# Principles of design

10. Feb 2015
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### Principles of design

• 1. Principles of Design The principles of design describe how the elements of art are used or arranged in a work of art. This is composition. The principles of design are: Balance, Contrast, Emphasis, Movement, Pattern, Rhythm, and Unity/ Variety
• 2. Balance Balance is the arrangement of elements on either side of a center line. A balanced image has equal visual weight on either side of this center line, but is not necessarily symmetrical. Balance Can be: -Asymmetrical -Symmetrical -Radial
• 3. Asymmetrical Balance If an image is asymmetrically balanced the combined visual weight of the elements either side of the center line are approximately equal. Example: A large object can be balanced by several smaller objects. Several objects that are different but are similar in size can create balance. A large simple object can be balanced by a smaller more complex object.
• 4. Symmetrical Balance When balance is symmetrical the image can be folded over a center line and the sides will match up exactly. Symmetrical balance can be horizontal, vertical or radial. Horizontal Symmetry can be folded over a horizontal center line. Vertical Symmetry can be folded evenly over a vertical center line. Radial Symmetry can be folded over a horizontal or vertical center line evenly.
• 5. Contrast Refers to the differences between elements of art. The greater the difference the higher the contrast. The less difference the lower the contrast. Contrast can be the difference between values, colors (temperature or saturation), lines or shapes (organic/ geometric or size). Even texture can show contrast between rough an smooth.
• 6. Color/ Value Contrast Color contrast is the difference between colors. Opposite/ Analogous Colors that are closer to being opposite each other on the color wheel have the highest contrast while colors that are closer to each other or analogous have the lowest. Warm Cool Contrast The difference between warm and cool colors Value Contrast The difference between light and dark. Intensity Contrast The difference between neutral and saturated colors.
• 7. Shape and Size Contrast Shapes can show contrast between organic and geometric shapes as well as large and small shapes. Organic/ Geometric Contrast Size Contrast
• 8. Emphasis Artists use Emphasis to show what is the most important part of an image or to create a focal-point, which is the area in a composition where your attention is directed. Artist can show emphasis in many ways including: Contrast Detail Location
• 9. Movement Movement is the path your eyes follow along edges, lines and shapes, often leading your gaze around the composition and directing you to the focal area of the art work.
• 10. Pattern Patterns are made when the same shapes or elements are repeated predicably. Radial Pattern: Patterns that surround a central point. Regular or Planned Pattern: Patterns that are planned and repeated accurately. Irregular Pattern: The parts are repeated but don’t seem planned
• 11. RhythmRhythm is the repetition of similar colors, shapes, forms, lines, or values. Rhythm unifies works of art and can structure the movement of a piece. Regular Rhythms appear planned and mostly uniform. Irregular Rhythms appear unplanned and not repeated exactly.
• 12. Unity is consistency in a work of art and gives an artwork a finished and harmonious feel by using similar elements or techniques throughout the composition. Variety is the use of contrast or difference within a work of art to create interest. Unity / Variety The use of repeated texture and color creates unity. These repeated forms, pattern and texture create unity. These repeated rhythm color and shapes create unity.