4. Measurement, Description and Comparison of
the health of the community.
Identification of health needs & prioritizing
Planning & allocation of health resources.
Measurement of health successes.
5. Mortality indicators Indicators of social and
Morbidity indicators Environmental indicators
Disability rates Socio-economic indicators
Nutritional indicators Health policy indicators
Health care delivery
Indicators of quality of life
Utilization rates Other indicators
6. Crude Death Rate
Expectation Of Life
Age Specific Death Rate
Infant Mortality Rate
Child Mortality Rate
Under 5 Proportionate Mortality Rate
Adult Mortality Rate
Maternal Mortality Rate
Disease Specific Mortality Rate
Proportional Mortality Rate
Case Fatality Rate
Years Of Potential Life Lost
7. Number of deaths per 1000 population per
year in a given community.
Fair indicator of health.
↓ death rate – assesses health improvement
in a community the overall.
8. Life expectancy at birth : the average number
of years that will be lived by those born alive
into a population if the current age-specific
mortality rates persist.
◦ Male 63.8
◦ female 67.3
10. 58 60 66.2 67.2 74 69
Charts.aspx , accessed on June 2nd
11. The ratio of deaths of children under 1 year
of age in a given year to the total number of
live births, in the same year.
Usually expressed as rate per 1000 live
Sensitive indicator of availability,
utilisation and effectiveness of
health care, particularly
15. Improved obstetric and perinatal care
(availabity of oxygen, foetal monitoring
Improvement in quality of life(social and
Better control of communicable
Better nutrition(emphasis on
Family planning(birth spacing)
16. Number of deaths at age of 1-4 years in a
given year, per 1000 children in that age
group at the mid-point of the year.
Correlates with inadequate MCH services, low
coverage by immunisation & adverse
17. The proportion of total deaths occurring in
the under-5 age group.
Reflects both infant and child mortality.
In India, 59/1000
In China, 18/1000
18. Number of maternal deaths in a given period
per 100,00 women of reproductive age
during the same time period.
Accounts for the greatest proportion of
deaths among women of
reproductive age in most
22. Estimates the burden of a disease in a
Example, Coronary heart disease – 25 to 35%
of all deaths in western countries.
Other Mortality indicators are case fatality
rate and Years Of Potential Life Lost(YPLL).
23. Extrication of communicable diseases
Other indicators emerged, like in deaths from
cancers, cardiovascular diseases, accidents,
24. Incomplete reporting of deaths
Lack of accuracy (recording age and cause of
Lack of uniformity and standardised method
of data collection.
25. Any departure, subjective or objective, from a state
of physiological well being.
Used to supplement
mortality data to describe
the health status of a
26. Following morbidity rates are used:
◦ Incidence and prevalence
◦ Notification rates
◦ Attendance rate at the O/P dept.
◦ Admission, readmission & discharge dates
◦ Duration of stay in hospital
◦ Spells of sickness/absence from work/school.
27. Disability is defined as “any restriction or lack
of ability to perform an activity in a manner
or within the range considered normal for a
(1)Event type indicators
(2)Person type indicators
29. Based on life expectancy at birth and includes
an adjustment for time spent in poor health.
It is the equivalent number of years in full
health a new born can expect to live based on
current rates of ill health and mortality.
30. Used for assessing value for money of
Values : perfect health = 1.0
death = 0.0
Therefore, 1 QALY=1 year of life x 1 unity
31. Measure of overall disease burden, expressed
in number of years lost due to ill health or
Daly combines: Years of Lost Life (YLL) and
Years Lost to Disability (YDL)
DALY= YLL + YLD
33. 3 Nutritional Status indicators considered
◦ Prevalence of low birth weight (2.5 kg)
◦ Height and weight of children at school entry
◦ Anthropometric Measurement of preschool children
34. Reflects the equity of distribution of health
resources in different parts of the country, and of
provision of health care.
Frequently used indicators:
◦ Doctor-population ratio
◦ Doctor-nurse ratio
◦ Population-bed ratio
◦ Population per health/sub centre
◦ Population per traditional birth attendant