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The Religion of Islam
The Religion of Islam
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  1. 1. ISLAMSubmission to the will of Allah
  2. 2. ISLAM (ORIGINS) Back to its Roots ●Abraham + Hagar = Ishmael ●Mecca ●Ka’bah (cube) The Prophet Muhammad ●Born – Mecca 570 CE ●Abu Talib (uncle) ●Khadijah (wife) ●Angel Gabriel ●Journey to Heaven (619 CE) ●Medina ●Mecca Submits 629 CE ●Died – Medina 632 CE
  3. 3. ISLAM (HISTORY) The Caliphs ●Abu Bakr (1st Caliph) ●Jihads vs. neighbouring empires ●Attack Syria and Iraq ●Died – 634 CE ●Umar (2nd Caliph) ●Captures Damascus and Jerusalem ●Control Iraq and most of Iran ●Uthman ibn Affan (3rd Caliph) ●Umayyad Family ●Spreads into Egypt and North Africa ●Assassinated 659 CE ●Ali ibn Talib (4th Caliph) ●Stabbed 661 CE ●Shi'ites
  5. 5. Timeline of Mohammed's Life 570 - Born in the town of Mecca. His name (Abu al-Qasim Muḥammad ibn Abd Allah ibn Abd al-Muttalib ibn Hashim ibn Abd Manaf ibn Qusai ibn Kilab) derives from the Arabic verb hamada, meaning "to praise, to glorify". 575 - Orphaned upon the death of his mother and placed in the protection of his paternal grandfather, then his uncle. 595 - Marries Kadijah - an older, wealthy widow. They had six children. 610 - Receives first revelation from God during the month of Ramadam. 613 - Took his message public, these would later become the Koran, Islam's sacred scripture. 622 - Emigrates with his followers from Mecca to Yathrib, soon to become known as Medina. 624 - The start of three major battles with the Meccans - the Battle of Badr (victory), 625 the Battle of Uhud (defeat), and 627 the Battle of the Trench (victory). 628 - The two sides signed a treaty recognising the Muslims as a new force in Arabia. Meccan allies breached the treaty a year later. 629 - Orders first raid into Christian lands at Muta (defeat). 630 - Conquers Mecca (along with other tribes). 631 - Consolidated most fo the Arabian Penunsula under Islam. 632 - Returned to Mecca to perform a pilgrimage. 632 - Dies in Medina after a brief illness. He is buried in the mosque of Medina. The Life of the Prophet Muhammad: Timeline
  6. 6. CREED (6 ARTICLES OF FAITH) ●Belief in Allah as the one and only God ●Belief in angels ●Belief in the holy books ●Belief in the Prophets... ●e.g. Adam, Ibrahim (Abraham), Musa (Moses), David (David), Isa (Jesus). ●Muhammad (peace be upon him) is the final prophet and the SEAL of the prophets. ●Belief in the Day of Judgment... ●The day when the life of every human being will be assessed to decide whether they go to heaven or hell. ●Belief in Predestination... ●That Allah has the knowledge of all that will happen. ●Muslims believe that this doesn't stop human beings from making free choices.
  7. 7. CREED (ONE GOD) ●All Muslims believe that God is one alone: ●There is only one God. ●God has no children, no parents, and no partners. ●God was not created by a being. ●There are no equal, superior, or lesser Gods. ●This is the SAME GOD that Christians and Jews believe in.
  8. 8. CREED (ALLAH) ●Allah is the name Muslims use for the supreme and unique God, who created and rules everything. ●The heart of faith for all Muslims is obedience to Allah's will. ●Allah is eternal, omniscient, and omnipotent... ●Allah has always existed and will always exist. ●Allah knows everything that can be known. ●Allah can do anything that can be done. ●Allah has no shape or form... ●Allah can't be seen. ●Allah can't be heard. ●Allah is neither male nor female. ●Allah is just... ●Allah rewards and punishes fairly. ●But Allah is also merciful. ●A believer can approach Allah by praying, and by reciting the Qur'an. ●Muslims worship only Allah (must submit to his will)... ●because only Allah is worthy of worship.
  9. 9. CREED (THE DAY OF JUDGMENT) ●Muslims believe that every person living on earth has a soul and that upon death of the body that soul moves to an afterlife. ●Muslims can not neglect either phase of life. ●When a soul passes into the afterlife, God will reconfigure his/her physical body so he/she can stand before him on the day of Judgment. ●It is on this day that the soul is sent to Paradise or hell based on the intentions and motives behind peoples actions.
  10. 10. CREED (THE PROPHETS) Prophet Islamic POV Jewish POV Christian POV Noah Noah warned people of their sinful ways, built an arc, survived the flood and rebuilt civilization. Same as Islam Same as Islam Abraham One of 7 prophets who received the scriptures from God. Taught people to abandon idolatry. Source of 2 great prophetic families. Patriarch of the Jewish faith. Taught people to worship the one God and abandon idolatry. Same as Judaism Moses Sent to proclaim the one God to the idolaters of Egypt. Used miracles to demo God’s power over Egypt. Received God’s law. Same as Islam. In addition, he was sent by God to free the Hebrews from slavery. Same as Judaism Jesus Born miraculously and performed miracles but he was NOT the son of God and NEVER died, he ascended into heaven and will return to help humanity in the future. No formal view of Jesus (may have been a prophet, was not the messiah). Son of God and part of the Holy Trinity. Crucified, died, rose, ascended into heaven and will return. Muhammad The “seal of the prophets” – the last of those who have come to convey divine wisdom. He completes the teachings of those who came before. No formal view of Muhammad No formal view of Muhammad
  11. 11. THE UMMAHThe community of all Muslims. Islam has no supreme leader to unite Muslims around the world, it has no priests, yet Islam knows itself to be a community. Through the community salvation is achieved. Community is kept alive by common practice for all believers, wherever they live ritual binds them, transcending all differences. This community transcends the boundaries of race, ethnicity, language and other cultural factors. The Ummah is
  12. 12. SACRED TEXTS Qur’an (recitation) ●Holiest book in Islam, gives guidance on worship, behaviour and how to view the world. ●Usually chanted aloud ●Known as Wahi (revelation), revealed to Muhammad through the Angel Gabriel. ●Was then transmitted orally from Muhammad to his companions and eventually written down. ●Muslims believe that the revelations that Muhammad received over a 23 year period literally form the unaltered “word” of God. ●As a result criticism of the Qur’an is not permitted by anyone and anytime. ●The Qur’an is the 1st source of Islamic law
  13. 13. Hadith and Sunnah ●2nd source of Islamic law (shari’ah) ●Collections of Muhammad's words and actions. ●Three types of Hadith include: ●Sayings directly associated with Muhammad ●An action or practice of Muhammad's ●His silent approval of someone else’s actions ●Scholars classify the Hadith literature to determine its various grades of authority. ●Further clarifies Muslim religious practices mentioned in the Qur’an.
  14. 14. SHARIA LAW ●All aspects of a Muslim's life are governed by Sharia. Sharia law comes from a combination of the Qur'an, the Hadith and the fatwas - the rulings of Islamic scholars. ●Sharia divides actions into five categories: obligatory, recommended, indifferent, disapproved and forbidden. ●This law is all encompassing, setting forth in detail how to practice Islam and how to live in a Muslim society. ●To ignore Sharia is to stop being Muslim ●In Canada Muslims observe Sharia law in the non-legal moral aspects of their behaviour.
  15. 15. VEILING
  16. 16. ●And say to the believing women that they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty; that they should not display their beauty and ornaments except what (must ordinarily) appear thereof; that they should draw their veils over their bosoms and not display their beauty except to their husbands, [a list of relatives], [household servants], or small children who have no sense of the shame of sex; and that they should not strike their feet in order to draw attention to their hidden ornaments. And O ye Believers! turn ye all together towards Allah, that ye may attain Bliss.24:31 VEILING IN THE QUR’AN ●Say to the believing men that they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty: that will make for greater purity for them: And Allah is well acquainted with all that they do. 24:30
  17. 17. VEILING ●The word Hijab is Arabic for “cover” ●Some Muslims required that women cover every part of their body and hide their faces behind a veil while others define veiling as covering the hair in public. ●Veiling was a pre-Islamic practice in Arabia and is no longer universal among Muslim women.
  18. 18. JIHAD ●The literal meaning of Jihad is struggle or effort, and it means much more than holy war. ●Muslims use the word Jihad to describe three different kinds of struggle: ●A believer's internal struggle to live out the Muslim faith as well as possible (greater Jihad) ●The struggle to build a good Muslim society ●Holy war: the struggle to defend Islam, with force if necessary (lesser Jihad) ●When Muslims, or their faith or territory are under attack, Islam permits the believer to wage military war to protect them. ●However Islamic (shariah) law sets very strict rules for the conduct of such a war.
  19. 19. JIHAD ● Jihad is NOT to: ●force conversion, ●colonize other nations ●gain territory for economic gain ●settle disputes ●demonstrate a leaders power. ● Jihad IS for: ●Self-defense ●Strengthening Islam ●Protecting the freedom of Muslims to practice their faith ●Protecting Muslims against oppression, which could include overthrowing a tyrannical ruler ●Punishing an enemy who breaks an oath ●Putting right a wrong
  20. 20. DIETARY LAWS ●Halaal (permitted) vs. haraam (forbidden) food ●Number of bans on food for the sake of man’s health including: ●All carnivores and birds of prey ●Eating blood, carrion, pork and the flesh of the animal slaughtered without mentioning the name of Allah. ●“A man becomes what he eats” – for Muslims consumption of swine-flesh creates lowliness in character and destroys moral and spiritual facilities in a man.
  21. 21. HARRAM ●Other items/actions are forbidden if they cause social maladies and harm more than they benefit. These include: ●Alcohol and gambling ●Usury and illegal gain ●Black magic ●Fortunetelling (all forms of idolatry) ●Adultery, murder, pride, cursing and arrogance ●Slandering chaste women and backbiting ●Suicide ●Oppression ●Betrayal of trust, taking false oaths and abandoning relatives.
  22. 22. BAN ON IMAGES ●The use of symbols as an expression of faith is not present in Islam. ●Muhammad made it clear that people should not revere pictures or sculptures of humans or animals. ●It is God’s work to create living things and it is wrong from humans to imitate this aspect of God. ●As a result, Muslim art tends towards rich patterns, calligraphy and colourful designs.
  23. 23. PREMARITAL RELATIONS ●No such thing as girlfriend/boyfriend relationships, you are either married or you are not. ●“Whenever a man is alone with a woman, Satan is the third among them” ●When young people are getting to know one another being alone is a temptation towards wrongdoing. ●“Tell the men to lower their gaze and protect their private parts. That is purer for them. Allah is aware of what they do.” ●Social entertainments are generally within the family and close friends of the family or among men and women in separate groups. ●Mixed gatherings offer opportunities to give in to human weakness. ●Relationships out of wedlock are known as fornication, punishable by Islamic law in Islamic states.
  24. 24. POLYGAMY ●Limited polygamy (having more than one wife) is permitted while polyandry (having more than one husband) is prohibited. ●“Marry women of your choice, two, or three, or four; but if ye fear not be able to deal justly (with them), then only one” – Qur’an ●Emphasis is to MARRY, not kidnap, buy, seduce, molest, abuse or commit adultery. ●Upper limit is four and ONLY if they are all treated fairly (which is almost impossible). ●“You will not be able to do justice between your wives however much you wish (to do so)” – Qur’an ●Thus polygamy is an exception NOT the rule.
  25. 25. CRACK THE CODE Which element of the Islamic code is being broken in each picture?
  26. 26. THE FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM ●The five obligations every Muslim must satisfy in order to live a good and responsible life according to Islam. ●Pointless to live life without putting one’s faith into action - carrying out the Five Pillars demonstrates that the Muslim is putting their faith first. ●Between the individual Muslim and Allah - there is no point in carrying them out insincerely, or, trying to cheat because God cannot be fooled and the only person who suffers is the individual concerned.
  27. 27. 1ST PILLAR - SHAHADAH ●Basic statement of the Islamic faith: anyone who cannot recite this wholeheartedly is not a Muslim. ●"There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is his messenger." ●When a Muslim recites this they proclaim: ●That Allah is the only God, and that Muhammad is his prophet ●That they personally accept this as true ●That they will obey all of the commitments of Islam in their life ●A Muslim is expected to recite this statement out loud, with total sincerity, fully understanding what it means.
  28. 28. 2ND PILLAR - SALAT ●Obligatory Muslim prayers (five times a day). ●Connects each Muslim to all others. ●A series of movements go with the words of the prayer, as prayer for a Muslim involves uniting mind, soul, and body in worship. ●Muslims make sure that they are in the right frame of mind before they pray; they put aside all everyday cares and thoughts so that they can concentrate on God. ●Prior to prayers, a person must perform a ritual cleansing (Wudu). Prayer must be said facing Mecca. ●Pray because they believe Allah has told them to do this, and because they obtain great benefit in doing so. ●During prayer each Muslim is in direct contact with Allah. There is no need of a priest as an intermediary. ●Muslims can pray anywhere, but it is especially good to pray with others in a mosque (as a reminder that all humanity is one, and all are equal in the sight of Allah).
  30. 30. WUDU
  31. 31. 3RD PILLAR - ZAKAT ●The compulsory giving of 2.5% of one’s wealth to charity each year. It is regarded as a type of worship and of self- purification. ●The benefits of Zakat, apart from helping the poor, are as follows: ●Obeying God ●Helping a person acknowledge that everything comes from God on loan and that we do not really own anything ourselves ●Acknowledging that whether we are rich or poor is God's choice (so we should help those he has chosen to make poor). ●Learning self-discipline ●Freeing oneself from the love of possessions and greed ●Freeing oneself from the love of money ●Freeing oneself from love of oneself ●Behaving honestly
  32. 32. 4TH PILLAR - SAWM ●All adult Muslims are required to fast during Ramadan, the ninth month of the Islamic calendar. The following things must be abstained from during the hours of daylight: ●Food or drink of any sort ●Smoking ●Sexual activity ●Muslims are also expected to do their best to avoid evil thoughts and deeds as well. ●Reasons for this fast, include: ●Obeying God ●Learning self-discipline ●Becoming spiritually stronger ●Appreciating God's gifts to us ●Sharing the sufferings of the poor and developing sympathy ●Realizing the value of charity and generosity ●Giving thanks for the Holy Qur'an (1st revealed in the month of Ramadan) ●Sharing fellowship with other Muslims
  33. 33. 4TH PILLAR - SAWM Eating in Ramadan ●During Ramadan many Muslims will try to eat a large meal called suhur just before dawn. ●When daylight is over, most Muslims will break the fast with dates or water, following the example of the Prophet Muhammad, before having a proper meal later. ●The evening meals during Ramadan are occasions for family and community get togethers. Eid ul-Fitr ●The month of Ramadan ends with the festival of Eid ul-Fitr. This is marked by dressing up and visiting the mosque for prayer, and with visits to family and friends for celebratory meals and gift giving.
  34. 34. 5TH PILLAR - HAJJ ●Once a year, Muslims of every ethnic group, colour, social status, and culture gather together in Mecca and stand before the Kaaba praising Allah together. ●Designed to promote the bonds of Islamic brother/ sisterhood by showing that everyone is equal in the eyes of Allah. ●The Hajjis or pilgrims wear simple white clothes called Ihram. During the Hajj the Pilgrims perform acts of worship and they renew their sense of purpose in the world. ●Mecca is a place that is holy to all Muslims. It is so holy that all non-Muslims are forbidden to enter. ●The Hajj occurs in the month of Dhul Hijjah (the 12th month of the Islamic lunar calendar). ●Every sane adult Muslim must undertake the Hajj at least once in their lives if they can afford it and are physically able.
  35. 35. F.Y.I: THE KABBA ●Built on Allah’s orders by the prophet Ibrahim (Abraham) ●This shrine, dedicated to Allah, was to be the gathering place for all who wished to strengthen their faith. ●Eventually fell into disuse and idols were stored within its walls. ●Allah told the Prophet Muhammad that he should restore the Kaaba to the worship of Allah only. ●In 628 the Prophet Muhammad set out on a journey with 1400 of his followers to re-establish the religious traditions of Abraham. ●Inside the sanctuary are some silver and gold lamps, the most important object is an oval black stone which Muslims believe was given to Abraham by an angel.
  36. 36. The Hajj
  37. 37. STUDENT WEB-QUEST (see mainpage) Festivals, Milestones and Symbols
  38. 38. THE MOSQUE ●Every Friday Muslims offer mandatory congregational prayers at the Mosque. ●Most Mosques share the following features: ●A dome and/or minaret (from which people are called to prayer) ●A steady supply of water to perform Wudu ●An arch (mihrab) that points to Mecca (focal point so all prayer can be directed towards the Ka’bah). ●No seats, just a large open area which is often carpeted. ●Shoes come off before entering ●Women and men pray separately (to avoid distraction) ●Prayers are led by an Iman who delivers a sermon before Friday prayers, he speaks from an elevated platform called a Minbar.
  39. 39. THE DOME OF THE ROCK Oldest existing Islamic building built on a Holy site claimed by Jews, Christians and Muslims.
  40. 40. DIVISIONS IN ISLAM Sunni Shi’ah (Shi’ite) Sufi ●85% of the world’s Muslims ●Select leaders based on ability. Over time became the most influential group in Islam. ●No human mediator – emphasize direct relationship with Allah. ●Believe in building consensus within the community in order to create a just and equitable society. ●Follow the traditions of the Prophet as well as the four schools of Sunni law. ●The party of Ali – believe that prior to the death of Muhammad, the prophet choose his son-in-law, Ali, as his successor. Ali was never chosen as leader creating a political division within the community. ●Believe that after the death of Muhammad a series of infallible leaders called Imams were to take charge of Islam and guide the community. ●Small but noticeable group dominating politics and religious life in Iran and acting as a vocal minority in Iraq, East Africa, Pakistan and India. ●Mystical philosophy of Islam ●Goal is to develop spirituality both inwardly and outwardly in order to discover the reality of God. ●Emphasize sincerity and excellence, performing prayers and meditations. To develop constant and deep concentration Sufi’s use music, chanting or dancing. ●Sufism is practiced by both Sunnis and shi’ ahs.
  41. 41. THE NATION OF ISLAM ●A religious group founded in Detroit, by Wallace D. Fard Muhammad in July 1930 with the self-proclaimed goal of resurrecting the spiritual, mental, social and economic condition of the black men and women of America ●The Nation of Islam teaches that W. Fard Muhammad is both the “Messiah" of Christianity and the Mahdi of Islam. ●Their teachings are heretical by traditional Islamic standards which abhor the deification of any person. ●One of Fard's first disciples was Elijah Muhammad, who led the organization from 1935 through 1975. ●From 1978 to the present, Louis Farrakhan has been the leader. ●The Nation of Islam's National Center and headquarters is located in Chicago ●As of 2005, the Nation of Islam was included in the Southern Poverty Law Center’s list of active hate groups in the United States due to the groups racial teachings.