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php user defined functions

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php user defined functions

  1. 1. PHP User-defined functions
  2. 2. PHP User-defined functions PHP has a large number of built-in functions such as mathematical, string, date, array functions etc. It is also possible to define a function as per specific requirement. Such function is called user defined function. A function is a reusable block of statements that performs a specific task. This block is defined with function keyword and is given a name that starts with an alphabet or underscore. This function may be called from anywhere within the program any number of times. Syntax
  3. 3. Function may be defined with optional but any number of arguments. However, same number of arguments must be provided while calling. Function's body can contain any valid PHP code i.e. conditionals, loops etc. (even other functions or classes may be defined inside a function). After executing statements in the block, program control goes back to the location from which it was invoked irrespective of presence of last statement of function block as return. An expression in front of return statement returns its value to calling environment.
  4. 4. user defined function Example <?php //function definition function sayHello() { echo "Hello World!"; } //function call sayHello(); ?> Output Hello World!
  5. 5. function with arguments <?php function add($arg1, $arg2){ echo $arg1+$arg2 . "n"; } add(10,20); add("Hello", "World"); ?> Example Output 30 PHP Warning: A non-numeric value encountered in line 3 In second call, two string values are given as function arguments. Since PHP doesn't support + operator for strings, a warning is emitted.
  6. 6. function return User defined function in following example processes the provided arguments and returns a value to calling environment Example <?php function add($arg1, $arg2){ return $arg1+$arg2; } $val=add(10,20); echo "addition:". $val. "n"; $val=add("10","20"); echo "addition: $val"; ?> Output addition:30 addition:30 In second call, even if arguments are string, PHP coerces them into integer and performs addition
  7. 7. function with default argument value While defining a function , a default value of argument may be assigned. If value is not assigned to such argument while calling the function, this default will be used for processing inside function. In following example, a function is defined with argument having default value Example <?php function welcome($user="Guest"){ echo "Hello $usern"; } //overrides default welcome("admin"); //uses default welcome(); ?> Output Hello admin Hello Guest In second call, function is called without passing value. In this case, user argument takes its default value.
  8. 8. Function with variable number of arguments It is possible to define a function with ability to receive variable number of arguments. The name of formal argument in function definition is prefixed by ... token. Following example has add() function that adds a list of numbers given as argument Example <?php function add(...$numbers){ $ttl=0; foreach ($numbers as $num){ $ttl=$ttl+$num; } return $ttl; } $total=add(10,15,20); echo "total= $totaln"; echo "total=". add(1,2,3,4,5). "n"; ?> Output total= 45 total=15
  9. 9. <?php function add(){ $numbers=func_get_args(); $ttl=0; foreach ($numbers as $num){ $ttl=$ttl+$num; } return $ttl; } $total=add(10,15,20); echo "total= $totaln"; echo "total=". add(1,2,3,4,5). "n"; ?> Output total= 45 total=15 It is also possible to obtain a list of arguments passed to a function with the help of func_get_args() function. We can run a PHP loop to traverse each value in the list of arguments passed. In that case the function definition doesn't have a formal argument.
  10. 10. Function within another function A function may be defined inside another function's body block. However, inner function can not be called before outer function has been invoked. Example <?php function hello(){ echo "Hellon"; function welcome(){ echo "Welcome to the world of programmingn"; } } //welcome(); hello(); welcome(); ?> Remove the comment to call wlcome() bfore hello(). Following error message halts the program − Fatal error: Uncaught Error: Call to undefined function welcome() Output Hello Welcome to the world of programming
  11. 11. Recursive function A function that calls itself is called recursive function. Calling itself unconditionally creates infinite loop and results in out of memory error because of stack full. Following program calls factorial() function recursively Example <?php function factorial($n){ if ($n < 2) { return 1; } else { return ($n * factorial($n-1)); } } echo "factorial(5) = ". factorial(5); ?> Output factorial(5) = 120

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