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Hard Disks
• Low-level format- organizes both sides of each
platter into tracks and sectors to define where
items will be stored on the disk.
• Partitioning: divide hard disk into separate
areas called partitions; each partition functions
as if it were a separate hard disk drive.
• High-level format defines the file allocation
table (FAT) for each partition, which is a table
of information used to locate files on the disk.
Storage Systems
• Hard Drives
– 2 Types: SCSI and IDE
• IDE drives-
– originally developed as alternative to more expensive SCSI
drives.
– Modern versions called EIDE drives.
– Support up to 4 multigigabyte drives.
– If you want more devices, use SCSI or USB
– Low-level formatted at the factory
Low Level Formatting
• Low level format scans disk for defects and
sets aside sectors with defects so they are not
used for data.
• IDE drives should never be low level
formatted by a user or technician. Only high
level format necessary.
Installing IDE/EIDE drives
• IDE supports TWO drives in a system
– one master (boot disk) and one slave
– set master and slave using jumpers
• EIDE supports FOUR drives per system
– 2 drives on each of 2 cables
– only one master, all others are slaves
• IDE and EIDE drives both use 40-pin ribbon
cable aligned to pin 1
Hard Drive
Floppies
• Two sizes
– 3.5 inch
– 5.25 inch
• 3.5 inch holds 1.44 MB for High density and
750 KB for Double Density
• Connected with 34 pin ribbon cable
• Two Floppy Drives possible
• Has twist in cable to distinguish A drive from
B drive
SCSI
• Pronounced Scuzzy
• Small Computer Systems Interface
• For wide range of peripheral devices, including hard
disks, tape drives, optical drives, CD-ROMs and disk
arrays.
• 8 devices can connect to a daisy chain
• This chain must be terminated at both ends
• Each device on chain is assigned unique device ID
number that is determined by jumpers or DIP
switches
Installing and configuring SCSI
• SCSI bus supports 8 devices
• There are eight SCSI IDs numbered 0 through
7
• ID 7 is always reserved for the SCSI host
adapter
• SCSI hard disk, if used as a boot drive, is
assigned SCSI ID 0
• If you have both IDE and SCSI hard drive,
IDE drive should be boot drive
Types of SCSIs
• SCSI 1- 5 MB transfer rate, Centronics 50 pin
or DB 25, has 8 bit bus
• SCSI 2 -also SCSI Fast Wide, includes 16 bit
bus , called Wide SCSI, and twice as fast
transfer rate
• SCSI 3- Includes Ultra SCSI, Wide Ultra
SCSI, and Ultra 2 SCSI, 16 bit bus with up to
80 MBps transfer rate
RAID
• Redundant Array of Independent Disks
• Category of disk drives that employs 2 or more
drives in combination for fault tolerance (error
recovery)
• 10 levels of RAID
• 3 on test will be:
• RAID 0, RAID 3, RAID 5
RAID continued
• RAID 0- Striped disk without parity
• RAID 3- Parallel transfer with parity
• RAID 5- Data striping with parity
How Data is Organized on Disk
• Tracks-
– circular areas of the disk
– Length of a track one circumference of disk
– Over 1000 on a hard disk
– Data first written to outer most track
• Sectors-
– Divides tracks sections
– On a floppy 9 sectors exits
• Cylinders-
– Logical groupings of the the same track on each disk surface in a disk
unit
• Clusters-
– Groups of sectors used by operating system
– 64 sectors in one cluster
Track=
concentric
circle
Sector =
small arc
of track
Can store
512 bytes
Tracks and sectors
Interleaving
• Allows the read/write head to use the rotation
of the disk to its advantage
• One sector is written to and the disk skips to
several sectors down
Formatting
• Low level formatting done at factory
– Builds the File Allocation Table (FAT)
– Physically scans the disk media for defects
• Remember FAT is always located at Track 0
• High level formatting is automatically done
during installation of operating system
Operating System File Systems
• DOS uses FAT
• Windows 3.x uses Virtual FAT
• Win 95 uses VFAT and FAT32
• Win NT uses NTFS
Partitioning
• FDISK command is used
• Divides hard drive into logical subdivisions
which are seen by the operating system as
separate logical hard disks.
• Hard drives divided into primary and extended
partitions. The primary partition boots the
system. Can have up to 4 primary partitions
Partitioning
• Extended can be divided up to 23 times on disk.
• Partitioning disks improves disk efficiency through
reduced cluster size.
• In DOS, Win 3x and early versions of Win 95 a hard
disk over 2 GB must be divided into smaller partions
• Now Win 95 and Win 98 can create a primary
partition of up to 8 GB
• Following partition, the first sector on cylinder 0
reserved for master boot record
Disk compression
• Reduce amount of space taken up by files by
substituting codes for repeating patterns of
data
• To access data on compressed disk, must load
disk compression utility into RAM first
• This disk compression utility works between
OS and disk controller to intercept requests
and compress or decompress files- the result is
slower disk access
Backing up data
• Archival: full backup- contains everything
from the hard disk
• Incremental: contains only files that have been
modified since last (previous) backup
• Differential: backs up all the data modified
since last full backup
• Copy backup: copy duplicate of file, directory,
or disk to another disk
CD ROM
• Capacity of 650 MB
• Transfer speeds of around 24X speed
– X refers to the transfer speed in the first CD ROM,
which was 150 K
• CD is the slowest device on PC
• When installing to IDE system must be
configured as slave
• WORM and EO

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disk.ppt

  • 1. Hard Disks • Low-level format- organizes both sides of each platter into tracks and sectors to define where items will be stored on the disk. • Partitioning: divide hard disk into separate areas called partitions; each partition functions as if it were a separate hard disk drive. • High-level format defines the file allocation table (FAT) for each partition, which is a table of information used to locate files on the disk.
  • 2. Storage Systems • Hard Drives – 2 Types: SCSI and IDE • IDE drives- – originally developed as alternative to more expensive SCSI drives. – Modern versions called EIDE drives. – Support up to 4 multigigabyte drives. – If you want more devices, use SCSI or USB – Low-level formatted at the factory
  • 3. Low Level Formatting • Low level format scans disk for defects and sets aside sectors with defects so they are not used for data. • IDE drives should never be low level formatted by a user or technician. Only high level format necessary.
  • 4. Installing IDE/EIDE drives • IDE supports TWO drives in a system – one master (boot disk) and one slave – set master and slave using jumpers • EIDE supports FOUR drives per system – 2 drives on each of 2 cables – only one master, all others are slaves • IDE and EIDE drives both use 40-pin ribbon cable aligned to pin 1
  • 6. Floppies • Two sizes – 3.5 inch – 5.25 inch • 3.5 inch holds 1.44 MB for High density and 750 KB for Double Density • Connected with 34 pin ribbon cable • Two Floppy Drives possible • Has twist in cable to distinguish A drive from B drive
  • 7. SCSI • Pronounced Scuzzy • Small Computer Systems Interface • For wide range of peripheral devices, including hard disks, tape drives, optical drives, CD-ROMs and disk arrays. • 8 devices can connect to a daisy chain • This chain must be terminated at both ends • Each device on chain is assigned unique device ID number that is determined by jumpers or DIP switches
  • 8. Installing and configuring SCSI • SCSI bus supports 8 devices • There are eight SCSI IDs numbered 0 through 7 • ID 7 is always reserved for the SCSI host adapter • SCSI hard disk, if used as a boot drive, is assigned SCSI ID 0 • If you have both IDE and SCSI hard drive, IDE drive should be boot drive
  • 9. Types of SCSIs • SCSI 1- 5 MB transfer rate, Centronics 50 pin or DB 25, has 8 bit bus • SCSI 2 -also SCSI Fast Wide, includes 16 bit bus , called Wide SCSI, and twice as fast transfer rate • SCSI 3- Includes Ultra SCSI, Wide Ultra SCSI, and Ultra 2 SCSI, 16 bit bus with up to 80 MBps transfer rate
  • 10. RAID • Redundant Array of Independent Disks • Category of disk drives that employs 2 or more drives in combination for fault tolerance (error recovery) • 10 levels of RAID • 3 on test will be: • RAID 0, RAID 3, RAID 5
  • 11. RAID continued • RAID 0- Striped disk without parity • RAID 3- Parallel transfer with parity • RAID 5- Data striping with parity
  • 12. How Data is Organized on Disk • Tracks- – circular areas of the disk – Length of a track one circumference of disk – Over 1000 on a hard disk – Data first written to outer most track • Sectors- – Divides tracks sections – On a floppy 9 sectors exits • Cylinders- – Logical groupings of the the same track on each disk surface in a disk unit • Clusters- – Groups of sectors used by operating system – 64 sectors in one cluster
  • 13. Track= concentric circle Sector = small arc of track Can store 512 bytes Tracks and sectors
  • 14. Interleaving • Allows the read/write head to use the rotation of the disk to its advantage • One sector is written to and the disk skips to several sectors down
  • 15. Formatting • Low level formatting done at factory – Builds the File Allocation Table (FAT) – Physically scans the disk media for defects • Remember FAT is always located at Track 0 • High level formatting is automatically done during installation of operating system
  • 16. Operating System File Systems • DOS uses FAT • Windows 3.x uses Virtual FAT • Win 95 uses VFAT and FAT32 • Win NT uses NTFS
  • 17. Partitioning • FDISK command is used • Divides hard drive into logical subdivisions which are seen by the operating system as separate logical hard disks. • Hard drives divided into primary and extended partitions. The primary partition boots the system. Can have up to 4 primary partitions
  • 18. Partitioning • Extended can be divided up to 23 times on disk. • Partitioning disks improves disk efficiency through reduced cluster size. • In DOS, Win 3x and early versions of Win 95 a hard disk over 2 GB must be divided into smaller partions • Now Win 95 and Win 98 can create a primary partition of up to 8 GB • Following partition, the first sector on cylinder 0 reserved for master boot record
  • 19. Disk compression • Reduce amount of space taken up by files by substituting codes for repeating patterns of data • To access data on compressed disk, must load disk compression utility into RAM first • This disk compression utility works between OS and disk controller to intercept requests and compress or decompress files- the result is slower disk access
  • 20. Backing up data • Archival: full backup- contains everything from the hard disk • Incremental: contains only files that have been modified since last (previous) backup • Differential: backs up all the data modified since last full backup • Copy backup: copy duplicate of file, directory, or disk to another disk
  • 21. CD ROM • Capacity of 650 MB • Transfer speeds of around 24X speed – X refers to the transfer speed in the first CD ROM, which was 150 K • CD is the slowest device on PC • When installing to IDE system must be configured as slave • WORM and EO