SlideShare verwendet Cookies, um die Funktionalität und Leistungsfähigkeit der Webseite zu verbessern und Ihnen relevante Werbung bereitzustellen. Wenn Sie diese Webseite weiter besuchen, erklären Sie sich mit der Verwendung von Cookies auf dieser Seite einverstanden. Lesen Sie bitte unsere Nutzervereinbarung und die Datenschutzrichtlinie.
SlideShare verwendet Cookies, um die Funktionalität und Leistungsfähigkeit der Webseite zu verbessern und Ihnen relevante Werbung bereitzustellen. Wenn Sie diese Webseite weiter besuchen, erklären Sie sich mit der Verwendung von Cookies auf dieser Seite einverstanden. Lesen Sie bitte unsere unsere Datenschutzrichtlinie und die Nutzervereinbarung.
Diese Präsentation wurde erfolgreich gemeldet.
Sie haben unbegrenzte Downloads auf SlideShare freigeschaltet!
In recent years, transplantation is the most
effective way to cure the functional failure of
Lack of donor is what pinches the most waitlisted
recipients, many dying before their turn comes up
What can we do ?
Use the organs of animals
XENO- A tissue transplant from one species
e.g. from pig/chimps to human.
A procedure in which a human receives cells,
tissues, or organs from a nonhuman animal
documented attempt . Repair of the
skull defect of Russian nobleman by dog
skull. The graft did well but surgeon was
forced to remove it on pressure by church
1800- Frog skin was used for repair of burns by
1920 – Sergei Voranov , French surgeon
injected monkey testicle aspirates to elderly
males to rejuvenate sexual vigour
1905- French doctor, Princeteau put rabbit thinly
sliced kidney in a case of acute renal failure .
Patients had significantly increased urine output,
but 16 days later patient died of pulmonary edema.
1909 - German doctor tried to transplant monkey
kidney to patient with renal failure in the thigh, 32
hours after the transplant ,renal vein thrombosis
1964 - Reemtsma, Lousiana transplanted gorilla’s
kidney into 13 patients with CKD, and gave
immunosuppressive therapy at the same time. Only
one patients kidney remained normal for nine
The surviving recipient was school teacher who
even resumed her duty but died of electrolyte
imbalance. Graft biopsy was normal with no
evidence of rejection.
1965- J. Hardy did first cardiac transplant (baboon),
failed due to small heart to tolerate adult circulation
1992- Pittsburg, first liver tranplant, died due to
infection due to heavy immunosuppresion 2
1995 – Jeff Getty recieved immune cells from
baboon for AIDS, mysteriously improved .
1997- a 20-year-old man suffering from acute
liver failure was hooked up to external
transgenic pig livers developed by Nextran.
1998- There were three successful
transplantation of pig neural cells into patients
suffering from strokes and Parkinson’s
Who can be the potential
Closer to humans in terms of evolutionary lineage
Less chance of rejection (Concordant xenografting )
Due to their similarities, there is a higher chance that
primate infections will spread to humans
Raises many ethical concerns
1) Chimpanze are endangered species
2) So close to humans that some might equate it with
killing other humans
Baboon organs are too small to support
adult function, but may be useful for children
Produce many offspring
Organs are of similar size to those of humans
Domestic animal might pose fewer ethical
Not as closely related to humans
Life span Pigs live for 15-20 years, so their
organs might be in danger of breaking down if
they are in humans for too long
A) Can help treat patients with –
a) Serious burns,
b) Visual impairments,
c) Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s
d) and those in organ failure waiting for donor
B) Combat the consistent shortage of organs and
tissues needed for transplantation
(Vaccines, Blood & Biologics)
C) Help people who are in need of a transplant but
who are not eligible to be put on the organ/tissue
donor waiting list.
D) Abolish the black marketing of organs
E) Families would be pardoned from the difficult
decisions about organ donation of deceased
1) Infected animal organs could be transplanted
into humans, transferring infectious diseases
into the human population (Xenoses/zoonoses)
a) Monkeypox virus
b) Herpes B virus
c) Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV)
(similar to HIV)
2) Animals can be infected with organisms that
are usually not transferrable to humans that
may become transferrable with the
assimilation of organs/tissues into human
bodies, creating unknown diseases
3) Animal organs may not be able to complete
all of the necessary functions in human bodies
4) High levels of immunosuppressant drugs can
make patients more susceptible to other
5) Is it acceptable to use animals as organ/tissue
sources? – may not be for some religions
6) Will necessitate the breeding and killing of
animals on a large scale. ( Though inc.
employment) – PETA, animal right activists
7) Is it acceptable to genetically modify animals so
the organs/tissues they produce are compatible
with those of humans? - Religious authorities
against it .
8) None Clinical trials done -
Is it right to subject humans to xenografts if it
is unlikely that they will survive?
9) Should we proceed with developing
xenotransplantation when other technologies,
such as artificial organs, could be
invented/developed to tackle the same
problems and might prove even better ?
Xenotransplantation will open up a new
a)Gene transfer strategy
b)modification of donor organs,