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Teacher's book H2O SOS

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This is the Teaching Unit I designed to work with 5th graders in my practicals.

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Teacher's book H2O SOS

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. 2 Introduction to the Unit The Unit H2O S.O.S. is designed around a social problem that has occurred in an area not far from school. That could become a problem if we try to generalise this Unit to another school, but nowadays it is likely to have problems with water pollution in a lot of zones. I would encourage every teacher to look for a relevant social problem for the kids, which ensures participation and motivation. It is well known that CLIL classes are supposed to take care of both language and content. During these lessons, language is introduced at the same time as content. Bearing in mind that an L2 language cannot restrict the learning process, all types of help are provided. The most important one is the glossary, which will help students remember the meaning of the most difficult words. This glossary also gives them the opportunity to control their English language acquisition. I would also like to clarify that Project 1x100 has been invented to fit these Unit conditions. I invented the contest to give students a “realistic” reason to feel more engaged to these tasks. However, I’ll give them a fake Certificate expressing the Departament’s gratitude for having participated in the Project. It is worth mentioning that this Unit is designed so that children can “do” a lot, not just receive input in English, but also produce different types of output, always providing them with necessary aids. As it is my first Unit in English, I have decided to provide a Teacher Speech proposal, so that I can communicate all that I want and I never miss a thing.
  3. 3. 3 Index of content Introduction to the Unit .............................................................................................................2 Project summary .........................................................................................................................5 General information................................................................................................................5 Introduction to the Unit: ........................................................................................................5 Goals ........................................................................................................................................5 Indic. of goal achievement......................................................................................................5 Domain contents .....................................................................................................................6 Key competences.....................................................................................................................7 Assessment ..............................................................................................................................8 Language use ...........................................................................................................................9 Pragmatic strategies ................................................................................................................9 Planning template.....................................................................................................................10 Session by session......................................................................................................................11 Lesson 1: Starting the Project ...............................................................................................11 1.1 Presentation of the project: the letter.........................................................................11 1.2 Organising the project.................................................................................................11 1.3 Course materials: glossary and dossier........................................................................13 1.4 First reading of the piece of news...............................................................................13 Lesson 2: Pollution problems................................................................................................13 2.1 Piece of news .........................................................................................................14 2.2 Analysing the piece of news .......................................................................................14 Lesson 3: What is pollution?.................................................................................................16 3.1 Brainstorming..............................................................................................................16 3.3 Running dictation - Meaningful text..........................................................................17 3.4 Running dictation - Sharing ideas! .............................................................................17 Lesson 4: Different types of pollution ..................................................................................17 Linking the last session .....................................................................................................17 4.2 Cycle of water..............................................................................................................17 4.3 Correcting mistakes.....................................................................................................18 4.4 The box!.......................................................................................................................18 Lesson 5: Cause and effect.....................................................................................................18
  4. 4. 4 5.1 Video presentation ......................................................................................................19 5.2 Let’s play!.....................................................................................................................19 Lesson 6: Solutions Discussion..............................................................................................19 6.1 Group discussion .........................................................................................................19 6.2 Group draft ..................................................................................................................20 6.3 Final version................................................................................................................20 6.4 Peer evaluation............................................................................................................20 Annexes.....................................................................................................................................21 Creative commons license ....................................................................................................21 Assessment grid.....................................................................................................................22
  5. 5. 5 Project summary General information Introduction to the Unit: Goals Indic. of goal achievement PROJECT TITLE: H2O S.O.S. AUTHOR: Irene Coral Arnabat CLASS/AGE: 5th Graders SUBJECTS, LANGUAGES and/or TEACHERS INVOLVED: English - Olívia and Irene NUMBER OF LESSONS: 6 COE LEVEL: A1 / This Unit is designed around a social problem that has occurred in an area not far from our school. The problem is related to water pollution and that is what students are going to investigate. At the end of the Unit, they will be concerned about the problems that can come from bad behaviour towards water.  Consider water pollution as a global problem.  Analyse a social problem which is close to them.  Participate actively in classroom tasks, using English as a vehicular language showing respect towards other members and material.  Connect previous knowledge from Science classes with new content.  Identify good and bad behaviours towards water treatment.  Comprehend oral and written messages in classroom.  Suggest possible everyday actions that could prevent or reduce water pollution.  Communicate and organize the final product.  Work collaboratively and cooperatively.  Showing concern towards water pollution problems.  Itemise a piece of news, answering the proper questions  Willingness to use English language as the language of communication.  Showing connections with previous theory that has not been commented in class.  Showing understanding and following instructions.  Identifying good and bad behaviours towards water treatment.  Group work ends up with a good project 
  6. 6. 6 Domain contents MAIN TARGET KNOWLEDGE - Brief introduction to three types of pollution: water pollution, air pollution and land pollution. - Review of some Science concepts, such as water cycle or food chains. - Identification of main causes of water pollution, such as sewage, agricultural contamination, oil pollution, radioactive substances and domestic dumping. - Brief introduction to some huge natural disasters, such as Prestige. - Interpretation of main effects of water pollution, such as death of aquatic animals, disruption of food chains, diseases and economic cost. SOCIAL & CULTURAL VALUES/ PERSONAL & EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT - Respect water conditions for a better environment. - Identify water as an essential resource for the majority of organisms. - Recognize those detrimental actions that cause water to be polluted. - Encourage other people to behave better when talking about water treatment. MAIN TARGET SKILLS - Negotiate meanings with classmates and the teacher. - Translation ability: transforming language in both L1 and L2 to understand the main ideas. - Keep a glossary updated until the end of the Unit. - Understand English input in any support (oral, written, audiovisual). - Reflect about their behaviour regarding water treatment and use. - Identify and explain the causes and effects from water pollution. - Apply their knowledge to think about actions that could help improving water conditions.
  7. 7. 7 Key competences Communication in the mother language Even though we are doing this project in the English class and, therefore, in English; there will be moments where students may not be able to express themselves in this language, perhaps because they don’t have the vocabulary or maybe they don’t feel comfortable enough, mostly when working in small groups. Communication in foreign languages This Unit is prepared to be done in an English class, which means that has been developed to be done in English. Even though students will feel more comfortable using their L1 as the language of communication, I have chosen some useful tips to enhance interaction in English. Therefore, English will become the main language in the whole Unit, both as input (readings and listening) and output (interaction, speaking and writing). Mathematical competences and basic competences in science and technology Analyzing the causes and the effects of some of our actions, we’ll let students create hypothesis and give reasons for them. Thus, they will be working with the scientific method. Digital competence The digital competence will not be the main part of this project. Even though we use digital resources during most of our project, children will not be able to use it as a tool for the preparation of the final product. Learning to learn This project has been designed so that they feel like they are working on a project, not on a normal unit from a book. Thus, they will enjoy the experience without feeling any kind of pressure. The learning process will be related to something they need to do, which is meaningful and contextualized. The glossary will also be a key point to control their learning process, as they will notice how they progress during the lesson. Social and civic competences Pollution is a major problem in our society these days. The rate at which pollution is increasing is making diseases more and more common. Knowing how to prevent pollution will help them being more responsible and sensible towards the world they are living in. Sense of initiative and entrepreneurship Students are the ones who have to help a real social problem: water pollution. That gives them a lot of responsibility, which is also a source of motivation since they are becoming the “saviors”. Source: Recommendation of the European Parliament and of the Council, of 18 December 2006, on key competences for lifelong learning [Official Journal L 394 of 30.12.2006].
  8. 8. 8 Assessment SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT - TASK(S): - Participation and class attendance - Student’s book activities - Mural - Final letter SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT - ASSESSMENT CRITERIA and TOOLS - Participation, assessed through observation: showing willingness to take an active part in classroom activities. 15% - Respect, assessed through observation: showing respect for other groups, showing respect for the members of their own group, showing respect towards physical materials in class and ICT materials. 10% - Student’s book, assessed by CORRECTION: 20% - Mural: assessed through observation and correction. 10% - Final letter: assessed through correction. 35% - Self assessment: final evaluation. 10%
  9. 9. 9 Language use Pragmatic strategies DISCOURSE GENRE or TEXT TYPE TO UNDERSTAND - Piece of News - Subtitled videos - Videos without subtitles - Descriptive texts - Discussion tips TO GENERATE - Pieces of advice - Cause and effect sentences - Summaries from pieces of text - Examples of causes or effects - Personal experience TO NEGOTIATE - Meanings with classmates - Discuss the best option with classmates HIGH FREQUENCY LEXICAL ITEMS AND PHRASES - DOMAIN or TOPIC SPECIFIC - Water pollution, air pollution and land pollution. - Water and its forms: ocean, sea, river, lake, rain, clouds… - Cause, reason, sewage, cultural contamination, (toxic / solid / radioactive) waste, domestic dumping, rubbish, trash, rubbish, refuse, garbage, sewage, residual water - Consequences, effects, disruption, food chains, death of animals and plants, destruction, economic cost. - Responsibility, damage, harm. - GENERAL ACADEMIC - I/We think that… - I (don’t) agree … - Why..? / Because…. - We chose…. - We decided… - It is important (not) to… - This happened because of…. - I haven’t heard you. Can you repeat it? - How do you say […] in English? - I (don’t) agree with you (because)… - It’s my/your turn. - Can you stop talking?
  10. 10. 10 Planning template SESSION ACTIVITY TIMING ORGANISATION MATERIAL ADAPT. SKILLS 1 Start the project 1.1 Presentation of the project 10’ Letter + leaflet 1.2 Organisation of the project 10’ Prezi 1.3 Course materials: glossary and dossier 10 WS 1.4 First reading of the letter 10’ 2 Pollution problems 2.1 Revision of the piece of news 10’ + Piece of news + 2.2 Analysing the piece of news 15’ WS + + 3 What is pollution (½ group ) 3.2 Running Dictation 15’ Run. dict. materials + + 3.3 Meaningful text 10’ (small group) + 3.4 Sharing ideas 10’ (whole class) + 4 Different types of pollution 4.1 Cycle of water 10’ Mural 4.2 Correcting mistakes 20’ + WS, DT, thinglink 4.3 The box 5 Cause and effect 5.1 Video presentation 15’ + 5.2 Let’s play! 10’ COMPUTERS 6 Final product 6.1 Group work - decisions 5’ Glossary + letter 6.2 Group work - draft 15’ - 6.3 Group work - solutions 30’ - 6.4 Assessment 5 WS Legend: | PEER COMMUNICATION | TEACHER-CLASS COMUNICATION | STUDENTS TALKING | | LISTENING | SPEAKING / INTERACTION | LISTENING | WRITING | HAVING FUN!| |WS Worksheet| DT Dictionaries|
  11. 11. 11 Session by session Lesson 1: Starting the Project 1.1 Presentation of the project: the letter This project is introduced by a letter1, telling us that the Generalitat has passed our petition of working on an invented project, called Project 1x100. This project is very simple: the Generalitat chooses a relevant social problem and asks a few schools from that zone to solve it. This project is supposed to be done in collaboration with UNESCO, which means that the final product is going to be done in the English Language. This is the perfect excuse to do it in the English class! HOW TO DO IT If you want to, you can tell the Director of your centre to come and explain the project. That is a lot of work to do, and he or she may not be able or willing to do it. It doesn’t matter, you can do it on your own and just tell them that the director is teaching in another class and has not been able to come to the class, but you have all the information to explain them. You can use a PowerPoint Presentation, available in Another strong point from this project is reading a letter from la Generalitat2, written in Catalan, which makes it easier to be read. If you have a student that doesn’t often take part in the class, you can make them participate in this moment. 1.2 Organising the project Once you know what the project is about tell them the structure you are going to follow. It is important to explain the objectives and the path to reach them. Use the prezi to do that. The prezi analyses the way we proceed in order to solve the problem. Use this website to present it remotely from every computer or device that is provided with internet connection: 1 Annex: Extra materials for the teacher. 2 Annex: Letter from la Generalitat http://prezi.com/gfbta2oqvfgb/?utm_campaign=share&utm_medium=copy https://www.dropbox.com/s/lt63v91pq80gvl3/Projete%201x100.pdf?dl=0
  12. 12. 12 In case there is a failure with the Internet connection, you’ll find the slides as printed images in the Annex ready for printing. These are the screen captures from every slide and the conversation that you can maintain with your pupils. Okay, so the problem they chose is a piece of news, and this is the title. A Chemical spilt in el Riu Llobregat… what do you think it is? Is something bad or good? Look at the colour of the water... What do you think the problem is? CONTAMINATION! So, we have a problem! And we have to follow some steps to give a solution to this problem! First, we are going to analyse it. What happens? What is wrong? What is pollution exactly? All the pollution is the same? Do we have different types of pollution? Then, we are going to see the REASON why it is a problem. It is bad for somebody? For who? For the nature? For the animals? For the plants? For the humans?
  13. 13. 13 1.3 Course materials: glossary and dossier We have to make sure that even though this is not a Unit from the book (which is they are used to do), this work is also going to be assessed. Participation is going to play an important part in the project, since the main objective of it is to make them active citizens. 1.4 First reading of the piece of news You give the students the piece of news. Tell them the most important details of the piece of news. You can ask for volunteers to read and to interpret the text. Asking for voluntary work is a good way to start if you don’t know them enough, because they don’t feel pressured. Lesson 2: Pollution problems In this session, students are going to read and analyse a piece of news talking about a river located not far from the school. The piece of news has been adapted from different versions, so as to make it simpler for the kids. We need to know where the problem comes from; we are going to look at the origin of the problem. Who did it? And why? And finally, when we have discovered all these things... we are going to propose solutions to the problem! And these solutions will be very important because.... …we will have to write a letter to your mayor, Dolors Conde, giving different solutions to the problem. Are you ready to start this Unit?
  14. 14. 14 2.1 Piece of news For this task, you might ask for a volunteer to read it aloud. You can split the text and make them read one or two sentences each. The words that appear on the Dictionary can be adapted, so you can include more words for those students who you think will not understand the text if they’re not given more clues. Remember to remind them about the glossary! Most of the key words in the Unit appear in this text! 2.2 Analysing the piece of news After having read the piece of news, we are going to analyse it. We have different types of questions, all related to the piece of text we have just read. To analyse a piece of news, we always ask the same questions: WHO, WHAT, WHEN, HOW, WHY and WHERE. 1. Analyse the piece of news and try to answer all these questions. Give short answers, look at the example. The WHO question will appear as an answer, so that they can follow the example. All the answers appear more or less explicitly in the text, except for the last one, why. This is a HOT (High Order Thinking) question, which has to be explained. You can use a drawing in the blackboard or find a picture in the Internet that is useful as well. Explain them the situation, here you have an example. WHAT? Polluted the river WHO? A factory WHY? WHERE? In el riu Llobregat HOW? Throwing chemicals WHEN? On the 25th of February
  15. 15. 15 Now, they have the answer to the WHY question: Because it’s very cheap. The second exercise is an A, B or C question, with only one right answer. You can correct it in the traditional way or you can use an App called Hot Potatoes, which is good because you can use the digital board and you can provide them with feedback for each answer, either it’s the good one or one of the wrong ones. 1. The money from the factory will be used for... a) paying the water of the affected families. b) paying the costs of the water cleaning process. c) giving money to some families. 2) Why is the woman scared? a) Because she hasn’t got water. b) Because she doesn’t know if the water is good or not. c) Because she hasn’t got anything to drink or to cook. Imagine this situation. You have a factory, and you are treating metal. You use a lot of chemicals (remember what chemicals are?), you use a lot of chemicals and you have a lot of waste products [draw some waste barrels]. How do you throw them? You can do 2 things. 1) The first one is to buy a lorry and hire a driver. You carry all the waste materials and you take them to the treatment plant. BUT, you have to pay the lorry, the petrol (you can translate GASOIL as petrol is a “false friend”, and the salary of this poor person. It’s very expensive. 2) The second option is to have a river next to your factory. You just have to build a channel from your factory to the river and throw everything there. You don’t have to pay anything to do that and you don’t spend a lot of money. It’s very cheap!
  16. 16. 16 Lesson 3: What is pollution? 3.1 Brainstorming This is a quick activity just to verify the previous knowledge of the kids. It’s a talkative part of the session and it’s just a war-up activity. The questions appear in their Student’s book and are the following ones. These lessons are going to be in the afternoon, so I will present this activity as a game. The class is going to be done with half of the group, so I will have more or less 13 students. The students are going to be separated in 3 groups. One group is going to be WATER pollution (blue group), another group is going to be AIR pollution (orange group) and another one is going to be LAND pollution (red group). They are going to sit separately in the class. Create some poster boards with the information you want them to know. In this case, the information is divided into 3 main categories:  Definition  Causes  Interesting facts Each cardboard contains some information about their own type of pollution. There can be one or more sentences in each cardboard, but we have 8 sentences overall for each group. Useful information before doing the activity - All groups have 8 sentences, so there is no need to complain about one group being harder than another, because they are not. - It is advisable to start from the beginning, because the worksheet doesn’t get that messy and dirty. First definition, then the causes and finally the interesting facts - Readers: one at a time. Only one person in the group can be stood up and reading, so the other can only help from the table. - Writers: they can be helped by the teammates that are not reading at that moment, and they also take turns to do this role. - It is important for the ones in the table to know and remember the sentences that have already been read. When they get up and see the paper, they will have to know which sentences are already written in the worksheet and which are left. - Do you know what pollution is? - Are there different types of pollution? - Which ones do you know?
  17. 17. 17 3.3 Running dictation - Meaningful text When they all have finished, they have to read the sentences again, understand them and put them in order so that the text is meaningful. They make sure they understand all the vocabulary appearing in the pieces of text and they organise the text with a template so that they all know how to present their information. 3.4 Running dictation - Sharing ideas! The running dictations are activities that are hard to design and control, because you can’t make them work faster, which means that you depend on their rhythm of work. If there is spare time in the session, you can make them explain their type of pollution to the classmates. Lesson 4: Different types of pollution Linking the last session In this lesson, we are going to understand the previous activity, done in lesson 3. Start asking somebody about the running dictation and what they did during that time. The important part is to make them reflect on the reasons why they talked about land and air pollution if our problem is only concerning water from a river. They are not likely to find out these reasons, but in case they do it, just step on Activity 4 (in my case, neither of the students came up with the correct answer). To help them figure out the gist of the Running dictation, let them think (in pairs or groups) about possible locations of natural water, such as water sources or places with retained water. This is the first exercise on the worksheet. 4.2 Cycle of water They may find a lot of words, but I have created 9 categories that can include most of the words, you can find it here: Let them share what they have found and talk about it in class. When nearly all possibilities have been said, ask them a question like this: - If I am a tear of water in the ocean... do I remain in the ocean forever? Do I move? If I am in a cloud now, does it mean that I will always be here? Either they answer yes or no to the question, ask them WHY. You’ll get answers like “because you move”, “because the water moves” or sentences similar to these ones. So, once you have them, you can start working on the water cycle. https://www.thinglink.com/scene/645029407076909057
  18. 18. 18 Revise the cycle of water briefly, since this is 3rd level content and should be already interiorised. You can simulate you are a tear and you move around the earth so to make them put the parts of the cycle in order. Make clear that you are like a sponge and you absorb what is around you, which means that if AIR is polluted, you (tear) will get polluted too, the same way that happens with land pollution problems. So, the key point of this exercise is to make them see that all types of pollution are related. 4.3 Correcting mistakes After that, they have an exercise to show if they comprehended the exercise before. In this activity, they have to demonstrate that they know what the real problem of water pollution is. The exercise looks like this: The student is obviously wrong, because in fact, the air has vapour, which is gas water. This vapour gets polluted by the smoke of the car and after, these clouds become rain. The rain drains and pours in the land, taking with it all the chemicals and substances that are on the soil. The aim of this task is that students see that contamination is such a big problem because it spreads easily. 4.4 The box! This is a very interesting part. Put a box in the classroom so that students can leave solutions inside the box. They can use draft paper, as long as the solution is clearly readable. They have to write a sentence of an action that would help people reduce the pollutants that we have in the water. The minimum is one solution per person, but they can leave as much as they want. This box will be collected at the end of the 5th lesson, since the solutions will have to be used in the 6th session Lesson 5: Cause and effect This lesson will be devoted to talk about causes and effects of water pollution. To do so, we are going to use computers or tablets (if we have them). The organisation of the class will
  19. 19. 19 depend on the technological resources of the school. In my case, I could do this activity in pairs because we had 15 available laptops. Before starting the class, we should introduce the concept of cause and effect. It might not be necessary, like in my case, but it would be a good idea to work on the idea that we have a main action that takes place, and this happened because something had happened BEFORE this action (causes), and it has a consequence on something or somebody (effects) AFTER. 5.1 Video presentation This video is thought to be a game. As the video goes by, some images with titles appear, such as “sewage”, “agricultural contamination” or “diseases”. As soon as two buttons appear (one with “CAUSE” and one with “EFFECT”), students have to pause the video and discuss with the partner(s) which option is the correct one. After that, play the video again to see which button remains and which disappears, as well as the reasons why each option belongs to the causes or to the effects. You can find the video here: 5.2 Let’s play! One the kids have finished with this exercise, they are able to think of more solutions for the box, which will be collected at the end of the session or at the afternoon after school. If they have already participated with solutions for the box, they are able to put the knowledge in practice with a couple of games that can help them master the content of today’s lesson. This is also a game to reward those pupils who have worked and are up to date. Note: At the end of this session and before the 6th one, the teacher has to bring the box home and revise all the solutions. Make a list out of what your pupils have said and make it attractive for them. The one I created is in the Annex part. Lesson 6: Solutions Discussion 6.1 Group discussion To do this exercise, you need to have the worksheet with the solutions. Create heterogeneous groups of 3 people and give each group one of these worksheets and draft paper. Before staring the activity, assign roles to each member. You need to have in each group: - The writer, who writes the letter. - The voice controller, who warns his teammates if they are speaking or discussing too loud. - The spokesperson, who asks any question and communicates the results. http://www.powtoon.com/show/e7Lq8qxczxA/water-pollution-cause-and-effect/#/
  20. 20. 20 After having given all the children clear instructions on their task, give out the page 7 of the Worksheet (remember this is just an example, you have to create one depending on your students’ solutions). From the list they have, they have to suggest three different solutions, depending on the people that have to do those actions. One solution has to be oriented to help students in a school, another one will be applied at home and the last one to be done by the people in general, such as citizens from Castellbisbal. 6.2 Group draft Show them the final letter and how it looks like (page 8 WB), so that they can start the draft version. In this part, the roles start to work. It is important to ensure that they understand the role in order to make their group work properly. Try not to help them with vocabulary, only if it is really necessary. This was the point of the glossary, having the words on a piece of paper to be faster than looking up words on the dictionary. 6.3 Final version Once they’ve finished the letter, they write it on the 8th page of their WB, also in groups. To make it more realistic, you ask them to sign the letter and not writing their names on it, because you will still know whose is that letter only recognising the calligraphy or any of the signatures. It would be perfect if you could give them some envelops from the school (with the logo). Students feel very engaged when they know that the letters are not only for you but also for some authorities. 6.4 Peer evaluation Now, it’s their turn to talk about their teammates. They have to fill in the grid on the page 9 of the WB. First of all, they have to put the name of the group member that was in charge of that part. Then, read the sentences and mark how true they are. If a member makes that action very often, or always, give them a 4. If it never happens, give them 1. At the end, give each teammate a final mark from 1 to 10. Be careful! Self-evaluation is also happening here! If a student is the writer (for example) of his group, he has to write her name after “The writer is...” and assesses himself as he has done with the other classmates. Students have an “observation” part, where they can write any comments they have for that person.
  21. 21. 21 Annexes Creative commons license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/es/
  22. 22. 22 Assessment grid Goal indicators 4 3 2 1 Letter content Chooses 3 options and gives logical reasons for the choice Chooses 3 solutions but is not able to explain one of them Chooses 3 solutions but is not able to explain two of them Chooses 3 solutions but is not able to explain any of them Letter presentation The letter has an understandable handwriting and no crossing outs or white- out The letter has a considerable amount of white-out but it is still readable The handwriting is not readable and it has too many crossing outs Participation Has handed out the assessment grid and has put solutions in the box. Moreover, he volunteers in the class to answer the questions Has either a) not given the assessment grid back or b) hasn’t put any solution in the box BUT volunteers in class to answer Has either a) not given the assessment grid back or b) hasn’t put any solution in the box and he/she doesn’t volunteer in class to answer Has - Not given the grid back - Not suggested any solution - Not volunteered in any class activity Teammates Their teammates value them as good members who have performed a good role. (10-8) Teammates are happy but think they could have performed better in some occasions(8-6) Their teammates are not very happy to have worked with them because they did the minimum to pass (5) Teammates are so disappointed and don’t want to work with hem/her anymore (<5) Recognising They know what the “W words” mean and they found the answers with no problems They know what the “W words” mean but were not able to identify the answers They know what the “W words” mean but have difficulties to understand the type of answer they need. (What - actions, WHO - people)... They don’t understand W- words and so they don’t know how to find the answers. Cause-effect He has no difficulties to guess causes and effects of water pollution He understands cause and effect but has some problems to identify the ones related to water pollution He understands CAUSE and EFFECT but has difficulties to apply it to reality He doesn’t understand the concepts CAUSE and EFFECT
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