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Writing a conceptual framework

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Writing a conceptual framework

  1. 1. Writing a Conceptual Framework SOC401 Research Methodologies
  2. 2. What is a conceptual Framework <ul><li>Part I </li></ul>
  3. 3. Conceptual framework It is the researcher ’ s own position on the problem and gives direction to the study. It may be an adaptation of a model used in a previous study, with modifications to suit the inquiry. Aside from showing the direction of the study, through the conceptual framework, the researcher can be able to show the relationships of the different constructs that he wants to investigate.
  4. 4. Conceptual Framework. News values, and the pressures and constraints shape the newspapers and television newscasts. The result of this relationship is selective reporting of events. Conceptual Framework
  5. 5. Operational Framework. Foreign news sections of Philippine newspapers and foreign news segments of television newscasts are shaped by the interests of owners, editorial policies, audience and advertisements. The criteria for selection of foreign news, the news values, also affect the foreign news coverage. These factors result in unequal treatment of stories and paved way for the dominance of some topics and of some regions in foreign news coverage of media.
  6. 6. <ul><li>Based on the foregoing example, how should the conceptual framework formulated? </li></ul><ul><li>cite your conceptual framework or paradigm; </li></ul><ul><li>Identify your variables; </li></ul><ul><li>Point out the dependent and intervening variables; </li></ul><ul><li>Show the direction of the study. </li></ul>Once the conceptual framework has been determined, the next for the researcher is to determine what research methods to employ to best answer the research problem through the proposed framework.
  7. 7. Research design depends on the nature of the data to analyzed. Quantitative data – when your thesis problem requires numerical measurements of traits, trends, characteristics or attributes of the subject matter; <ul><li>Analysis leads researcher to: </li></ul><ul><li>depict what is typical and atypical among the data; </li></ul><ul><li>show the degree of difference or relationship between two or more variables; </li></ul><ul><li>determine the likelihood that the findings are real for the population as opposed to having occurred only by chance in the sample. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Qualitative data – when your thesis problem focuses on the meanings, perceptions, symbols or description of the subject matter. <ul><li>Analysis leads researcher to: </li></ul><ul><li>observe behaviors, situations, interactions and environments; </li></ul><ul><li>scrutinize these observations for patterns and categories; </li></ul><ul><li>answer research questions based on what can be deduced from the findings. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Break!!!!!!!! (take 5)
  10. 11. Theories <ul><li>Part II </li></ul>
  11. 12. Forms of Theories <ul><li>Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interrelated set of constructs formed into propositions that specify the relationships among variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes how and why variables are related </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forms include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set of hypotheses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Series of if-then statements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual model </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. The Deductive Approach Used in Quantitative Research Researcher measures or observes variables using an instrument to obtain scores Researcher defines and operationalizes variables derived from the theory Researcher tests hypotheses or research questions from the theory Researcher tests or verifies a theory
  13. 14. Placing Theory in a Quantitative Study Placement Advantages Disadvantages In the introduction Common approach; familiar to readers; conveys a deductive approach Difficult for a reader to isolate theory base from other components of the research process In the literature review Including theories in a literature review is a logical extension or part of the literature Difficult for a reader to see the theory in isolation from the larger literature After hypotheses or research questions The theory discussion explains how and why variables are related May leave out an extended discussion about the origin and use of the theory In a separate section Clearly separates the theory from other components of the research process, enables a reader to better identify and to understand the theory base The theory discussion is isolated and may not easily connect with other components of the research process
  14. 15. Theory Use in Qualitative Research <ul><li>Theory may be used as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A broad explanation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A theoretical lens or perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feminist perspective </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Racialized discourse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Critical theory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Queer theory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disability inquiry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An endpoint, a theory that is generated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Researcher may also choose not to employ theory in a qualitative study </li></ul>
  15. 16. The Inductive Logic of Research in a Qualitative Study Researcher asks open-ended questions of participants or records fieldnotes Researcher analyzes data to form themes or categories Researcher looks for broad patterns, generalizations, or theories from themes or categories Researcher poses generalizations, or theories, and compares to past experiences and literature Researcher gathers information
  16. 17. Use of Theory in Mixed Methods <ul><li>Mixed methods studies may: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Include theory deductively (theory testing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include theory inductively (an emerging pattern) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a theoretical lens or perspective to guide the study </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Break!!!!!!!! (take 10)
  18. 19. Research Questions and Hypothesis <ul><li>Part III </li></ul>
  19. 20. Qualitative Research Questions <ul><li>Qualitative researchers pose research questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not hypotheses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two types of qualitative research questions to focus a study's purpose: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central question </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>broad question that asks for exploration of the central phenomenon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subquestions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Questions that narrow the focus of the study </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Writing Qualitative Research Questions <ul><li>Ask 1-2 central questions and no more than 5-7 subquestions </li></ul><ul><li>These questions should: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relate the central question to the strategy of inquiry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Begin with &quot;what&quot; or &quot;how&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on a single phenomenon or concept </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use exploratory verbs like discover or describe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid directional words such as &quot;affect&quot; or &quot;impact&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolve during the study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be open-ended without reference to the literature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specify the participants and research site (unless stated previously) </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. A Script for Writing a Qualitative Central Question <ul><li>(How or What) is the ( “story for” for narrative research; “meaning of” the phenomenon for phenomenology; “theory that explains the process of ” for grounded theory; “culture-sharing pattern” for ethnography; “issue” in the “case” for case study) of (central phenomenon) for (participants) at (research site) . </li></ul>
  22. 23. Quantitative Research Questions and Hypotheses <ul><li>Quantitative researchers pose research questions or hypotheses to focus the study's purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative research questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Questions about the relationships among variables that the investigator seeks to know </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quantitative hypotheses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predictions that the researcher makes about the expected relationships among variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predictions about the population values that the researcher will estimate based on data from a sample </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quantitative objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indicate a study's goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used frequently in proposals for funding </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Writing Quantitative Research Questions and Hypotheses <ul><li>Write questions or hypotheses, not both </li></ul><ul><li>Consider 3 approaches to the variables for a question or hypothesis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relate variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe responses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Specify questions and hypotheses based on theory if possible </li></ul><ul><li>Measure the independent and dependent variables separately </li></ul><ul><li>Generally use demographic information as intervening variables </li></ul><ul><li>Use consistent words and ordering for independent and dependent variables </li></ul>
  24. 25. Scripts for Writing Quantitative Research Questions and Hypotheses <ul><li>Does ( name the theory ) explain the relationship between (independent variable) and (dependent variable) , controlling for the effects of (control variable) ? </li></ul><ul><li>There is no significant difference between (the control and experimental groups on the independent variable) on (dependent variable) . </li></ul>
  25. 26. Forms for Writing Quantitative Research Questions and Hypotheses <ul><li>If writing hypotheses, use a consistent form: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Null hypotheses (predict no difference or no relationship) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directional hypotheses (predict direction of difference or relationship) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nondirectional hypotheses (predict a difference or relationship, but not its direction) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If writing research questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First, specify descriptive questions for each important variable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Next, state inferential questions that relate variables or compare groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finally, add questions in which variables are controlled </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. Mixed Methods Research Questions and Hypotheses <ul><li>Advance both qualitative and quantitative research questions (or hypotheses) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use guidelines for writing good qualitative and quantitative questions and hypotheses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Order questions to match the mixed methods design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In a two-phase design, order to match the phases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In a one-phase design, order according to the method given the most weight </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Include a mixed methods research question that </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directly addresses the mixing of the two strands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is written to convey the procedures or the content of the study </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. Different Ways to Write Questions and Hypotheses into a Mixed Methods Study <ul><li>Write separate qualitative questions and quantitative questions or hypotheses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At the beginning or as they emerge in phases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This places emphasis on the two approaches </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Write separate questions or hypotheses followed by a mixed methods question: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This highlights the two approaches as well as their combined strength </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Write only a mixed methods question: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This emphasizes the integration and not the individual parts </li></ul></ul>

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