing
“what” customers care
about (the circle) before
focusing on “how” to help
them (the square)
Testi...
UPFRONT
INVESTMENT BROKEN
TOOLS
THEFT
DELAYS
PENALTY
COSTS
STRESS
TROUVER
EXÉCUTER
CONTRATS
RESPECTER
DÉLAIS
ACCESS TO
NEW...
Provide evidence
showing that your
customers care about
how your products and
services kill pains and
create gains
Testing...
UPFRONT
INVESTMENT BROKEN
TOOLS
THEFT
DELAYS
PENALTY
COSTS
STRESS
TROUVER
EXÉCUTER
CONTRATS
RESPECTER
DÉLAIS
ACCESS TO
NEW...
Business Model Canvas
Cost Structure
Key Partnerships
Key Resources Channels
Key Activities Value Propositions Customer
Re...
Business Model Canvas
Cost Structure
Key Partnerships
Key Resources Channels
Key Activities Value Propositions Customer
Re...
HYPOTHESIS
3.2
Testing
Step-by-Step
223222
TEST
222
3.2
Testing Step-
by-Step
Test Card
+
-Extract Hypotheses Prioritize Hypotheses Design Test
TESTINGVALUEPROPOSTIO
Test Card
+
-Extract Hypotheses Prioritize Hypotheses Design Test
TESTINGVALUEPROPOSTIO
Test Card
+
-Extract Hypotheses Prioritize Hypotheses Design Test
TESTINGVALUEPROPOSTIO
Learning Card
+
!
-Prioritize Tests Run Tests Capture Learnings Make Progress
Learning Card
+
!
-Prioritize Tests Run Tests Capture Learnings Make Progress
Learning Card
+
!
-Prioritize Tests Run Tests Capture Learnings Make Progress
when testing hypotheses with customers …
What people say, and
what people do
are two different things
keep in mind …
What people say, and
what people do
are two different things
keep in mind …
What people say, and
what people do
are two different things
keep in mind …
…interest
Prove th
genuine
Show th
to get them to perform
service (e.g. em
makers
…priorities a
Show which jobs, p
custome...
strategyzer.com
Gain Creators
Pain Relievers Pains
Gains
Products
& Services
Customer
Job(s)
The Value Proposition Canvas
...
customer segment X wants to
save 20% on sales process
customer segment X wants to
save 20% on sales process
talk to 40 potential customers and give
them a trackable link with m...
customer segment X wants to
save 20% on sales process
how many of the interviewees
clicked on the follow-up link
talk to 4...
customer segment X wants to
save 20% on sales process
how many of the interviewees
clicked on the follow-up link
50% click...
SUCCESS
3.3
Experiment
Library
241240
TEST
240
テスト·ライブラリ
A mix of experiments
Scientist
DIRECT CONTACT with customers
Learn why and how to improve
INDIRECT OBSERVATION of customer...
A mix of experiments
Scientist
DIRECT CONTACT with customers
Learn why and how to improve
INDIRECT OBSERVATION of customer...
A mix of experiments
Scientist
DIRECT CONTACT with customers
Learn why and how to improve
INDIRECT OBSERVATION of customer...
A mix of experiments
Scientist
DIRECT CONTACT with customers
Learn why and how to improve
INDIRECT OBSERVATION of customer...
A mix of experiments
Scientist
DIRECT CONTACT with customers
Learn why and how to improve
INDIRECT OBSERVATION of customer...
3.4
Bringing it
all Together
ASSESSMENT
OBSERVATION
PROTOTYPING
TO
TESTING
FAILED
FROM
TESTING
STARTING POINTS
BUS
INES
S ...
The
testing
process
プロセスを
テストする
The
testing
process
2
Extract
your
Hypotheses
3
Design
Your
Tests
2
Extract
your
Hypotheses
Test Card
プロセスを
テストする
The
testing
process
2
Extract
your
Hypotheses
3
Design
Your
Tests
2
Extract
your
Hypotheses
Test Card
4
Enter
the Learning...
The
testing
process
2
Extract
your
Hypotheses
3
Design
Your
Tests
2
Extract
your
Hypotheses
Test Card
4
Enter
the Learning...
3
Design
Your
Tests
4
Enter
the Learning
Loop
5
Capture
Learnings
and Next
Actions
6
Measure
Progress
Learn
Customer
Disco...
Idea Designed Customer Assumptions Validated
Problem Solution Fit
Value Proposition Validated
Product Market Fit
Interest
...
Idea Designed Customer Assumptions Validated
Problem Solution Fit
Value Proposition Validated
Product Market Fit
Interest
...
Test Card
We believe that
Test Name
Assigned to
Deadline
Duration
And measure
To verify that, we will
We are right if
The ...
The Progress Board
Business
Hypotheses
!
!
!
!
!
Test: Backlog Test: Build
Invalidated
Unclear Results
Validated
Test: Mea...
evolve
“ Business models expire like yogurt in your fridge “
Prediction is very
difficult, especially if
it's about the future.
– Niels Bohr, physicist 1952
“
”
Reinvent Yourself Constantly
What elements in your environment
are changing? What do market, tech-
nology, regulatory, mac...
Reinvent Yourself Constantly
What elements in your environment
are changing? What do market, tech-
nology, regulatory, mac...
Reinvent Yourself Constantly
What elements in your environment
are changing? What do market, tech-
nology, regulatory, mac...
Reinvent Yourself Constantly
What elements in your environment
are changing? What do market, tech-
nology, regulatory, mac...
4.1
Business model
layer Not today
zoom out
zoom in
Canvas Design
Search Post-SearchTools
Test Evolve
The Tools and Process of
Value Proposition Design
The h...
A great value proposition

lives in a sustainable and
profitable business model
1
A great value proposition
starts with a deep
understanding of customers
2
Creating great value propositions
and profitable business models
requires a design mindset …
3
The Business Model Canvas Revenue
The Business Model Canvas Revenue
The Business Model Canvas Revenue
The Business Model Canvas Revenue
The Business Model Canvas Revenue
The Business Model Canvas Revenue
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The Business Model Canvas
Revenue Streams
Channels
Customer SegmentsValue PropositionsKey ActivitiesKey Partners
Key Resources
Cost Structure
Customer Relationships
Designed by: Date: Version:Designed for:
designed by: Business Model Foundry GmbH, Switzerland
www.businessmodelgeneration.com
This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit:
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA. strategyzer.com
tells the story of how
you create, deliver,
and capture value (for
your organization)

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