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Risk factor surveillance of Non-communicable diseases

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This presentation is based on the various W.H.O. available tools for risk factor surveillance of NCDS.

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Risk factor surveillance of Non-communicable diseases

  3. 3. PROLOGUE
  4. 4. Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death globally, and one of the major health challenges of the 21st century.
  5. 5. FROM ETIOLOGY TO RISK FACTORS For many diseases the disease agent is still unidentified • CHD • Cancer • Peptic Ulcer • Mental illness Where the disease agent is not firmly established, the aetiology is generally discussed in terms of risk factors
  6. 6. Why study Risk Factors? • A description of diseases and injuries and the risk factors that cause them is vital for health decision-making and planning. • Most scientific and health resources go towards treatment. However, understanding the risks to health is key to preventing disease and injuries and is cost effective too.
  7. 7. FROM HEALTH SURVEYS TO SURVEILLANCE Research Surveys Hypothesis-testing One time Goes into depth within specific health issue Public Health Surveillance Hypothesis-generating On-going Looks at broad trends and patterns across health issues, geographic areas
  8. 8. TERMINOLOGIES Survey: Making a single observation to measure and record something. Surveillance: Making repeated standardised surveys in order that change can be detected. This is quite different to, but often confused with, monitoring. Surveillance lacks the ‘formulated standards’ that are so important in monitoring. Surveillance is used to detect change but does not differentiate between acceptable and unacceptable change. Monitoring: Surveillance undertaken to ensure that formulated standards are being maintained.
  9. 9. SURVEILLANCE DEFINITION On-going, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation and dissemination of data essential for health promotion and disease prevention (CDC 2004)
  10. 10. Why is surveillance important ? • Sizes the problem • Informs interventions • Content of advocacy information • Basis for evaluating impact of policy/practice • Helps prioritise resources allocation • Stimulates research
  11. 11. TYPES OF SURVEILLANCE – based on data collection PASSIVE SURVEILLANCE ACTIVE SURVEILLANCE Laboratories, physicians, or others regularly report cases of disease or death to the local or state health department. Examples: • A doctor’s office reports 2 cases of measles • A nursing home reports an unusual number of older patients with unexplained rashes Local or state health departments initiate the collection of information from laboratories, physicians, health care providers, or the general population. Achieves more complete and accurate reporting than passive surveillance Example: Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance surveys
  12. 12. SENTINEL SURVEILLANCE • A sentinel surveillance system is used when high-quality data are needed about a particular disease that cannot be obtained through a passive system. • Selected reporting units, with a high probability of seeing cases of the disease in question, good laboratory facilities and experienced well-qualified staff, identify and notify on certain diseases. • Whereas most passive surveillance systems receive data from as many health workers or health facilities as possible, a sentinel system deliberately involves only a limited network of carefully selected reporting sites.
  13. 13. NCD Surveillance tools • NCD global monitoring framework, indicators and targets • NCD Country Capacity Survey (CCS) • STEPS (adults) • GSHS (adolescents) • Service availability and readiness assessment (SARA) • Comparable estimates for key risk factors • Compiling and storing NCD data
  14. 14. Monitoring Framework for NCD surveillance • In May 2013 the 66th World Health Assembly adopted the comprehensive global monitoring framework (GMF) for the prevention and control of non communicable diseases. • The Global Monitoring Framework included a set of indicators capable of application across regions and country settings to monitor trends and assess progress made in the implementation of national strategies and plans on non communicable diseases.
  15. 15. Global Monitoring Framework on NCDs • India is the first country to develop specific national targets and indicators aimed at reducing the number of global premature deaths from NCDs by 25% by 2025. • A National Multi-sectoral Action Plan that outlines actions by various sectors to reduce the burden of NCDs and their risk factors, is being developed and implemented. • India will have 9 targets (as per the Global Action plan) and a tenth target to address household air pollution —a major health hazard due to burning of solid biomass fuel and second-hand smoke.
  16. 16. NCD Country Capacity Survey • To gather information about individual country capacity to respond to NCD prevention and control. • Assessment focused on current strengths and weaknesses related to: • NCD infrastructure, policy response, surveillance and health systems response and partnerships and health promotion. • 5th wave of surveillance conducted in – previous surveys in 2000, 2005, 2013 and 2015. • Next wave planned for 2017. • Generally a high response rate from Member States. • Periodic monitoring of national progress would assist countries in identifying gaps in prevention and control efforts and assist with future planning.
  17. 17. STEPS- Adult Risk Factor Surveillance • The STEPS approach focuses on obtaining core data on the established risk factors that determine the major disease burden. • It is sufficiently flexible to allow each country to expand on the core variables and risk factors, and to incorporate optional modules related to local or regional interests. • PURPOSE: Designed to help countries build and strengthen their surveillance capacity.
  18. 18. STEPS- Adult Risk Factor Surveillance • The STEPS approach focuses on obtaining core data on the established risk factors that determine the major disease burden. • It is sufficiently flexible to allow each country to expand on the core variables and risk factors, and to incorporate optional modules related to local or regional interests. • PURPOSE: Designed to help countries build and strengthen their surveillance capacity.
  19. 19. STEPS DESIGN The STEPS Instrument covers three different levels of "steps" of risk factor assessment. These steps are: • Questionnaire • Physical measurements • Biochemical measurements Three modules per Step: • Core • Expanded • Optional
  20. 20. BASIS OF STEPS STEPS emphasizes that small amounts of good quality data are more valuable than large amounts of poor data. It is based on the following two key premises: • Collection of standardized data. • Flexibility for use in a variety of country situations and settings. POPULATION: The STEPS approach uses a representative sample of the study population. This allows for results to be generalized to the population.
  21. 21. STEPS INSTRUMENT The STEPS Instrument covers three different levels, or 'Steps', of risk factor assessment: Step 1, Step 2 and Step 3, as follows:
  22. 22. Core, expanded and optional items Within each Step, there are three levels of data collection. These depend on what can realistically be accomplished (financially, logistically and in terms of human resources) in each country setting.
  23. 23. • Targets a nationally representative sample of adults aged 18 – 69. • STEP 1 (questionnaire) and STEP 2 (physical measures) are conducted in the household by trained interviewers. • STEP 3 (biochemical measures) is typically clinic or health centre-based. • Pocket PCs (PDAs*) are used for data collection: "eSTEPS" • Repeat survey should be done every 3 - 5 years. STEPS Methodology
  24. 24. From Surveys to Surveillance • While surveys can be a one off exercise, surveillance involves commitment to data collection on an on going, repeated basis. • Repeat surveys are essential to identify trends in the prevalence of risk factors
  25. 25. # planning # in field / data entry or analysis work # reporting completed Total # active # trained but inactive # with 1 or more repeats AFRO 10 18 15 43 (3) 7 AMRO 13 8 1 22 (3) 1 EMRO 2 7 9 18 (1) 7 EURO 1 1 0 2 (0) 0 SEARO 0 2 8 10 (0) 9 WPRO 3 11 11 25 (1) 7 120 Current Status of STEPS
  26. 26. STEPS Current Status
  27. 27. Global School Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) Overview & Objectives • System for surveillance of behavioural risk factors and protective factors in school-aged children • Help countries develop priorities, establish programmes, and advocate for resources • Establish trends in the prevalence of health behaviors and protective factors by country • Allow countries and international agencies to make comparisons across countries
  28. 28. GSHS: Methods • Self-administered questionnaire and generic answer sheet • Targets grades with students aged 13 – 17 years • Completed by students during one classroom period • Anonymous and confidential • 10 Question Modules are available, from which countries can select a minimum of 6: Alcohol, diet, drugs, hygiene, mental health, physical activity, protective factors, sexual behaviours, tobacco, violence & injury
  29. 29. 106 countries across all six WHO regions have been trained and 96 have finished GSHS data collection (including 17 countries with repeat surveys).
  30. 30. • The 2007 India (CBSE) GSHS was a school-based survey of students in classes 8, 9, and 10. • Measured hygiene; dietary behaviours and overweight; physical activity; tobacco use; mental health; and protective factors. • For comparison purposes, only students aged 13-15 years are included in the analyses for this fact sheet.
  31. 31. Service Availability and Readiness Assessment (SARA)  A health facility assessment tool designed to assess and monitor service availability and readiness of the health sector and generate evidence to support planning and managing a health system.  Designed as a systematic survey to generate a set of tracer indicators of service availability and readiness, including:  availability of key human and infrastructure resources;  availability of basic equipment, basic amenities, essential medicines, and diagnostic capacities; and  readiness of health facilities to provide basic health-care interventions relating to family planning, child health services, basic and comprehensive emergency obstetric care, HIV, TB, malaria, and non-communicable diseases.
  32. 32. Comparable estimates for selected NCD Risk Factors
  33. 33. Compiling and storing NCD data
  34. 34. NCD SURVEILLANCE INDIA The growing burden of NCDs represents a major challenge to health development in India and accurate data are vital to curb the morbidity and mortality due to NCDs. Two major surveillance studies on NCDs have been conducted in India: (i) WHO-ICMR NCD risk factor surveillance (ii)Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP)
  35. 35. WHO-ICMR NCD risk factor surveillance • Recognizing the lack of a national NCD surveillance system in the country, the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) planned and coordinated a six-site pilot study, from 2003 to 2006. • Ballabgarh and Delhi (North), Chennai (South), Trivandrum (South), Dibrugarh (East) and Nagpur (Central) • The WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of NCDs was adopted. • The total sample size was 44,537 aged between 15 and 64 years stratified by sex and 10-year age groups.
  36. 36. Key Findings • Smoking: Smoking was most common among peri-urban/slum men (34.3%) compared to their rural (26.7%) and urban (26.5%) counterparts. • Alcohol: Alcohol consumption was more prevalent among men. About 33% of urban men, 49.3% of peri-urban/slum men and 40.5% of rural men were found to be current users of alcohol. • Physical activity: More than 50% of the urban residents, 41.4% of peri-urban/slum residents and 35% of rural residents had a sedentary lifestyle while 25.4% of rural residents, 14.2% of peri-urban/slum residents and 7.4% of urban residents were involved in vigorous physical activity. • Fruit consumption: The proportion of subjects who never consumed fruits (in the last week) were 24% in urban, 29% in peri-urban/slum and 41% in rural area. • Obesity: Obesity and abdominal obesity were more common in urban residents, followed by peri-urban/slum and lowest among rural residents. Generalized obesity: Urban (men: 30.7%, women: 38.8%), peri-urban/slum: (men: 16.7%, women: 26.1%) and rural (men: 9.4%, women: 14.1%). Abdominal obesity: Urban (men: 30.9%, women: 57.8%), peri-urban/slum: (men: 17.9%, women: 41.1%) and rural (men: 12.2%, women: 29.6%). • Diabetes: Diabetes was diagnosed based on self-reported diabetes diagnosed by a physician. The lowest prevalence of self-reported diabetes was recorded in rural (3.1%) followed by peri-urban/slum (3.2%) and the highest in urban areas (7.3%). • Hypertension: The prevalence of hypertension was highest among urban residents (self-reported: 15.1%, newly-diagnosed: 19.3%), followed by peri- urban/slum (self-reported: 9.9%, newly diagnosed: 20.8%) and rural residents (self-reported: 7.2%, newly diagnosed: 17.4%).
  37. 37. Integrated Disease Surveillance Project NCD – Risk Factor Survey • The Government of India through the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW) initiated a decentralized, state based Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP) in the country with the assistance of the World Bank in the year 2004. • The component of non communicable disease surveillance planned periodic community based surveys of population aged 15-64 to provide data on the risk factors at state level enabling states to develop strategies and activities to prevent and control the non-communicable diseases.
  38. 38. OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY The specific objectives of the survey were to: • Assess the prevalence of NCD risk factors in different strata of population in the states. • Establish a baseline database of NCD risk factors needed to monitor trends in population health behavior and risk factors for chronic diseases over a period of time in the states; and provide evidence for evolving strategies and interventions for identified risk factors in the community to reduce the burden of Non-Communicable Diseases in the population. • WHO STEPS methodology for NCD Risk Factor Surveillance has been adopted for the survey.
  39. 39. KEY FINDINGS The phase I (2007-08) of the survey covered seven states namely Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Mizoram, Tamil Nadu and Uttarakhand. • Current daily smokers • Current smokeless tobacco users • Respondents consumed alcohol in last 12 months • Respondents consumed less than five servings of fruits & vegetables (%) per day • Type of oil consumption among the households for cooking (%) • Mean time spent on physical activity per day (minutes) • Stage I & II hypertension (%) • History of raised blood sugar (%) • Overweight respondents Overall, NCD risk factors were prevalent across all the socio-economic and demographic categories of population in phase I states. The results generated through this survey would certainly focus on major issues in bringing changes or initiate various programs related to control of non communicable diseases.
  40. 40. CONCLUSION • Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are reaching epidemic proportions worldwide and in India. • NCD risk factor surveillance is quite challenging, as the NCDs are chronic diseases and have prolonged exposure to risk factors and clinical manifestations • Surveillance of NCD risk factors are therefore needed as they could help in policy planning and implementation of preventive measures. • Remember - The risk factors of today are diseases of tomorrow
  41. 41. REFERENCES • Deepa, M., Pradeepa, R., Anjana, R., & Mohan, V. (2011). Noncommunicable diseases risk factor surveillance: experience and challenge from India. Indian journal of community medicine : official publication of Indian Association of Preventive & Social Medicine, 36(Suppl 1), S50-6. • World Health Organization. Global school-based student health survey: India (CBSE) 2007 fact sheet. • Anand K, Shah B, Yadav K, Singh R, Mathur P, Paul E, Kapoor SK. Are the urban poor vulnerable to non-communicable diseases? A survey of risk factors for non-communicable diseases in urban slums of Faridabad. National Medical Journal of India. 2007 Jan 1;20(3):115. • Riley, L., Guthold, R., Cowan, M., Savin, S., Bhatti, L., Armstrong, T. and Bonita, R., 2016. The World Health Organization STEPwise approach to noncommunicable disease risk-factor surveillance: methods, challenges, and opportunities. American journal of public health, 106(1), pp.74-78. .
  42. 42. • World Health Organization. Assessing national capacity for the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases: report of the 2017 global survey. • Mishra US, Rajan SI, Joe W, Mehdi A. Surveillance of chronic diseases: challenges and strategies for India. • World Health Organization. Noncommunicable diseases country profiles 2014. • World Health Organization (WHO). Noncommunicable diseases global monitoring framework 2013. Geneva: WHO. 2013
  43. 43. THANK YOU “The risk factors of today are diseases of tomorrow”