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Architectural Professional Practice - Design


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Architectural Professional Practice - Design

  1. 1. Building Design New book 17.2 pp. 430 - 438
  2. 2. Introduction Dr. Yasser Mahgoub
  3. 4. What is DESIGN in this ARCHITECTURE?
  4. 5. What is DESIGN in this ARCHITECTURE?
  5. 6. What is DESIGN in this ARCHITECTURE?
  6. 7. What is DESIGN in this ARCHITECTURE?
  7. 8. What is DESIGN in this ARCHITECTURE?
  8. 9. What is DESIGN in this ARCHITECTURE?
  9. 10. What is DESIGN in this ARCHITECTURE?
  10. 11. <ul><ul><li>What is design in these buildings? </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><ul><li>What is design in these buildings? </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><ul><li>What is design in these buildings? </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><ul><li>What is design in these buildings? </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><ul><li>What is design in these buildings? </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><ul><li>What is design in these buildings? </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><ul><li>What is design in these buildings? </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><ul><li>What is design in these buildings? </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. ANTONI GAUDI (1852-1926) . Ronchamp Casa Batllo Teulada Casa Lleo Morera La Pedrera The Residential Tower
  19. 20. Le Corbusier The house is a machine to live in. Ronchamp Unité d'habitation Villa Savoye Reinforced Concrete Principles The Residential Tower
  20. 21. Frank Lloyd Wright . Johnson Wax Robie House Prairie Houses Guggenheim Museum Falling Water
  21. 22. Richard Meier . Ulm Exhibition And Assembly Building J. Paul Getty Center Frankfurt Museum for Decorative Arts The High Museum Of Art Smith House
  22. 23. FRANK O. GEHRY &quot;As soon as I understand the scale of the building and the relationship to the site and the relationship to the client, as it becomes more and more clear to me, I start doing sketches&quot;. GUGGENHEIM MUSEUM NEW YORK GUGGENHEIM MUSEUM BILBAO WALT DISNEY CONCERT HALL MAGGIE’S CENTRE SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT
  23. 24. Peter Eisenman . Emory Center for the Arts Columbus Convention Center Bibliothèque de L'IHUEI Wexner Center Aronoff Center for Design and Art
  25. 26. Michael Graves . PORTLAND BUILDING Humana Tower HABITABLE BRIDGE
  26. 27. Introduction <ul><li>Contracts between clients and architects identify types of building design services (e.g., schematic documents, design development documents, construction documents, etc.) and the tasks contained in each. </li></ul>Dr. Yasser Mahgoub
  27. 28. Introduction <ul><li>Several trends are affecting how architects approach and carry out building design: </li></ul><ul><li>First is the fact that clients continue to seek greater value from design services . </li></ul>Dr. Yasser Mahgoub
  28. 29. Introduction <ul><li>Clients who are more sophisticated ; and better informed increasingly expect their building facilities to fulfill a range of needs beyond those mandated in health and safety regulations. </li></ul>Dr. Yasser Mahgoub
  29. 30. Introduction <ul><li>This expectation challenge's architects to be cognizant of those client needs and to respond to them creatively . </li></ul>Dr. Yasser Mahgoub
  30. 31. Introduction <ul><li>Other trends present opportunities for architects to increase their design capabilities and expand their range of creativity. </li></ul><ul><li>In the technology arena , software advances are giving architects more powerful tools to shape and evaluate design solutions. </li></ul>Dr. Yasser Mahgoub
  31. 32. Introduction <ul><li>In the regulatory arena , the growing use of performance-based building codes promises to provide architects with more freedom in meeting regulatory requirements. </li></ul>Dr. Yasser Mahgoub
  32. 33. Summary: BUILDING DESIGN SERVICES <ul><li>Why a Client May Need These Services </li></ul><ul><li>To respond to rapid or sudden growth </li></ul><ul><li>To move to a new location </li></ul><ul><li>To update or replace older facilities </li></ul><ul><li>To improve productivity in operations </li></ul><ul><li>To implement major organizational restructuring </li></ul><ul><li>To bring an existing facility up to current regulatory standards </li></ul><ul><li>To transform or create a new image or brand identity </li></ul>Dr. Yasser Mahgoub
  33. 34. Summary: BUILDING DESIGN SERVICES <ul><li>Knowledge and Skills Required </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to evaluate program requirements critically </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to create concepts that respond to program requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to delineate concepts and design solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding of building materials, components, and systems </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding of building codes, standards, and regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Familiarity with contracts and construction documentation </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to communicate concepts to the client and consultants </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of construction costs </li></ul>Dr. Yasser Mahgoub
  34. 35. Summary: BUILDING DESIGN SERVICES <ul><li>Representative Process Tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Develop project understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Develop schematic design documents </li></ul><ul><li>Develop design development documents </li></ul>Dr. Yasser Mahgoub
  35. 36. Introduction <ul><li>Architects don't make buildings perse. </li></ul><ul><li>Using professional knowledge and skills, architects translate abstract ideas into building form expressed by the architect in sketches, plans, models, and specifications. </li></ul>Dr. Yasser Mahgoub
  36. 37. Introduction <ul><li>The design process is difficult to map . </li></ul><ul><li>It is nonlinear and highly interactive , embracing a mix of rational and intuitive decision making. </li></ul><ul><li>Despite the lack of cookbook-style directions and definitive step-by-step procedures, architects successfully apply design thinking everyday in providing building design services to their clients. </li></ul>Dr. Yasser Mahgoub
  37. 38. Lecture 1 Dr. Yasser Mahgoub
  38. 39. <ul><li>Building design is the keystone of architecture practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Translating needs and aspirations , theories and technologies , and schedules and budgets into appropriate and exciting places and buildings requires great skill as well as attention to broader concerns . </li></ul>Design
  39. 40. <ul><li>Design has moments of great inspiration and deep insight - but most of all it required hours, months, and years of hard work. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Complex and Inaccessible  yet  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Taught to and practiced by thousands </li></ul></ul></ul>Design Private and Intuitive  yet  Broadly discussed and rationally analyzed
  40. 41. <ul><li>Design is a continiuous activity. </li></ul>Beginning    (no end) Design
  41. 42. <ul><li>Design Influences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Every project situation is different </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different requirements and limitations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural, environmental, technological, aesthetic contexts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenges and opportunities . </li></ul></ul>Design
  42. 43. It is both problem-seeking and problem-solving process. Design
  43. 44. <ul><li>Program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requirements and Limitations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General or Specific descriptive of needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggestive solutions </li></ul></ul>Design Influences
  44. 45. <ul><li>Community Desires </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Public agency (ies) approvals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To meet objections or to gain support. </li></ul></ul></ul>Design Influences
  45. 46. <ul><li>Codes and Regulations </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Safety requirements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minimal land use </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Light and air zoning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A major force in design that regulates every aspect of design and construction </li></ul></ul></ul>Design Influences
  46. 47. <ul><li>Site and Climate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical characteristics: size, configuration, topography, geotechnical, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate : wind, solar orientation, temperatures, humidity, precipitation, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental Factors : view, existing vegetation, drainage, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjacent land uses and other site factors. </li></ul></ul>Design Influences
  47. 48. <ul><li>Building context and existing fabric </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The surrounding environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Materials </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fenestration </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Detailing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Existing structures </li></ul></ul>Design Influences
  48. 49. <ul><li>Building Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Building configuration, materials, and systems are rarely arbitrarily chosen and are only partially based on aesthetic criteria . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dimensions may be dictated largely by mechanical systems or even by the knowledge and preferences of the local construction industry . </li></ul></ul>Design Influences
  49. 50. <ul><li>Sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>The ability of a society, ecosystem, or any such ongoing system to continue functioning into the indefinite future , without being forced into decline through exhaustion or overloading of the key resources on which that system depends. </li></ul><ul><li>For architecture, this means design that delivers buildings and communities with lower environmental impacts while enhancing health, productivity, community, and quality of life. </li></ul>Design Influences
  50. 51. <ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Projects have limited budgets . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost considerations significantly influence almost all issues from building size and configuration to material selection and detailing. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Budget: Fixed or flexible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Schedule </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Design decisions out of sequence </li></ul></ul></ul>Design Influences
  51. 52. <ul><li>The client </li></ul><ul><li>The Good client : Is there such a thing as &quot;good client&quot;? </li></ul><ul><li>Some clients have a clear idea of program, budget, and other project objectives, including the final appearance of the building. </li></ul><ul><li>Others look to the architect to help them define the project objectives, as well as to design a building that meets theses goals. </li></ul>Design Influences
  52. 53. Lecture 2 Dr. Yasser Mahgoub
  53. 54. <ul><li>The Value of Pre-design </li></ul><ul><li>Extend &quot;pre-design&quot; as long as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>It is defense mechanism against those &quot;hot ideas&quot; that will come up midway through the project. </li></ul><ul><li>Invent ways to force yourself not to dive into design immediately </li></ul><ul><li>Find ways of getting the client involved in this &quot;discovery phase&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and achieve consensus on the five or six real issues the project brings you to solve </li></ul>Pre-Design
  54. 55. <ul><li>The Value of Pre-design </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge the design team to find as many ways as it can to translate constraints into three-dimensional potential forms without actually designing the building </li></ul><ul><li>Look for ways - writing, diagrams, mass models, etc. - for describing both the minimum and requirements and your highest aspirations for the project. </li></ul>Pre-Design
  55. 56. <ul><li>The Value of Pre-design </li></ul><ul><li>Ask yourself: How will you know later that you succeeded? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe - again without designing the building - the strongest, best formal concepts to be explored in the design. </li></ul><ul><li>Involve the client in the program, budget, and expectations. </li></ul>Pre-Design
  56. 57. <ul><li>Design Process </li></ul><ul><li>Linear Quality </li></ul><ul><li>A nalysis  S ynthesis  E valuation </li></ul>Design Process <ul><li>Non-linear Qualities </li></ul><ul><li>Flashes of insight … Creative leaps </li></ul>
  57. 58. <ul><li>Design Process </li></ul><ul><li>The design process works with information and ideas simultaneously on many levels . </li></ul>Design Process Z Y X Interior Materials - Colors Structure – Systems Function – Circulation - Access Form – Shapes - Style Site – Climate – Context - Surroundings
  58. 59. Design Process Designing is a reciprocal Action and Reflection . Dr. Yasser Mahgoub
  59. 60. <ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>An initial step of design is to identify, analyze, confirm, and organize the factors that will influence the development of design concept. </li></ul>Analysis
  60. 61. <ul><li>Data </li></ul><ul><li>From: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic feasibility studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Programming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Site analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To a form that allows the information to be used in building design. </li></ul>Analysis
  61. 62. Analysis <ul><li>Program Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Words and numbers  graphic terms, charts, bubble diagrams, and sketches of design concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be actively involved in the program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spend time confirming the program </li></ul></ul>
  62. 63. <ul><li>Site Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Site data  graphic record of physical, cultural, and regulatory factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Begin to point the way to design solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time spent walking the site understanding both it and the surrounding community </li></ul></ul>Analysis
  63. 64. <ul><li>Zoning and Code analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zoning codes  Graphic form of zoning envelope (height, setbacks, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parking and load requirements, existing considerations, building area and height limitations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help the architect begin to shape the program into a building mass that fits the site well. </li></ul></ul>Analysis
  64. 65. <ul><li>Documentation of Existing Conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Existing structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accurate documentation of existing conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Converting existing drawings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Base sheets for use in design </li></ul></ul>Analysis
  65. 66. Analysis <ul><li>Scheduling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project phasing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time it takes to seek variances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sequencing of design decisions to accommodate fast-track construction </li></ul></ul>
  66. 67. <ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project budget and its implications for the building design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project budgets are limited </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Careful use of funds </li></ul></ul>Analysis
  67. 68. Analysis <ul><li>Construction industry practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local construction industry practice: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability of materials and labor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commonly used materials, systems, and detailing </li></ul></ul>
  68. 69. <ul><li>Design precedents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevant precedents from projects facing similar or related program, site, context, cost, or other design issues. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is common for architects to familiarize themselves with the design of buildings that deal with similar issues to stimulate solutions for their own design problems. </li></ul></ul>Analysis
  69. 70. <ul><li>Synthesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The combination of all analysis, understanding, and response to base data collected and analyzed into a unified solution is the SYNTHESIS that is the core concept of design. </li></ul></ul>Synthesis
  70. 71. <ul><li>The synthesis process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most architects start with an analysis of the base data and then work through sketches , talking , and thinking until they reach the level of understanding necessary to form a concept. </li></ul></ul>Synthesis
  71. 72. <ul><li>Aspects of design unique to a particular architect or firm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Particular design stimuli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizing principles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Areas of emphasis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aesthetic vocabularies </li></ul></ul>Synthesis
  72. 73. <ul><li>The Common Tasks of Design </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing Design Goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expressed formally or informally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create functional and aesthetic guidelines for judging design decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project objectives help establish priorities </li></ul></ul>Synthesis
  73. 74. <ul><li>The Common Tasks of Design </li></ul><ul><li>Evolving Design Concept (s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan concept </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geometric form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass the building vertically or horizontally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of an organizing element </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Particular image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historic precedent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Design Vocabulary&quot; of formal and aesthetic ideas </li></ul></ul>Synthesis
  74. 75. <ul><li>The Common Tasks of Design </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating Concept Alternative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Point-by-point evaluation against the original design objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intuitive judgment based on experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combination of both </li></ul></ul>Synthesis
  75. 76. <ul><li>Contractual Framework </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agreement between owner and architect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outlines design tasks and requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifies specific responsibilities for design, including those of the architect, of the owner, and possibly of third parties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishes a schedule , including starting and completion dates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often defines design phases with interim milestone dates and own approvals to proceed </li></ul></ul>Synthesis
  76. 77. End Dr. Yasser Mahgoub
  77. 78. <ul><li>Five Project Phases </li></ul><ul><li>Schematic Design </li></ul><ul><li>Design Development </li></ul><ul><li>Construction Documents </li></ul><ul><li>Bidding or Negotiation </li></ul><ul><li>Construction Contract Administration </li></ul>Project Phases
  78. 79. <ul><li>Schematic Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General scope, conceptual design and scale and relationships among the components of the project. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>arrive at clearly defined and feasible concept </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>present it in a form that achieves client understanding and acceptance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>clarify the project program </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>explore the most promising alternative design solutions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>provide a reasonable basis for analyzing the cost of the project </li></ul></ul></ul>Schematic Design
  79. 80. <ul><li>Typical documentation include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A site plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plans for each level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All elevations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key sections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An outline specification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A statistical summary of the design area and other characteristics in comparison to the program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A preliminary construction cost estimate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other illustrative material: perspectives, renderings, models, computer simulations, or additional drawings </li></ul></ul>Schematic Design
  80. 81. <ul><li>Drawings </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1:200 for large buildings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1:100 or 1:50 for smaller buildings and interiors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Outline specifications </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>General description of the work that indicates the major systems and materials choices for the project and provides the information necessary to communicate the appearance and function of the building. </li></ul></ul></ul>Schematic Design
  81. 82. <ul><li>Preliminary estimate of construction cost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preliminary area analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preliminary construction cost estimate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited details: only major trades and systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preliminary analysis of owner's budget </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommendations for changes </li></ul></ul>Schematic Design
  82. 83. Schematic Design
  83. 84. Schematic Design
  84. 85. Schematic Design
  85. 86. <ul><li>Other services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Life cycle cost analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tenant-related design studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special renderings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brochures and promotional materials </li></ul></ul>Schematic Design
  86. 87. <ul><li>Approvals </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Obtain formal client approval ( in writing if all possible) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If approval is given verbally , send the client a letter confirming the architect's understanding of the approval and ask the client to initial the letter and return a copy . </li></ul></ul></ul>Schematic Design
  87. 88. <ul><li>Design Development </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Refinement an coordination </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A really polished work of architecture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>minimizes the possibility of major modifications during the construction contract documents phase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Define and describe all important aspects of the project so that what remains is the formal documentation step of construction contract documents. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clear, coordinated description of all aspects of the design. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fully developed floor plans, sections, exterior elevations, interior elevations, reflected ceiling plans, wall sections, and key details. </li></ul></ul></ul>Design Development
  88. 89. <ul><li>Drawings </li></ul><ul><li>Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Recommended adjustments </li></ul><ul><li>Formal presentation and approval by the owner </li></ul>Design Development Schematic Design --> Design Development --> Construction Documents
  89. 91. <ul><li>Design During the Implementation Phases </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>During construction documents, bidding and negotiation, and construction contract administration phases of the project. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Design continues even through the construction phase and everyday use of buildings and facilities.. </li></ul></ul></ul>&quot;Design never really stops&quot; Design Development
  90. 92. Design Decisions
  91. 93. Design Decisions