2. Internal Environmental Scanning
The process of looking at the internal factors so as to
assess the critical strengths and weaknesses that are likely
to determine if the firm will be strong enough to take
advantage of opportunities while avoiding threats
METHODS OF INTERNAL SCAN
The methods are as follows:
• Resources/Capabilities Analysis
• The Value Chain Analysis
• The McKinsey 7S Framework
Resource Based Approach to Internal
A resource is an asset, competency, process,
skill, or knowledge controlled by the
corporation” (Wheelen & Hunger, 2008,).
It (resource) is a strength if it provides the firm
with a competitive advantage.
It becomes a weakness if the firm does not
possess the resource that other competitors do
possess, or is necessary for survival in the
5. Types of Resources
Financial; borrowing capacity, internal funds generation
Physical;- plant and equipment, location, technology, raw
Reputation; brand name, loyal customer base, relationship with
Culture;- shared values
Skills and knowledge, Motivation, flexibility and adaptation,
Patents, Copyrights, Technical knowhow etc
RESOURCE CHARACTERISTICS INDICATORS
Financial Borrowing Capacity Debt/Equity
Resources Internal Funds / Credit Rating
Generation Net Cash Flow
Physical Plant And Equipment : Market Value Of
Resources Size, Location, Fixed Assets
Technology, Flexibility Scale Of Plants
Land And Buildings Alternatives For
Raw Materials Fixed Assets
Human Training, Experience, Employee
Resources Adaptability, Qualifications, pay
Commitment And Rates, Turnover
Loyalty Of Employees
Technological Patents, Copyrights, No. Of Patents
Resources Know How, Owned
R & D Facilities Royalty Income
Technical And Scientific R & D Expenditure
Employees R & D Staff
Reputation Brands. Stability Of Brand Equity
Customer Base Product Price
Reputation With Premium
7. Resources: Capabilities & Competencies
Capabilities: refer to an org`s ability to exploit its resources
through organizational processes & routines to turn inputs
Competency: is cross functional integration & coordination of
capabilities e.g. a competency in NPD in a division may be
as a result of integrating HR, marketing, R&D & production
capabilities in that division.
Core Competence: Collection of capabilities that cross
divisional boundaries and is something the corporation does
Distinctive Competencies: core competencies that are
unique and superior to those of competition.
•E.g. 3M and Econet are known for their distinctive
competence in innovation.
8. Sustainability of a Resource as a
Source of Competitive Advantage
There are four important characteristics:
Durability; the time it takes before the resource becomes
Transparency; the rate at which competitors can learn
the relationship of the resource and its capability in
supporting the company’s successful strategy
Transferability; the rate at which competitors are able to
acquire the resource and capability
Replicability; the ability of competitors to duplicate the
resource and capability of the company so as to imitate its
SUSTAINABILITY OF A
Christopher B Bingham, Kathelene M Eisenhardt &
Nathan R Furr (2011.p72) say the most strategically
important resources are:
• Valuable – useful in your industry.
• Rare – possessed by only a few.
• Inimitable – difficult to copy.
• Non-substitutable- no alternative resources
providing identical value
• – lacking in functional equivalents
10. Resource Based-ViewResource Based-View
1. Analyze cost, revenue or
2. Benchmark against
3. Determine competitve
1. The resources or
resource bundle can not
be substituted by other
1. The resource bundle is
heterogene from other
2. Heterogenity cannot be
rebuild in the short to
medium time frame
1. The resource or the
resource bundle is not
2. Competitors can not
buy the resources
3. Direct competitors do
not deploy identical
12. Analysing if the Company’s Costs
This involves assessing whether a company’s prices
and costs are competitive with those of its close rivals.
Involves the use of the Value Chain Analysis.
13. The Value Chain Concept
A company’s value chain identifies the primary
activities that create value for customers and the
related support activities.
Acts as a tool for thinking strategically about
relationships among the activities performed by the
organisation looking at which activities are
strategically critical and how core competences can
14. Basis Behind the Value Chain
Each activity in the value chain incurs costs and ties
The costs incurred in performing each activity can be
broken down into primary costs and activities and
secondary costs and activities.
15. Value Chain AnalysisValue Chain Analysis
Human Resource ManagementHuman Resource Management
Technology DevelopmentTechnology Development
Primary ActivitiesPrimary Activities
17. Primary and Secondary Activities
Primary Activities;- activities that are at the core of the company’s
operations in producing the product or service such as;
Inbound logistics (raw material handling, warehousing, order
Operations (machining, assembling, packaging testing)
Outbound logistics (warehousing, distribution, shipping)
Sales and marketing (advertising, promotions, pricing, market
Service (installation, repair services, technical assistance)
Secondary Activities ;- facilitate the smooth running of the primary
activities and include;
Research and development (product and process improvements)
Human resources management (selection, recruitment, training etc)
General administration (accounting, financing, general management)
Information technology(support services)
Firm infrastructure (Land, buildings)
•Location of distribution facilities to minimise shipping times.
•Excellent material and inventory control systems.
•Systems to reduce time to send “returns” to suppliers.
•Warehouse layout and designs to increase efficiency of operations for incoming materials.
•Efficient plant operations to minimise costs.
•Appropriate level of automation in manufacturing.
•Quality production control systems to reduce costs and enhance quality.
•Efficient plant layout and workflow design.
•Effective shipping process to provide quick delivery and minimise damages.
•Efficient finished goods warehousing process.
•Shipping of goods in large lot sizes to minimise transportations costs.
•Quality material handling equipment to increase order picking.
Marketing and Sales:
•Highly motivated and competent sales force.
•Innovative approaches to promotion and advertising.
•Selection of most appropriate distribution channels.
•Proper identification of customer segments.
•Effective pricing strategies.
•Effective use of procedures to solicit customer feedback and to act on information.
•Quick response to customer needs and emergencies.
•Ability to furnish replacement parts as required.
•Effective management of parts and equipment inventory.
•Quality of service and personnel and ongoing training.
•Appropriate warranty and guarantee policies.
The Value Chain – Factors To Consider In Assessing Primary Activities
•Effective planning systems to attain overall goals and objectives.
•Ability of top management to anticipate and act on key environmental trends and events.
•Ability to obtain low cost funds for capital expenditures and working capital.
•Excellent relationships with diverse stakeholder groups.
•Ability to coordinate and integrate activities across the “value system”.
•Highly visible to inculcate organisational culture, reputation and values.
Human Resource Management:
•Effective recruiting, development and retention mechanisms for employees.
•Quality relations with trade unions.
•Quality work environment to maximise overall employee performance and minimise absenteeism.
•Reward and incentive programmes to motivate all employees.
•Effective research and development activities for process and product initiatives.
•Positive collaborative relationships between R&D and other departments.
•State-of-the art activities and equipment.
•Culture to enhance creativity and innovation.
•Excellent professional qualifications of personnel.
•Ability to meet critical deadlines.
•Procurement of raw material inputs to optimise quality, and speed and to minimise the associated costs.
•Development of collaborative “win-win” relationships with suppliers.
•Effective procedures to purchase advertising and media services.
•Analysis and selection of alternate sources of inputs to minimise dependence on one supplier.
•Ability to make proper lease versus buy decisions.
The Value Chain – Factors To Consider In Assessing Secondary Activities
21. Assessing the Company’s Present
Involves looking at;-
Whether the company is achieving its stated financial and
Whether the company is an above average industry
Specifically this will involve looking at;-
Whether the organisation’s sales are growing or declining
Whether market share is rising, falling or remaining stable
Whether the company’s profit margins are increasing or
What is the hierarchy of the organisation like?
What are the pros and cons associated with the structure?
Is decision making and controlling centralized or
decentralized? Is this as it should be, given the mandate of the
How are the lines of communication? Open or otherwise
What form of database management systems are in place to
run the organisation? Are they adequate?
What are the internal rules, policies, procedures and controls
used to keep the organisation on track?
Are the systems in place adequate for the needs of the
However it is important to note that too many policies can be
as unproductive as having wrong policies or as chaotic as
having no policies.
23. Shared Values/Culture:
What are the fundamental values, beliefs and traditions that the
organisation is built on?
What is the overriding corporate culture?
What are the strengths and weaknesses of the existing culture?
Is there any code of conduct/ethics that bind the behaviour of
members and how effective is it?
How participative is the management/leadership style?
How effective is that leadership?
Do members tend to be competitive or cooperative within the
How is the relationship among the different units of the
24. Staff/Human resources
What positions need to be filled?
Are there gaps in required competencies?
Is there a succession plan in place?
What training and development programmes are in place?
Are there any skills gaps within the organisation?
How are skills monitored and assessed?
Are there requisite skills development programmes in
WHEN ANALYSING THE 7S , LOOK AT THE
STRENGTH AND WEAKNESSES OF EACH.
25. INTERNAL ANALYSIS FRAMEWORK
Focus Area Issues S/W Possible Actions
Staff and skills
Financial resource analysis
Non-financial resource analysis
A company thus needs to develop its internal
strategic capability by ensuring that its core
competencies fit or maybe used to deal with the
changing environment so as to generate competitive
advantages and distinctive competencies.
Hinweis der Redaktion
Explain the use of the Value chain (cost reduction), look at strengths and weaknesses.
How can you use the Value chain as a differentiation tool?