Md. Waliullah Wali
Dept. of pharmacy
X-ray diffraction (XRD) is an analytical technique looking at X-ray scattering from crystalline materials. Each material produces a unique X-ray "fingerprint" of X-ray intensity versus scattering angle that is characteristic of it's crystalline atomic structure.
X-ray diffraction procedures
apply only to crystalline
Principles of XRD
X-ray diffraction is based on constructive interference of monochromatic X-rays and a crystalline sample.
The interaction of the incident rays with the sample produces constructive interference (and a diffracted ray) when conditions satisfy Bragg's Law (nλ=2d sin θ).
Applications of XRD
Limitations of XRD
X-Ray Fluorescence is defined as “The emission of characteristic "secondary" (or fluorescent) X-rays from a material that has been excited by bombarding with high-energy X-rays. The phenomenon is widely used for elemental analysis.”
X-ray fluorescence procedures
applied to the material
in any physical state,
solid, liquid and gas.
Principles of XRF
The XRF method depends on fundamental principles that are common to several other instrumental methods involving interactions between electron beams and X-rays with samples, including, X-ray spectroscopy (e.g. SEM – EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (microprobe WDS).
Applications of XRF
Advantages of XRF
Limitation of XRF
1. Elements of physical chemistry by S Glasstone
2. Atkins physical chemistry
3. Pharmaceutical chemistry by LG Chattem
4. Brady, John B., and Boardman, Shelby J., 1995, Introducing Mineralogy Students to X-ray Diffraction Through Optical Diffraction Experiments Using Lasers. Jour. Geol. Education, v. 43 #5, 471-476.
5. Brady, John B., Newton, Robert M., and Boardman, Shelby J., 1995, New Uses for Powder X-ray Diffraction Experiments in the Undergraduate Curriculum. Jour. Geol. Education, v. 43 #5, 466-470.
6. Buhrke, V. E., Jenkins, R., Smith, D. K., A Practical Guide for the Preparation of Specimens for XRF and XRD Analysis, Wiley, 1998.