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ATTACHMENT
Theory
WHAT IS
ATTACHMENT?
Encarta Dictionaries- emotional bond: an
emotional bond or tie to somebody or something.
Merriam-Webster Dictionary- str...
Laura Berk – “Attachment is a strong,
affectionate tie we have with special people in
our lives that lead us to experienc...
ATTACHMENT
THEORY
Is a concept in developmental psychology
that concerns the importance of
"attachment" in regards to per...
 Born in London on February 26, 1907,
Edward John Mostyn Bowlby was the son
of Major Sir Anthony Bowlby and the
former Ma...
 His childhood was typical of many middle- and upper-class
children in Britain; early years spent with a nanny or
governe...
 Bowlby entered University College Medical School in
London for his medical training and after graduating
from medical sc...
JOHN BOWLBY
 British Child Psychiatrist &
Psychoanalyst.
 He was the first attachment theorist,
describing attachment as...
 Bowlby believed that the earliest bonds formed by children
with their caregivers have a tremendous impact that
continues...
 Bowlby’s first formal statement of attachment theory
was published in :The Nature of the Child’s Tie To His
Mother (1958...
Attachment theory
Bowlby: Being attached provided you with
comfort and protection to do what you needed to
do as a child....
 This research led John Bowlby to theorize that infants had a
biological need for contact comfort (love).
 John Bowlby b...
 Bowlby also postulated that the fear of strangers
represents an important survival mechanism, built in by
nature. Babies...
Bowlby applied ethology to infants
He was very influenced by the work of
ethologists, people who study animal behavior,
...
According to Lorenz imprinting is the evolved,
innate ability of animals to make an attachment
to the first thing they se...
WHAT
ELSE?
Infants form
attachments
because it’s
adaptive
Babies have an
‘attachment
gene’
An infant displays social
releasers (such ...
Parents also have an
‘attachment gene’
Which drives the
parents to provide care
Parents are driven to
provide care for the...
 Bowlby considered that infants preferred a
principal attachment figure for comfort and
security = ‘monotropy’
This monot...
FEATURES OF ATTACHMENT
 Proximity Maintenance: the need to be physically
close to the attachment figure
 Seperation Anxi...
BOWLBY’S FOUR STAGES OF
ATTACHMENT
 Pre-attachment (0-2 months ): infants do not
discriminate one person from another – n...
 Attachment-in-the-making (2-6 months): Infant
directs signals to a particular person. Recognizes their
parents but do no...
 Clear-cut attachment (6months–3 or 4 years):
Separation anxiety.
• The attachment to familiar caregiver becomes evident
...
 Formation of reciprocal relationship (3-4 yrs
onwards): understand caregiver’s schedule.
Separation protests decline.
• ...
STYLES OF
ATTACHMENT
 Attachment is not an ‘all or nothing’ process
 There may be variations, or individual differences
...
I’m ok, you’re
there for me
Most infants (65-70% of
1 yr olds) Freely explore
new environments,
touching base with
caregiv...
it’s not ok
to be
emotional
15% Don’t cry when
separated.
When returned, avoids her or
slow to greet her.
Unresponsive on ...
I want comfort
but it doesn’t
help me
10% Seeks contact with their
caregiver before separation.
After she leaves and retur...
I’m
frightened
5-10% Elements of both
avoidant and ambivalent
(confused)
No consistent way of dealing
with the stress.
Dis...
FUNCTIONS OF ATTACHMENT
1. It guarantees that the basic needs of children are met, in
return, parents’ needs are also met....
Attachment theory
Attachment theory
Attachment theory
Attachment theory
Attachment theory
Attachment theory
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Attachment theory

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Attachment theory by John Bowlby

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Attachment theory

  1. 1. ATTACHMENT Theory
  2. 2. WHAT IS ATTACHMENT?
  3. 3. Encarta Dictionaries- emotional bond: an emotional bond or tie to somebody or something. Merriam-Webster Dictionary- strong feelings of affection or loyalty for someone or something. Svanberg, 2005-“Attachment is a bond which ties . the mother and baby together. It emerges out of evolution. It developed in order to protect us from predators, it is central to our survival and what we are beginning to realise now is that it’s also central to our well-being.”
  4. 4. Laura Berk – “Attachment is a strong, affectionate tie we have with special people in our lives that lead us to experience pleasure when we interact with time and to be comforted by nearness in times of stress”. An enduring emotional tie to a special person, characterized by a tendency to seek and maintain closeness, especially during times of stress.
  5. 5. ATTACHMENT THEORY Is a concept in developmental psychology that concerns the importance of "attachment" in regards to personal development.
  6. 6.  Born in London on February 26, 1907, Edward John Mostyn Bowlby was the son of Major Sir Anthony Bowlby and the former May Mostyn.  Sir Anthony was a physician who served as surgeon to King George V. When John, one of six children, was born, his father was 52 and his mother was 40. JOHN BOWLBY: EARLY LIFE
  7. 7.  His childhood was typical of many middle- and upper-class children in Britain; early years spent with a nanny or governess, then boarding school.  Bowlby did not feel that his own upbringing was out of the ordinary, although one could conclude that his own reserved demeanor may have been formed at an early age.  Bowlby attended the Royal Naval College and Cambridge, where he prepared for medical school. He volunteered for a year in a hospital for maladjusted children, an experience that set the stage for his later work.  Two children in particular intrigued Bowlby: an adolescent loner who had been expelled from school for stealing, and a nervous seven-year-old who was called Bowlby's shadow because he followed him around. These two children left a lasting impression on the researcher.
  8. 8.  Bowlby entered University College Medical School in London for his medical training and after graduating from medical school, Bowlby stayed on at Maudsley. Initially he worked with adult patients, but his work gradually turned to children. His first empirical study, in fact, tracked 44 children whose behavior patterns included anxiety and petty crime. He discovered a common thread among these children: they had been deprived of their mothers at some point during their childhood.
  9. 9. JOHN BOWLBY  British Child Psychiatrist & Psychoanalyst.  He was the first attachment theorist, describing attachment as a "lasting psychological connectedness between human beings".  John Bowlby, is widely credited with having put a “scientific” name to motherly love and to the widely held assumptions as to its importance to the mother’s child. He called his premises Attachment Theory
  10. 10.  Bowlby believed that the earliest bonds formed by children with their caregivers have a tremendous impact that continues throughout life.  According to Bowlby, attachment also serves to keep the infant close to the mother, thus improving the child's chances of survival.
  11. 11.  Bowlby’s first formal statement of attachment theory was published in :The Nature of the Child’s Tie To His Mother (1958).  According to him, maternal separation in kids can be seen through 3 phases. These are: * Protest * Despair * Detachment
  12. 12. Attachment theory Bowlby: Being attached provided you with comfort and protection to do what you needed to do as a child. Ainsworth: The secure base was the primary benefit or value of being attached. *in attachment theory, “Humans have evolved a built in attachment system that is necessary for the survival and adaptation of our species.
  13. 13.  This research led John Bowlby to theorize that infants had a biological need for contact comfort (love).  John Bowlby believed that mental health and behavioral problems could be attributed to early childhood.  Infants are biologically programmed to coo, smile, and flirt to get an emotional response from the caregiver (attachment).  Bowlby believed that attachment behaviors are instinctive and will be activated by any conditions that seem to threaten the achievement of proximity, such as separation, insecurity and fear.
  14. 14.  Bowlby also postulated that the fear of strangers represents an important survival mechanism, built in by nature. Babies are born with the tendency to display certain innate behaviors, called social releasers which help ensure proximity and contact with the mother or attachment figure.  Bowlby hypothesized that both infants and mothers have evolved a biological need to stay in contact with each other.
  15. 15. Bowlby applied ethology to infants He was very influenced by the work of ethologists, people who study animal behavior, especially Konrad Lorenz and his work on imprinting.
  16. 16. According to Lorenz imprinting is the evolved, innate ability of animals to make an attachment to the first thing they see. This is usually their biological mother. This provides protection and allows them to learn behavior important for survival. Bowlby uses the word ‘attachment’ instead of imprinting.
  17. 17. WHAT ELSE?
  18. 18. Infants form attachments because it’s adaptive Babies have an ‘attachment gene’ An infant displays social releasers (such as crying, smiling) which increase their chances of receiving care Adaptive = good for survival
  19. 19. Parents also have an ‘attachment gene’ Which drives the parents to provide care Parents are driven to provide care for the infant while they’re young and defenseless – the critical period -this is also adaptive (increases chances of genes continuing to the next generation) Bowlby suggested that infants make one main attachment – called monotropy
  20. 20.  Bowlby considered that infants preferred a principal attachment figure for comfort and security = ‘monotropy’ This monotropy theory has gained support, but some researchers remain critical Some writers report ‘attached’ and ‘unattached’ infants and Bowlby thought that without attachment, we get affectionless psychopathy MONOTROPY
  21. 21. FEATURES OF ATTACHMENT  Proximity Maintenance: the need to be physically close to the attachment figure  Seperation Anxiety: the emotional distress seen when separated from the attachment figure  Safe Haven: retreating to the attachment figure when scared  Secure Base: a feeling of being able to explore the world because of the dependability of the attachment figure
  22. 22. BOWLBY’S FOUR STAGES OF ATTACHMENT  Pre-attachment (0-2 months ): infants do not discriminate one person from another – no fear of strangers • Baby’s innate signals attract caregiver (Grasping, crying, smiling and gazing into the adult’s eyes) • The infants encourage the adults to remain close as the closeness comforts them • Babies recognize the mother’s smell, voice and face. • They are not yet attached to the mother, they don’t mind being left with unfamiliar adults.
  23. 23.  Attachment-in-the-making (2-6 months): Infant directs signals to a particular person. Recognizes their parents but do not protest when separated • Infant responds differently to familiar caregiver than to strangers. The baby would babble and smile more to the mother and quiets more quickly when the mother picks him. • The infant learns that her actions affect the behavior of those around • The begin to develop “Sense of Trust” where they expect that the caregiver will respond when signaled • The infant still does not protest when separated from the caregiver
  24. 24.  Clear-cut attachment (6months–3 or 4 years): Separation anxiety. • The attachment to familiar caregiver becomes evident • Babies display “Separation Anxiety”, where they become upset when an adult whom they have come to rely leaves • Although Separation anxiety increases between 6 -15 months of age its occurrence depends on infant temperament, context and adult behavior • The child would show distress when the mother leaves but if the caregiver is supportive and sensitive then this anxiety could be short-lived.
  25. 25.  Formation of reciprocal relationship (3-4 yrs onwards): understand caregiver’s schedule. Separation protests decline. • With rapid growth in representation and language by 2 years the toddler is able to understand some of the factors that influence parent’s coming and going and to predict their return. Thus separation protests decline. • The child could negotiate with the caregiver, using requests and persuasion to alter her goals • With age the child depends less on the caregiver , more confidence that the caregiver will be accessible and responsive in times of need.
  26. 26. STYLES OF ATTACHMENT  Attachment is not an ‘all or nothing’ process  There may be variations, or individual differences between children in the attachments they form  Ainsworth and Bell (1978) assessed about 100 American infants and their primary caregivers for the quality of attachment  They found there are different styles of attachment:
  27. 27. I’m ok, you’re there for me Most infants (65-70% of 1 yr olds) Freely explore new environments, touching base with caregiver periodically for security. Secure Attachment
  28. 28. it’s not ok to be emotional 15% Don’t cry when separated. When returned, avoids her or slow to greet her. Unresponsive on return. Strongly avoidant of mother and stranger. Avoidant Attachment
  29. 29. I want comfort but it doesn’t help me 10% Seeks contact with their caregiver before separation. After she leaves and returns, they first seek her, then resist or reject offers of comfort Ambivalent Attachment
  30. 30. I’m frightened 5-10% Elements of both avoidant and ambivalent (confused) No consistent way of dealing with the stress. Disorganized attachment
  31. 31. FUNCTIONS OF ATTACHMENT 1. It guarantees that the basic needs of children are met, in return, parents’ needs are also met. 2. It provides the child with a sense of security. 3. It facilitates exploration and independent functioning in the child. 4. If a person is attached to another person, it focuses that person’s attention on the attached person. 5. It provides a model and experience with relationships that then influence the development of future relationships.

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