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strategies for effective oral delivery

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strategies for effective oral delivery

  1. 1. BY WARDAH AZHAR- Lecturer
  2. 2. “One of the Most Important Aspects to be Successful in Your Research, Your Job and Your Career is” Citation comes from Prof. Sherman Frankel and it is full confirmed by  Excellent Oral and Written Communication
  3. 3. What is Oral Delivery?  To Present any content at anytime where you have to speak in public is Oral Delivery!  Speaking in public scares most people than going to the dentist, falling, or death!  We will discuss public speaking basics and realize some good multimedia presentation skills at the same time.
  4. 4. Oral Communication Exercising Your Presentation Muscle  Overcoming Speech Anxiety  Openings and Closings of Presentation  Presentation Organization  Visual Assistance  Presentation Delivery
  5. 5. Objectives of Oral Communication To :  Inform  Educate  Convince  Persuade  Lead to Action
  6. 6. Often You May Experience  “Although he could boast of a PhD in his field, he was a poor communicator. He showed dozens of transparencies crammed with complex equations and text descriptions. He delivered, at times read, his narration in a monotone tone addressed to the screen, oblivious to us, the audience. I tried not to, but I fell asleep.”
  7. 7. Myths and Mistakes of Presentations Popular Myth: Audience requires a lot of technical details in order to evaluate the speaker’s ideas  In 1989 HP conducted a survey to determine what audience (class/students) want to hear from other presenters/ teachers.
  8. 8. ????  Result: Listeners want talks which are easy to follow and well organized; they want simplified message  “less is more”  Studies showed that simplifying and repeating the main idea will result in increased attentiveness and retention
  9. 9. Myths and Mistakes of Presentations  HP study indicated that technical audience wanted more enthusiasm and effective style, which included better visual assistance.  Often unenthusiastic delivery will ruin a speaker’s effectiveness  Mehrabian, a communication theorist, showed that  Body language and tone of voice together supply 93% of the overall message impact  Actual words only supply 7% of the overall impact Popular Myth: Content is everything. Style is unimportant and enthusiasm is offensive
  10. 10. Myths and Mistakes of Presentations  Presenters traditionally rely too much on slides  Often, audiences find the slides distracting and boring  Remember, the speaker is always the focal point of presentation, visual assistance only helps  Pace of the presentation  Flow of the information presented Popular Myth: The text on the visuals is more important than the speaker.
  11. 11. Myths and Mistakes of Presentations Popular Myth: Strategic organization is not necessary for lectures.  Presenters often think that as long as they supply all the details, the audience is capable of drawing the appropriate conclusions.  Speakers often jump into the body of the presentation and start discussing data  Often the objective of the talk is not stated until the end of the talk  Teachers must not rely on the audience to fill in gaps and reach appropriate conclusions.  Speakers must understand different types of presentations, organization, and strategies for a particular type of speech.
  12. 12. There are four kinds of oral presentation  Extemporaneous  Reading  Memorization  Impromptu
  13. 13. Strategies for an Effective Oral Delivery:  Pitch  Rate  Volume  Vocal Quality  Pronunciation
  14. 14. Strategies for Reducing Stage fright  Being at ease, or simply give the impression of being at ease which is difficult for most people.  Few people can approach an audience without some  feeling of discomfort.  Pickup any newspaper, read  Many resist and fear the idea
  15. 15. Signs of Discomfort:  Signs of discomfort are usually experienced.  The heart rate increases and the blood pressure & body temperature rises and some say their mouth feel dry.  Look carefully at each of the above stated points. You may be aware of these things but they are not obvious to the audience.
  16. 16. Fears…  While most people fear public speaking there are some very simple ways to get around it…  Practice  Practice  Practice  By practicing you get around the reason for the fear: saying something stupid or messing up in front of people.
  17. 17. Planning Your PresentationWhat do you present? Why do you present? How do you Present? Who is your audience? How Long do you present? Where do you present?
  18. 18. Before the presentation… Preparation is key!  Figure out a thesis for your paper.  Write down the structure for your presentation.  Introduction, body, and conclusion.  Read it out loud.  Edit your writing.  Read it out loud again.  Put it into your presentation.  Practice again.
  19. 19. Steps for Preparing Effective Oral Presentation:  Determine the Purpose  Analyze the Audience & Occasion  Select the main Ideas for the Message  Research the Topic  Organize Data and Write Draft  Create Visual Aids  Rehearse the Talk
  20. 20. Determine the Purpose: We communicate to produce a result. We wish something to occur as a result of our words. On the macro level those goals are to:  inform or instruct  persuade  entertain
  21. 21. Analyze the Audience & Occasion:  Whether one writes or speaks, the message must be adapted to the audience. If you talk within your organization, you will have some idea about who and how many people will be in the audience.  If all audience members have same occupation then we can use more technical expressions and illustrations (Jargon).
  22. 22. Message:  We should select the main idea for the message firstly. Then we should include the information which supports our main idea. Research the Topic: It is obvious that we  will not possess all information relating our central theme.  Thus, we will collect all the facts and data information required to complete research on the topic
  23. 23. Draft: After collecting all the data we should organize it in proper form as we have to present in front of the audience and after that write the draft. This include the following:  Introduction  Body  Summary or Conclusion
  24. 24. Basics of Public Speaking  Know your topic  Your are the expert of the topic you have chosen.  Nobody in the room knows more than you so make sure that you know it thoroughly so you can teach others.  Know your audience  What do they find funny? What are they interested in? What would they like to hear about your topic?  Find a hook  A hook is an interesting, funny, or creative beginning to your presentation. The first 30 seconds of a presentation are very important, so a good hook will keep your audience focused.  Be yourself  If you try to do what your friends would do, you will mess up. Just be yourself and you will feel the most comfortable!  Stay on point  Do not discuss topics that are not important to your presentation. They will distract your audience and you will lose your focus.  Do not repeat yourself  Do not repeat yourself.  Repeating a point more than a few times sounds as if you do not have anything else to say. So avoid repetition.
  25. 25. Confidence •Project a calm, confident tone while speaking. •You are the expert on the topic, so you have nothing to worry about! •Audience members can tell when you are nervous or do not know what you are talking about. •Confidence can be gained through good preparation and effective practicing.
  26. 26. Exercising Your Presentation Muscle (How and Why)  Do you exercise your presentation muscle?  Need practice good speaking skills by delivering oral presentations on a regular basis  Why?  Person with a strong presentation muscle can think a problem through and communicate his/her analysis  She can express her thoughts well enough to persuade others to see her point of view  She can efficiently instruct others  She can speak effectively before an audience of any size  Often promotion/salary depends on speaking skills!!!
  27. 27. Useful Tips and Tools to Overcome Speech Anxiety (How)  Symptoms of Speech Anxiety:  Nervous when asked to give a speech? Before speech your heart is racing? Are you fearful that you will begin to shake? Are you fearful that your words will somehow be lost? Are you afraid that you are not going to be understood?
  28. 28. Useful Tips and Tools to Overcome Speech Anxiety (How)  Skills Training  Do practice your speech at home  Do forget about forgetting  Breathe slowly and deeply before/during speech  Keep your body relaxed
  29. 29. Tips  Attitude is everything!  Preparation is key  Confidence comes with practice  Refer to sources correctly  You will need to have outside sources for your information in the presentation. Make sure to know how to pronounce names and the author’s main idea correctly.  First 30 seconds are the most important!  This is the hook.  If you have a creative, witty, or interesting introduction, you can hold the audience’s attention for the rest of the presentation.  Strong conclusion  Just like the introduction, have a strong message the audience can take away from your presentation.  Avoid just repeating your introduction and your thesis statement.  Action statements make good conclusions.
  30. 30. Useful Tips and Tools to Overcome Speech Anxiety (How)  Skills Training  Do memorize your first and last few sentences  Do divert your nervous energy into helpful gestures and movements, do not repress your nervousness  Don’t pace  Don’t fumble with a pencil, watch, or ring while you speak  Don’t speak too rapidly
  31. 31. Presentations – Opening and Closings (What and How)  Each presentation (as good stories) have an  Introduction (tell them what you are going to tell them)  Body (tell them)  Conclusion (tell them what you just told them)
  32. 32. Openings  Purpose  Grab audience’s attention so that they will want to hear what you have to say  Should be a “grabber” or “attention seeker”  Not only arouse interest, but also suggest theme of speech  Openings can be dramatic, emotional, humorous or rhetorical  Opening does not have to have words, you can use gestures, demonstration, silence – related to the topic
  33. 33. Good Openings  Startling question  Challenging statement  Appropriate short quotation or illustration  Surprising generalization  Exhibit – object, article, picture  Personal story
  34. 34. Poor Openings  Long or slow-moving quotation  Self introduction  Apologetic statement  Story, joke or anecdote which does not connect to the theme  Stale remark  Statement of your objective
  35. 35. Closings of Presentation Purpose  Accent your speech objectives  Leave the audience with something to remember  Closing is the “whip-cracker”, the “clincher”, ultimately the “result getter”.  Closing can be dramatic, emotional, humorous or rhetorical  Closing does not have to have words; you can use props, gestures, a demonstration or silence  Closing must tie with your opening and your theme  Poor closing can seriously detract from an otherwise excellent presentation
  36. 36. Good Closings  Call or an appeal for definite action  Appropriate short quotation or illustration  Exhibit – an object, article, picture  Personal challenge
  37. 37. Poor Closings  Commonplace statement delivered in a commonplace way  Apologetic statement  Stale remark  Solicitation of questions
  38. 38. Body Presentation Strategy (Deductive Strategy)  Decide on what sort of message you will be delivering  Deductive Strategy  Speaker immediately presents the main idea, provides the supporting detail, then recaps her main idea.  Usually used to present good news or routine statements  Example:  Main Idea: My grant proposal was funded  Detail: This means more money for research …  Recap: Hard work is rewarded.
  39. 39. Body Presentation Strategy (Inductive Strategy) Speaker begins only by hinting at the main idea, then presents details leading to the main idea  usually from most easily acceptable details to more “controversial” details  After details the main idea is communicated  Speaker concludes with recap  Example:  Hint: We compliment your research efforts and would like to explain some recent events – NSF funding was cut, strategic direction was changed, ..  Main Idea: Although it was a good effort, we must pull the funding from this line of research.  Recap: You will need to switch directions of research.
  40. 40. Formulas for Speech/Presentation Organization  OIBCC – Basic Formula  Opening – grab attention  Introduction – “Why bring this topic up?”  Body – bulk of the presentation  Remember that for every important point that you make, you must provide support and this support can take the form of  Statistics, analogies, testimony, illustrations, or specific examples.  Conclusion – summarize briefly points  Close – last strong sentences that leave the audience with something to remember  Must tie to your main idea and should tie to your opening to be effective
  41. 41. Harvard School Formula For persuasive speeches  PREPY  Point of View – “Smoking is hazardous for your life”  Reasons – “Smoking causes cancer”  Examples/Evidence – “50,000 people die per year from cancer”  Point of view restated – “If you want a long full life, give up cigarettes”  “You” oriented – “Take the first step tonight and sign up for ‘no more smoking’ seminar”
  42. 42. Visual Assistance (How) Studies show that people store and access information in three primary ways:  Visually, auditorially, kinesthetically  Adults absorb, retain and learn:  10% what they read  20% what they hear  30% what they read and hear  50% what they hear and see  90% what they do
  43. 43. Visual Medium (How) Visuals support the speech, they are NOT the primary message  Visuals are only used to dramatize and clarify the message  Practice your main points of the presentation without relying on the visuals  Visuals should assist you in controlling  Pace of the presentation  Flow of the information  Important! – When you transition from one visual to the next, introduce the topic area of the next visual before it is revealed.
  44. 44. Creating Your Visuals (How)  14 lines per visual (max)  Do not put too much information within a single visual  A title for each visual  Title must be meaningful  Simple readable labels  Labels on charts or graphs should be specific and precise (balance with simplicity)  Labels must be meaningful yet simple  Readable from the rear  Print size at least 20 points  No more than 3-5 major points  Each point must be easily identifiable  Use highlights, colors, bullets, different text size
  45. 45. Creating Your Visuals (How) Consistency is a must  Having a consistent background adds to your presentation.  An easy way to distract your audience is by having your slide background constantly change.  You want to seem in charge of your presentation, so keep the design simple and consistent.
  46. 46.  Use colors appropriately  Never use the color red for your main text, title or labels, red color is difficult to read from distance  Use red as a highlight color, indicating problem area  Use green as a highlight color  Two of the most common and readable colors are blue and black  Blue color (especially light blue) is the most soothing color on an eye.  Visuals Must be organized  Your visuals must have introduction, body and closing Can you read me now? Can you read me now?
  47. 47. Animation  Animation can assist in a given situation, but too much can distract.  Animation can be for an image or letters in a slide or between slides.  There are two types of animation to the left; which one is more distracting?  Use animation to give some flavor to a slide that is a little flat. Too many words? Animation can help improve a slide! Too many words? Animation can help improve a slide!
  48. 48. Large… Notice that in this slide everything is large and easy to see. Making your words and pictures large is very important when working with power point!
  49. 49. Wordy Slides…  Multimedia presentations are visual tools. It is not a good tool to use if you have too much to say.  So keep your words to a minimum.  This slide has quite a few words, some may say too many.  They are easy to read, however, because they are large enough.  Also, the addition of the fish animation adds to the slide.  A multimedia presentation is not a chance for you to write a paper. It is a chance to give a summary of the main points of a paper.  Use bullet points to break up the writing.
  50. 50. Images…  Images are important to a multimedia presentation, so do not shy away from clip art, images, or artistic designs to show off your text.  The slide at right has an image, a box around the words, and a strong background.  The overall effect is very professional and pleasing to the eye.
  51. 51. Presentation Delivery (Who and How and What) Albert Mehrabian, a well-known communication theorist, specifies that message impact can be divided into three factors:  Body language  Contributes 55% toward message impact  Tone of voice  Contributes 38% toward message impact  Actual words  Contributes 7% toward message impact
  52. 52. Time Control (How Long)  Prepare SEVERAL versions:  5 minute presentation of your research (on the way to the train station or in the elevator)  15 minute presentation of your research (in conference)  45-50 minute presentation of your research (in job talk, invited talk, keynote)  55-100 minute presentation of your research (in classroom)  Be in control of time  You may loose audience otherwise
  53. 53. Place (Where)  Small Conference room  Big auditorium  Big and long conference room
  54. 54. Audience (Who)  Background  Age  Hobby  Interest  …
  55. 55. Self Assessment ChecklistDid you introduce yourself to your audience ? Yes No Did you aim to arouse the interest of your audience ? Yes No Did you begin with a clear introduction of your topic with an overview of what you will cover ? Yes No Were your ideas presented clearly with a logical flow from one point to the next ? Yes No Did you conclude by summing up what you had said ? Yes No Were your visual aids presented clearly ? Yes No
  56. 56. Did you have good control over your material with everything in the correct order Yes No Did you present the right amount of facts and figures? Could your audience understand them ? Yes No Did you avoid reading too much from your cues ? Yes No Did you look comfortable and relaxed ? Yes No Did you display any nervous gestures, such as hand waving or pen clicking ? Yes No Did you look and sound interesting and enthusiastic ? Yes No Did you get your timing right ? Was it too long? Too short ? Yes No Did you provide hand-outs for the audience? Yes No
  57. 57. Did you take up a good position(s) during your presentation ? Yes No Was your voice loud enough to be heard clearly by all ? Yes No Did you speak too quickly ? Yes No Did you look at, and speak to, the audience ? Yes No Were there any words you had difficulty in pronouncing ? Yes No Did you allow time for questions and invite the audience to make comments? Yes No
  58. 58. Handling Questions Your presentation doesn't end once you've finished what you have to say. The question period often is the part of the talk which influences the audience the most. After all, you've had time to practice the rest of the talk.  This is the part of the presentation where your ability to interact with the audience will be evaluated.  Since you can't always predict what you will be asked, how can you prepare for the questioning?
  59. 59. Some Answering Guidelines1. Repeat each question so the entire audience knows what you've been asked. 2. Before you answer, take a moment to reflect on the question. By not rushing to give an answer, you show a degree of respect for the questioner, and you give yourself time to be sure you are answering the question that actually was asked. 3 If you are unsure of the question, try to restate it, (and then check you have it correct), or don’t forget you can ask for a clarification of the meaning.
  60. 60. Answering questions4. Wait for the questioner to finish asking the question before you begin your answer! The exception to this comes when it is necessary to break in on a vague, rambling, or unnecessarily long question (usually because it is more of a comment than a question)  Here we remember - this is your presentation and you have only a limited time.  However, it is important that you break in tactfully. Say something like "So, are you asking ....?" This will focus the question and give you a place to begin an answer.
  61. 61. Answering questions 5. If a question is asked during the talk, and it will clarify an ambiguity, answer it immediately. 6. On the other hand, postpone questions aimed at resolving specific problems (or arcane knowledge) until the end of the talk, or in private discussions.  This is particularly important if the answer will distract either you, or the audience away from the flow of your presentation.
  62. 62. Answering questions 7. Avoid prolonged discussions with one person, extended answers, and especially arguments. 8. If you can't answer a question, just say so. Don't apologise (although it is OK to say – I am sorry, I cannot answer that). You then may: • Offer to research an answer, then get back to the questioner later. • Suggest resources which would help the questioner to address the question themselves. • Ask for suggestions from the audience.
  63. 63. Answering questionsFinish your answer by asking the person who asked the question - whether or not you answered the question sufficiently for them.  This approach is a way in which you can acknowledge and thank the questioner; it lets the rest of the audience feel comfortable asking questions (and it gives you a chance to more fully answer the question if your first effort was not quite on target).  If the questioner says you didn't answer it and you believe you did, either ask them to clarity the question, or suggest that the two of you go into more detail at a break or after the presentation.
  64. 64. Summary Pay attention to oral communication in every technical communication !!!  Giving Presentations is not the only oral communication : Asking good questions is also oral and memorable communication  Be sincere, interested, enthusiastic, warm and friendly – be yourself!!!  Ultimate Goal: Be effective Communicator in every Situation.  Handling Questions
  65. 65. References/Acknowledgments Toastmaster club  http://www.toastmasters-public-speaking.com/toastmaster-club.html  Source for the Presented Material: “Creative Communication by LBM”, Company in NJ  Clark, Donald. “Making Presentations that Audiences Will Love.” PowerPoint Presentation.http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/templates/presentations.ppt.  —.“Monthly Speaking Tips.” LJL Seminars. http://www.ljlseminars.com/monthtip.htm.  “Common Visual Aids.” Faculty Development Committee. Honolulu Community College.http://hr.csi.edu/Orientation/Teachtip/Visuals.htm  “Creating Visual Aids That Really Work: Designing Effective Slides Using PowerPoint.” Effective Communications Group (ECG), Inc.http://ecglink.com/newsletter/visual.shtml.  Davis, Barbara Gross. “Delivering a Lecture.” Tools for Teaching. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers. 1993.  Edwards, Paul N. “How to Give an Academic Talk.” School of Information. University of Michigan. http://pne.people.si.umich.edu/PDF/howtotalk.pdf.  McKeachie, Wilbert, et al. McKeachie’s Teaching Tips: Strategies, Research, and Theory for College and University Teachers. 12th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2005.  “Presentations.” Teaching and Learning Center. Eastern Kentucky University.  Sammons, Martha. “Students Assess Computer-Aided Classroom Presentations.” The Journal Online, May 1995. http://thejournal.com/articles/1995/05/01/students-assess-computeraided-classroom- presentations.aspx?sc_lang=en 