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Architectural Research Methods Table

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Architectural Research Methods Table

  1. 1. Architectural Research Methods Architectural research is the search for new knowledge and new ideas about the built environment. Research can be conducted in a variety of sub-disciplines, including building technology, environment- behavior studies, history of architecture, and computing technology. Architectural research employs different methods depending on the subject of study. Research methods range from experimental to descriptive depending on the nature of the research problem under investigation. The following is a comparison between different research methods and approaches recommended for architectural research. Selected Architectural Research Strategies: Ontological, Epistemological and Methodological Orientations: CURIOSITY- MISSION- ORIENTED ORIENTED Theoretical Research Interpretative Research Experimental Research Survey Research Simulation Research Qualitative Research Action Research Ontological Knowledge is created by Knowledge is created by Knowledge is created by Knowledge is created by Knowledge is created by Knowledge is a socially Knowledge is created assumptions devising logical, abstract developing alternative developing and testing general developing and testing general improving our understanding constructed reality and cannot through the process of theories of some reality interpretations of reality in theories that apply to items of theories that apply to all of the behavior of complex be generalized change; Generalized order to understand the human interest social/psychological issues systems through simulation knowledge less important condition Epistemological We know through our own We know through our intuitive We know only what we We know only what we can We learn about the world by We know only by developing Participants learn from Assumptions reasoning capabilities understanding combined with perceive through our senses measure and test (Logical simulating artificial worlds an in depth, intimate trying to improve existing reasoning (logical positivist) positivist) understanding about situations individuals Disciplinary base Philosophy, mathematics History and the Arts Natural sciences Social sciences Artificial sciences Cultural anthropology; Practice Ethnography Research goal(s) Develop theory Develop interpretative, Identify causal links; causal Causal explanation; test theory development of insights about Describe situation holistically Focus is on developing theoretical understanding explanation; test theory the behavior of complex and from perspective of the practical results; solving systems participants real problems; set change in motion Methodological Logical abstraction; use of Both inductive and deductive Experimental and quasi- Quasi-experimental; induction Deduction to build model; Case studies; thematic/content Diagnosis; development and Orientation deductive logic experimental; induction; induction to evaluate analysis implementation of action "scientific method" simulation results plans; evaluation of action plan Key methodological Logic Develop critical perspective Validity, reliability, bias; test Validity, reliability, bias, test Develop a model to simplify Empathy; descriptive Empowerment; may concepts of null hypothesis of null hypothesis reality orientation emphasize training Variables Emerge during research Emerge during research Predetermined Predetermined Predetermined and emerge Emerge during research Emerge during research Control or Not relevant Not relevant Necessary Usually comparison groups Comparisons emerge as result Not relevant Not relevant comparison group established in analysis of simulations Data analysis Not relevant Descriptive; possibly Usually parametric Usually non-parametric (rank Varies from descriptive and Usually thematic or content Depends on client and augmented with quantitative (correlation, t-test, ANOVA, correlation, chi-square, MCA) quantitative to quantitative analysis; descriptive focus specifics of the situation; approaches regression) often used to diagnose the problem Participant's role in None Provides first hand record of None None Varies depending on definition Usually as an informant Actively participates research event of the artificial system Researcher's role Seeks theoretical interpretation Seeks theoretical interpretation Seeks to be objective Seeks to be objective Extrapolates behavior of Interactive; often as participant Collaborates with client simulated system to real world observer Political Ignored Often an integral part of Controlled by research design Controlled by research design May be relevant depending on Described Included as part of the pressures interpretation or ignored or ignored the definition of the artificial action research context system Research report Presentation of logical Presentation of interpretation Presentation of statistical proof Presentation of statistical test Presentation of model's logic; Present holistic portrayal of Describes the context and (implementation and conclusions (academic focus) (usually academic focus) (academic focus) and interpretation (academic comparison of simulation participants and settings outcome of the research focus) results to reality (academic or (academic or pragmatic focus) (pragmatic focus) communication) pragmatic focus) Architectural Design optimization Theories of architectural Material testing Post-occupancy evaluations, Thought experiment, gaming- Participant observation Demonstration projects; examples approaches; mathematical history and theory behavioral mapping simulation, mock-ups, advocacy planning theories; algorithms computer simulations, cost/benefit analysis Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Resaerch Methods 30/10/2008

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