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Design for All
Lecture Four
Vladimir Tomberg, PhD

Design for ALL

1
Lesson Agenda
• Basic Principles
• Presenting results of the homework:
– Finding the good HCI examples
– Opportunities and...
The Overview

UNIVERSAL DESIGN PRINCIPLES
AND STRATEGIES
Source Book
• Erlandson, R. F. (2010). Universal
and accessible design for
products, services, and processes.
CRC Press.

...
Higher level places design constraints on the
lower level

The hierarchical structure of the
universal design principles
T...
Transcending principle
• Equitable Use Principle

Design for ALL

6
Equitable Use Principle
• Universally designed entities should be
equitable;
• That is, the entities should provide the sa...
Equitable Use

Source: livewellcollaborative.org

Design for ALL

8
Equitable Use Strategies
• Design entities that are age and context
appropriate;
• Design entities that are aesthetically ...
Equitable Use Strategies

Source: kohhranthianghlim.org

Source: americanallergysupply.com

Design entities that are age a...
Equitable Use Strategies

Source: fastcodesign.com

Source: designapplause.com

Design entities that are aesthetically ple...
Equitable Use Strategies

Source: amazon.com

Source: nextpowerup.com

Design entities that are competitively priced
(Exam...
Equitable Use Strategies

The products and processes should avoid segregating or
stigmatizing any users, making the design...
Process Related Principles
•
•
•
•

Stable and Predictable Principle
Efficiency (Muda Elimination) Principle
Error-Managed...
Stable and Predictable Principle
• Design entities to reduce common cause
variation. That is, design entities to be stable...
Stable and Predictable Principle

Design for ALL

16
Stable and Predictable Design
Strategies
• Work to establish national and international
standards for products, processes,...
Stable and Predictable Principle

This scheme has the highest common cause variability

Erlandson, R. F. (2010). Universal...
Stable and Predictable Principle

This scheme has less common cause variability than Level 1, but still
leaves room for po...
Stable and Predictable Principle

The vertical orientation of the correct readings increase reliability and
reduces common...
Efficiency (Muda Elimination)
Principle
• Muda (無駄) is a Japanese word meaning:
futility;
uselessness;
idleness;
superflui...
Efficiency (muda elimination)
• Designed entities need to be efficient in that
they have reduced as much of the non-valuea...
Efficiency (muda elimination)
• Muda elimination would include providing
doors, walkways, elevators, and escalators so
as ...
Efficiency Design Strategies
• Reduce or eliminate non-value-added activity
(NVAA);
• Make the designed entity as simple a...
Efficiency Design Strategies

Reduce or eliminate non-value-added
activity (NVAA)
Design for ALL

25
Efficiency Design Strategies

Make the designed entity as simple and
easy to use as possible
Image: crave.cnet.co.uk

Desi...
Efficiency Design Strategies

Avoid complexity in that it leads to NVAA
Image: 2.bp.blogspot.com

Design for ALL

27
Efficiency Design Strategies

Use task analysis techniques to identify tasks or activities that
can be eliminated or redes...
Error-Managed (Proofed) Principle
• Entities must be designed so that they support
doing the right thing. It is important ...
Error-Managed (Proofed) Principle

My favorite example
Design for ALL

30
Error-Managed Design Strategies
• Use a three-staged approach to errorproofing:
1. Prevent errors at the source;
2. Provid...
Error-Managed Design Strategies

Prevent errors at the source
Image source: blog.crazyegg.com

Design for ALL

32
Error-Managed Design Strategies

Provide a warning that an error has or is about to
occur
Image source: designmodo.com

De...
Error-Managed Design Strategies

Provide quick and easy recovery if an error
has occurred
Image source: teamwindows8.com

...
Error-Managed Design Strategies

Provide quick and easy recovery if an error
has occurred
Image source: teamwindows8.com

...
Flexibility Principle
• Design products, systems, and environments
with enough flexibility so that they can be
used and ex...
Flexibility Principle

Image: ergonomicsolutionsaustralia.com.au

Image: indiandrives.com
Design for ALL

37
Flexibility Design Strategies
• Provide the user with choices;
• Provide adjustability and mobility
• Build flexibility in...
Flexibility Design Strategies

Provide the user with a choice of language (English,
French, etc.)
Source: europa.eu

Desig...
Flexibility Design Strategies

Provide the user with a choice of mode for
communication
Source: redorbit.com

Design for A...
Flexibility Design Strategies

Provide adjustability and mobility
Source: toyota.com.au

Design for ALL

41
Flexibility Design Strategies

Mobility example:
Wheelchair Accessible Bathroom
Source: beyondthescreendoor.com

Design fo...
Flexibility Design Strategies

Provide adjustable response times
Design for ALL

43
Flexibility Design Strategies
Time

Times for starting and finishing a service

Content

B. Collis and J. Moonen, Flexible...
Human Factors Principles
• Cognition Principle
• Perception Principle
• Ergonomic Principle

Design for ALL

45
Cognition Principle
• The cognitive demands of designed entities
must be within acceptable limits for a wide
range of user...
Cognition Principle

Image: zocalopublicsquare.org

Source: google.com

Example: Color coding in Wal-Mart
Design for ALL

...
Cognitively Sound Design Strategies
• Build knowledge into the designed entity or
environment;
• Use universally or global...
Cognitively Sound Design Strategies
• Build knowledge into the designed entity or
environment strategy:
• Four design elem...
Affordance

Source: raftfurniture.co.uk

Source: blackrocktools.com

Affordance refers to the actual and perceived attribu...
Mapping

Source: usabilitypost.com

Use mappings to help users form clear conceptual models
of the entity’s operations and...
Constraints

Source: globalsources.com

Source: eco-drive.co.uk

Use constraints so as to control the course of actions an...
Feedback

Use feedback to keep the user informed as to the status of the entity’s
operations and the entity’s response to ...
Cognitively Sound Design
Strategies

Source: tema.ru/travel

Source: coachhiremanchester.com

Use universally or globally ...
Cognitively Sound Design Strategies

Source: darkroastedblend.com

Reduce the operational complexity of the entity
Design ...
Perception Principle
• Designed entities must effectively
communicate necessary information to the
user, regardless of amb...
Perceptible Design Strategies

Example: Emergency warning systems are prime examples of systems
that must be perceptible b...
Perceptible Design Strategies
• Provide multisensory options for
communications between a person and the
process or produc...
Perceptible Design Strategies

Source: gaates.org

Source: slashgear.com

Provide multisensory options for communications ...
Perceptible Design Strategies

Design signals so as to maximize the signal-to-noise
ratio
Source: zyalt.livejournal.com

D...
Perceptible Design Strategies

Source: www4.gira.com

Source: cdrinfo.com

Provide the ability for a person to increase or...
Ergonomic Principle
• The physical demands associated with the use
of an entity must be within acceptable limits
for a wid...
Question:
Whom this ramp is for?

The source is unknown
Design for ALL

63
I guess this is the only one
possible answer

Design for ALL

64
Ergonomic Design Strategies
• Design to avoid ergonomic risk factors;
• Design for a wide range of body sizes and
shapes;
...
Ergonomic Design Strategies

Design to avoid ergonomic risk factors
Image: Goldsmith , C., UNIVERSAL DESIGN

Design for AL...
Ergonomic Design Strategies

Design for a wide range of body sizes and shapes
Image source: openplay.co.uk

Design for ALL...
Ergonomic Design Strategies

Example: Boing 747 economy class interior mockup.
Circa 1965
Image source: reddit.com

Design...
Ergonomic Design Strategies

Example: Economy class today
Image source: dialaflight.com

Design for ALL

69
1.
2.

Finding the good HCI examples
Opportunities and Threats workshop

PRESENTING RESULTS OF
HOMEWORK
Design for ALL

70
Please complete a survey!
(15 minutes)

HTTP://GOO.GL/FULNT9

Design for ALL

71
Continuation of Workshop on TLU Building Accessibility Report

HTTP://GOO.GL/4MD8FQ
(OR FIND IT IN YOUR GOOGLE DRIVE)
Desi...
End of the Course

Design for ALL

73
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Design for all. Lecture 4

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Design for all. Lecture 4

  1. 1. Design for All Lecture Four Vladimir Tomberg, PhD Design for ALL 1
  2. 2. Lesson Agenda • Basic Principles • Presenting results of the homework: – Finding the good HCI examples – Opportunities and Threats workshop (if ready) • Filling in a closing survey • Finishing Design workshop based of the first assignment
  3. 3. The Overview UNIVERSAL DESIGN PRINCIPLES AND STRATEGIES
  4. 4. Source Book • Erlandson, R. F. (2010). Universal and accessible design for products, services, and processes. CRC Press. Design for ALL 4
  5. 5. Higher level places design constraints on the lower level The hierarchical structure of the universal design principles Transcending principles • Equitable Use More general More encompassing Process related principles • Flexibility • Error-management • Efficiency • Stability/predictability Human factors principles More detailed More narrowly defined More specific • Ergonomic • Perception • Cognition Design for ALL 5
  6. 6. Transcending principle • Equitable Use Principle Design for ALL 6
  7. 7. Equitable Use Principle • Universally designed entities should be equitable; • That is, the entities should provide the same means of use for all users: identical whenever possible and equivalent when not possible; • The products and processes should avoid segregating or stigmatizing any users, making the design appealing to all users Design for ALL 7
  8. 8. Equitable Use Source: livewellcollaborative.org Design for ALL 8
  9. 9. Equitable Use Strategies • Design entities that are age and context appropriate; • Design entities that are aesthetically pleasing; • Design entities that are competitively priced; • Market the entity for as broad a demographic and socioeconomic base as reasonable and possible; Design for ALL 9
  10. 10. Equitable Use Strategies Source: kohhranthianghlim.org Source: americanallergysupply.com Design entities that are age and context appropriate Design for ALL 10
  11. 11. Equitable Use Strategies Source: fastcodesign.com Source: designapplause.com Design entities that are aesthetically pleasing (Examples from OXO design) Design for ALL 11
  12. 12. Equitable Use Strategies Source: amazon.com Source: nextpowerup.com Design entities that are competitively priced (Examples: Expensive and relatively cheap Optical Image Stabilization) Design for ALL 12
  13. 13. Equitable Use Strategies The products and processes should avoid segregating or stigmatizing any users, making the design appealing to all users Source: designboom.com Design for ALL 13
  14. 14. Process Related Principles • • • • Stable and Predictable Principle Efficiency (Muda Elimination) Principle Error-Managed (Proofed) Principle Flexibility Principle Design for ALL 14
  15. 15. Stable and Predictable Principle • Design entities to reduce common cause variation. That is, design entities to be stable and predictable so that users can expect performance that supports the desired activity. Design for ALL 15
  16. 16. Stable and Predictable Principle Design for ALL 16
  17. 17. Stable and Predictable Design Strategies • Work to establish national and international standards for products, processes, and services so as to reduce their common cause variability • Reduce the common cause variability associated with the person’s interaction with the product or process • Reduce common cause variability using quality control and reliability engineering techniques to ensure proper functioning of the product Design for ALL 17
  18. 18. Stable and Predictable Principle This scheme has the highest common cause variability Erlandson, R. F. (2010). Universal and accessible design for products, services, and processes. CRC Press. Design for ALL 18
  19. 19. Stable and Predictable Principle This scheme has less common cause variability than Level 1, but still leaves room for potential errors due to judgments about pointer position Erlandson, R. F. (2010). Universal and accessible design for products, services, and processes. CRC Press. Design for ALL 19
  20. 20. Stable and Predictable Principle The vertical orientation of the correct readings increase reliability and reduces common cause variability if speed is important (e.g., dashboard dials in a racing car). Erlandson, R. F. (2010). Universal and accessible design for products, services, and processes. CRC Press. Design for ALL 20
  21. 21. Efficiency (Muda Elimination) Principle • Muda (無駄) is a Japanese word meaning: futility; uselessness; idleness; superfluity; waste; wastage; wastefulness Source: Gemba Kaizen Design for ALL 21
  22. 22. Efficiency (muda elimination) • Designed entities need to be efficient in that they have reduced as much of the non-valueadded activities as possible and/or is reasonable • Non-value-added activity (NVAA) is any activity that does not directly add to the successful and timely completion of the task or activity Design for ALL 22
  23. 23. Efficiency (muda elimination) • Muda elimination would include providing doors, walkways, elevators, and escalators so as to allow an efficient flow of people for normal operations. Design for ALL 23
  24. 24. Efficiency Design Strategies • Reduce or eliminate non-value-added activity (NVAA); • Make the designed entity as simple and easy to use as possible; • Avoid complexity in that it leads to NVAA; • Use task analysis techniques to identify tasks or activities that can be eliminated or redesigned so as to reduce or eliminate NVAA Design for ALL 24
  25. 25. Efficiency Design Strategies Reduce or eliminate non-value-added activity (NVAA) Design for ALL 25
  26. 26. Efficiency Design Strategies Make the designed entity as simple and easy to use as possible Image: crave.cnet.co.uk Design for ALL 26
  27. 27. Efficiency Design Strategies Avoid complexity in that it leads to NVAA Image: 2.bp.blogspot.com Design for ALL 27
  28. 28. Efficiency Design Strategies Use task analysis techniques to identify tasks or activities that can be eliminated or redesigned so as to reduce or eliminate NVAA Image: infoq.com Design for ALL 28
  29. 29. Error-Managed (Proofed) Principle • Entities must be designed so that they support doing the right thing. It is important to create a design wherein errors can be managed Design for ALL 29
  30. 30. Error-Managed (Proofed) Principle My favorite example Design for ALL 30
  31. 31. Error-Managed Design Strategies • Use a three-staged approach to errorproofing: 1. Prevent errors at the source; 2. Provide a warning that an error has or is about to occur; 3. Provide quick and easy recovery if an error has occurred Design for ALL 31
  32. 32. Error-Managed Design Strategies Prevent errors at the source Image source: blog.crazyegg.com Design for ALL 32
  33. 33. Error-Managed Design Strategies Provide a warning that an error has or is about to occur Image source: designmodo.com Design for ALL 33
  34. 34. Error-Managed Design Strategies Provide quick and easy recovery if an error has occurred Image source: teamwindows8.com Design for ALL 34
  35. 35. Error-Managed Design Strategies Provide quick and easy recovery if an error has occurred Image source: teamwindows8.com Design for ALL 35
  36. 36. Flexibility Principle • Design products, systems, and environments with enough flexibility so that they can be used and experienced by people of all abilities, to the greatest extent possible, without adaptations Design for ALL 36
  37. 37. Flexibility Principle Image: ergonomicsolutionsaustralia.com.au Image: indiandrives.com Design for ALL 37
  38. 38. Flexibility Design Strategies • Provide the user with choices; • Provide adjustability and mobility • Build flexibility into service delivery systems and work processes Design for ALL 38
  39. 39. Flexibility Design Strategies Provide the user with a choice of language (English, French, etc.) Source: europa.eu Design for ALL 39
  40. 40. Flexibility Design Strategies Provide the user with a choice of mode for communication Source: redorbit.com Design for ALL 40
  41. 41. Flexibility Design Strategies Provide adjustability and mobility Source: toyota.com.au Design for ALL 41
  42. 42. Flexibility Design Strategies Mobility example: Wheelchair Accessible Bathroom Source: beyondthescreendoor.com Design for ALL 42
  43. 43. Flexibility Design Strategies Provide adjustable response times Design for ALL 43
  44. 44. Flexibility Design Strategies Time Times for starting and finishing a service Content B. Collis and J. Moonen, Flexible Learning in a Digital World. London, U.K.: Kogan, 2001. Flexibility dimensions Times for submitting transactions and interacting with the service provider Tempo/pace of conducting transactions Content, type, and quality of service provided Sequence of transactions and services provided Orientation of the service (sales, information) Requirements Instructional material, users manuals, guidelines, and procedures Conditions for participation Delivery and logistics Time and place where contact with service provider occurs Methods and technology for obtaining support and making contact Types of help, communication available, and technology required Location and technology for participating in various aspects of service delivery Delivery channels for information, content, and communication Build flexibility into service delivery systems and work processes Design for ALL 44
  45. 45. Human Factors Principles • Cognition Principle • Perception Principle • Ergonomic Principle Design for ALL 45
  46. 46. Cognition Principle • The cognitive demands of designed entities must be within acceptable limits for a wide range of users Design for ALL 46
  47. 47. Cognition Principle Image: zocalopublicsquare.org Source: google.com Example: Color coding in Wal-Mart Design for ALL 47
  48. 48. Cognitively Sound Design Strategies • Build knowledge into the designed entity or environment; • Use universally or globally understood icons, symbols, or pictures for communications; • Reduce the operational complexity of the entity Design for ALL 48
  49. 49. Cognitively Sound Design Strategies • Build knowledge into the designed entity or environment strategy: • Four design elements are generally associated with good cognitive design: Affordance Mapping Constraints Feedback • Each of these design elements can support human capabilities and hence support universal and accessible design strategies. Design for ALL 49
  50. 50. Affordance Source: raftfurniture.co.uk Source: blackrocktools.com Affordance refers to the actual and perceived attributes of a product or process that suggest its uses Design for ALL 50
  51. 51. Mapping Source: usabilitypost.com Use mappings to help users form clear conceptual models of the entity’s operations and simplify operations Design for ALL 51
  52. 52. Constraints Source: globalsources.com Source: eco-drive.co.uk Use constraints so as to control the course of actions and prevent or reduce the possibility of the users doing the wrong thing Design for ALL 52
  53. 53. Feedback Use feedback to keep the user informed as to the status of the entity’s operations and the entity’s response to user inputs Design for ALL 53
  54. 54. Cognitively Sound Design Strategies Source: tema.ru/travel Source: coachhiremanchester.com Use universally or globally understood icons, symbols, or pictures for communications Design for ALL 54
  55. 55. Cognitively Sound Design Strategies Source: darkroastedblend.com Reduce the operational complexity of the entity Design for ALL 55
  56. 56. Perception Principle • Designed entities must effectively communicate necessary information to the user, regardless of ambient conditions or the user’s sensory abilities Design for ALL 56
  57. 57. Perceptible Design Strategies Example: Emergency warning systems are prime examples of systems that must be perceptible by as many people as possible Source: fox6now.com Design for ALL 57
  58. 58. Perceptible Design Strategies • Provide multisensory options for communications between a person and the process or product; • Design signals so as to maximize the signal-tonoise ratio; • Provide the ability for a person to increase or decrease the signal strength so as to increase the signal-to-noise ratio Design for ALL 58
  59. 59. Perceptible Design Strategies Source: gaates.org Source: slashgear.com Provide multisensory options for communications between a person and the process or product Design for ALL 59
  60. 60. Perceptible Design Strategies Design signals so as to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio Source: zyalt.livejournal.com Design for ALL 60
  61. 61. Perceptible Design Strategies Source: www4.gira.com Source: cdrinfo.com Provide the ability for a person to increase or decrease the signal strength so as to increase the signal-to-noise ratio Design for ALL 61
  62. 62. Ergonomic Principle • The physical demands associated with the use of an entity must be within acceptable limits for a wide range of users. Design for ALL 62
  63. 63. Question: Whom this ramp is for? The source is unknown Design for ALL 63
  64. 64. I guess this is the only one possible answer Design for ALL 64
  65. 65. Ergonomic Design Strategies • Design to avoid ergonomic risk factors; • Design for a wide range of body sizes and shapes; Design for ALL 65
  66. 66. Ergonomic Design Strategies Design to avoid ergonomic risk factors Image: Goldsmith , C., UNIVERSAL DESIGN Design for ALL 66
  67. 67. Ergonomic Design Strategies Design for a wide range of body sizes and shapes Image source: openplay.co.uk Design for ALL 67
  68. 68. Ergonomic Design Strategies Example: Boing 747 economy class interior mockup. Circa 1965 Image source: reddit.com Design for ALL 68
  69. 69. Ergonomic Design Strategies Example: Economy class today Image source: dialaflight.com Design for ALL 69
  70. 70. 1. 2. Finding the good HCI examples Opportunities and Threats workshop PRESENTING RESULTS OF HOMEWORK Design for ALL 70
  71. 71. Please complete a survey! (15 minutes) HTTP://GOO.GL/FULNT9 Design for ALL 71
  72. 72. Continuation of Workshop on TLU Building Accessibility Report HTTP://GOO.GL/4MD8FQ (OR FIND IT IN YOUR GOOGLE DRIVE) Design for ALL 72
  73. 73. End of the Course Design for ALL 73

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