3. NEED FOR ISOLATION
• Isolation aimed controlling and preventing the
spread of infection
• Isolation precautions are designed to minimize
the transmission of infection in the hospital by
using updated and skilled technology
• Isolation helps to protect patients, family
members, visitors and health care workers
from the spread of infection.
4. MODES/TYPES OF ISOLATION
1. Strict isolation: It is used to prevent the
transmission of all highly communicable
disease that are spread by both contact and
airborne routes of transmission. Eg.
2. Respiratory isolation: Used to prevent
transmission of organisms by means of
droplets that are sneezed or breathed into
5. 3. Protective isolation: Used to prevent contact
between potentially pathogenic micro-
organism and uninfected persons who have
seriously impaired resistance. Eg. Leukemia,
who are on certain therapeutic regimens
6. 4. Enteric isolation: Used to control diseases that
can be transmitted through direct or indirect oral
contact with infected feces or contaminated
articles. Transmission of infection depends on
ingestion of the pathogens. Eg. Dysentry,
5. Wound and skin isolation: Used to prevent
spread of infection found in infected wounds and
contaminated articles. Eg. Herpes, Impetigo and
7. 6. Blood Isolation: Used to prevent acquisition of
infection by patients and personnel from contact
with blood or items contaminated with blood. Eg.
Hep B, HIV
7. Discharge isolation:
a) Secretion precautions lesion: it is used to prevent
acquisition of infection by personnel and patients
from direct contact with wounds and secretion
contaminated articles. Eg Conjunctivitis,
Gonorrhea and Syphilis.
8. b) Secretion precautions oral: Used to prevent
acquisition of infection by personnel from
direct contact with oral secretions. Eg. Herpes,
Areolas and Scarlet fever.
c) Excretion precautions: Used to prevent
acquisition of infection by personnel and
patients from direct contact with fecal
excretions. Eg. Poliomyelitis and
9. STANDARD PRECAUTIONS
Standard precautions are a set of infection
control practices used to prevent the
transmission of diseases that can be acquired
by contact with blood, body fluids, non intact
skin and mucous membranes.
10. These measures should be followed when
providing care to or handling:
• All individuals whether they appear
infectious/symptomatic or not
• All specimen whether they appear infectious
• All needles and sharps whether they appear
infectious or not.
11. Universal precautions was a term used in the
past to refer to the infection control practices
to avoid contact with a patient’s blood and
other potentially infectious materials by
means of wearing nonporous articles such as
PPE kits. Now it is replaced by the word
12. Standard precautions are indicated while
handling all patients, specimen and sharps.
Components of standard precautions include:
• Hand hygiene
• No touch technique
• Use of gloves to avoid contact with blood,
body fluid, secretion etc
• Use of mask, gown, shoes, eye glasses etc.
13. • Sharp handling carefully
• Spoilage cleaning. Eg. Spills of infectious
• Disinfection of linen, equipment used by
patient. They must be sterilized or discarded
between each patient use
• Ensure appropriate biomedical waste
separation and disposal
14. • Patients should be confined to restricted area
• If required nasal carriers must be treated with
16. Transmission based precautions also called
specific precautions are a set of infection
control practices that should be followed over
and above the standard precautions.
Accordingly there are three types of
transmission based precautions:
• Contact precautions
• Droplet precautions
• Airborne precautions
17. CONTACT PRECAUTIONS
Contact precautions should be followed when
there is definitive or suspected evidence of
certain infectious agents that are transmitted
by direct or indirect contact during patient
21. • Equipment: single used equipment must be
used, if not possible then it must be cleaned
and dried before use.
22. • Patient placement: single isolation room with a
bathroom facility is preferred. If not possible
Cohorting may be carried out in various ways.
• Transfer of patients: Patients movement should
be limited only to medically necessary purposes.
• Disinfection of rooms: Patients rooms must be
frequently cleaned and disinfected adequately
focusing on frequently touched surfaces and
equipments in the immediate vicinity of the
27. • Transfer of patients: Transfer of patient must be
avoided unless on certain circumstances and
when transfer the following precautions must be
Patient wears surgical mask
Patient follows respiratory hygiene and cough
HCW transporting the patient should wear
surgical mask, gloves, gown and protective
30. CONTROL MEASURES
• Patient placement: patients should be placed
in airborne infection isolation room ( AIIR). Its
components are: adequate ventilation,
ultraviolet germicidal irradiation and filtration.
• Ventilation: Natural ventilation, mechanical
32. • Filtration : must be done through exhaust fan
or through HEPA ( high efficiency particulate
• In Transfer of patients they must be wear
surgical mask and follow cough and
respiratory hygiene etiquettes. All skin lesion
must be covered. The HCW must wear N95
Respirator and other PPE as indicated.
33. • Visitors and staffs: Entry of visitors and staff
should be restricted or they should wear PPE
before entry into room.