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Pathology Slides For Exam (Kiev Medical University)

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Pathology Slides For Exam (Kiev Medical University)

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Pathology Slides For Exam (Kiev Medical University)

  1. 1. SLIDES PATHOLOGY VIKRAM SINGH PANIHARIYA
  2. 2. SCHWANNOMA A schwannoma is a usually benign nerve sheath tumor composed of Schwann cells, which normally produce the insulating myelin sheath covering peripheral nerves. The tumor cells always stay on the outside of the nerve, but the tumor itself may either push the nerve aside and/or up against a bony structure (thereby possibly causing damage).
  3. 3. GLIOBLASTOMA Glioblastoma, also known as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), is the most aggressive cancer that begins within the brain.Initially, signs and symptoms of glioblastoma are non-specific. They may include headaches, personality changes, nausea, and symptoms similar to those of a stroke. Worsening of symptoms often is rapid.This may progress to unconsciousness.
  4. 4. MELANOMA OF THE SKIN Melanoma is a cancer that develops in melanocytes, the pigment cells present in the skin. It can be more serious than the other forms of skin cancer because of a tendency to spread to other parts of the body (metastasize) and cause serious illness and death
  5. 5. LEOMYOSARCOMA OF THE UTERUS Uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a smooth muscle tumor that arises from the muscular part of the uterus. Leiomyoma, or fibroid, is a very common benign smooth muscle tumor of the uterus
  6. 6. LEOMYOMA OF THE UTERUS Leiomyomas of the uterus (or uterine fibroids) are benign tumors that arise from the overgrowth of smooth muscle and connective tissue in the uterus. Histologically, a monoclonal proliferation of smooth muscle cells occurs.
  7. 7. LIPOMA Benign tumor composed of mature white adipocytes with uniform nuclei resembling normal white fat Most common mesenchymal and soft tissue tumor
  8. 8. PAPILLARY CANCER OF THE THYROID GLAND Papillary carcinoma (PTC) is the most common form of well- differentiated thyroid cancer, and the most common form of thyroid cancer to result from exposure to radiation. Papillary carcinoma appears as an irregular solid or cystic mass or nodule in a normal thyroid parenchyma
  9. 9. INVASIVE DUCT CANCER OF MAMMARY GLAND Invasive ductal carcinoma” refers to cancer that has broken through the wall of the milk duct and begun to invade the tissues of the breast. Over time, invasive ductal carcinoma can spread to the lymph nodes and possibly to other areas of the body.
  10. 10. ADENOCARCINOMA OF THE INTESTINE Adenocarcinoma starts in glandular cells in the lining of the small intestine and is the most common type of small intestine cancer. Most of these tumors occur in the part of the small intestine near the stomach. They may grow and block the intestine.
  11. 11. SQUAMOUS CELL CANCER OF THE LUNG Squamous cell lung cancer, or squamous cell carcinoma of the lung, is one type of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). It is also called epidermoid carcinoma. This type of lung cancer begins in the squamous cells—thin, flat cells that look like fish scales when seen under a microscope. They line the inside of the airways in the lungs.1,2
  12. 12. PAPILLOMA OF THE SKIN Paplilloma is a benign epithelial tumor. Tumor cells proliferate and produce finger-like or warty projections; secondary, the subjacent vessels and connective tissue (fibrovascular core) grows to sustain and feed the tumor. The tumor cells resemble normal squamous cells, but there is an increase of the layers
  13. 13. POSTINFARCTION CARDIOSEROSIS Postinfarction cardiosclerosis (PICS) is a cardiovascular disease in which myocardial cysts are replaced by connective tissue. Most often, this is due to necrosis of cells, which occurs during prolonged ischemia of the heart muscle. As a result, the activity of the heart is disturbed, various forms of arrhythmia may develop.
  14. 14. YOUNG CONNECTIVE TISSUE IN THE WOUND Granulation tissue is new connective tissue and microscopic blood vessels that form on the surfaces of a wound during the healing process.[1] Granulation tissue typically grows from the base of a wound and is able to fill wounds of almost any size. Examples of granulation tissue can be seen in pyogenic granulomas and pulp polyps.
  15. 15. HYPERTROPHY OF THE MIOCARDIUM Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a condition in which a portion of the heart becomes thickened without an obvious cause.[9] This results in the heart being less able to pump blood effectively. Complications include heart failure, an irregular heartbeat, and sudden cardiac death.
  16. 16. BRONCHIAL ASTHMA A chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that causes periodic "attacks" of coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. the lungs are hyperinflated and overexpanded, appearing ballooned and occupying the whole thoracic cavity. Petechial hemorrhages beneath the visceral pleura are sometimes present. Greyish-whitish mucus plugs that occasionally completely occlude the airways
  17. 17. TUBERCULOSIS GRANULOMAD IN THE LUNGS One of the main features of the immune response to M. Tuberculosis is the formation of an organized structure called granuloma. It consists mainly in the recruitment at the infectious stage of macrophages, highly differentiated cells such as multinucleated giant cells, epithelioid cells and Foamy cells, all these cells being surrounded by a rim of lymphocytes.
  18. 18. FLEGMON Phlegmon is a localized area of acute inflammation of the soft tissues. It is a descriptive term which may be used for inflammation related to a bacterial infection or non-infectious causes (e.g. pancreatitis)
  19. 19. AN ABSCESS OF THE LUNG Lung abscess is a type of liquefactive necrosis of the lung tissue and formation of cavities (more than 2 cm) containing necrotic debris or fluid caused by microbial infection. This pus-filled cavity is often caused by aspiration, which may occur during anesthesia, sedation, or unconsciousness from injury.
  20. 20. FIBRINOUS PERICIRDITIS Fibrinous pericarditis. Fibrinous pericarditis is an exudative inflammation. The visceral pericardium (epicardium) is infiltrated by the fibrinous exudate. This consists in fibrin strands and leukocytes. Fibrin describes an eosinophilic (pink) network, amorphous.
  21. 21. HEMORAGIC INFARCTION OF THE LUNGS Pulmonary infarct (hemorrhagic infarct of the lung) is an area of ischemic necrosis produced by venous thrombosis on a background of passive congestion of lung. In infarct area, alveolar walls, vascular walls and bronchioles are necrotic. They appear eosinophilic (pink), homogenous, lacking the nuclei, but keep their shapes - "structured necrosis". Alveolar lumens from infarcted area are invaded by red blood cells
  22. 22. THROMBOEMBOLISM OF THE PALM ARTERY Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blockage of an artery in the lungs by a substance that has moved from elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream (embolism).[6] Symptoms of a PE may include shortness of breath, chest pain particularly upon breathing in, and coughing up blood
  23. 23. CLOT IN THE ARTERY Arterial thrombosis is a blood clot that develops in an artery. It's dangerous as it can obstruct or stop the flow of blood to major organs, such as the heart or brain
  24. 24. RUPTURE OF THE AORTA Aortic rupture is the rupture or breakage of the aorta, the largest artery in the body. Aortic rupture is a rare, extremely dangerous condition. The most common cause is an abdominal aortic aneurysm that has ruptured spontaneously. Aortic rupture is distinct from aortic dissection, which is a tear through the inner wall of the aorta that can block the flow of blood through the aorta to the heart or abdominal organs. An aortic rupture can be classified according to its cause into one of the following main types: Traumatic aortic rupture Aortic rupture secondary to an aortic aneurysm
  25. 25. BROWN INDUR OF THE LUNGS A lung condition characterized by tissue firmness and brown pigmentation associated with hemosiderin-pigmented macrophages in the alveoli, resulting from prolonged congestion caused by heart disease
  26. 26. CONFECTION OF THE LIVER Liver lesions appear to result from locally driven immune responses, which are mainly non-specific. Local inflammation triggers fibrogenesis, in which hepatic stellate cells play a major role. Cirrhosis is facilitated by external factors, such as chronic alcohol consumption and viral co- infections
  27. 27. GANGRENE OF THE LOW EXTR Gangrene is a type of tissue death caused by not enough blood supply. Symptoms may include a change in skin color to red or black, numbness, swelling, pain, skin breakdown, and coolness
  28. 28. ISHIMIC INFARCTION OF THE SPLEEN Splenic infarction is a condition in which oxygen supply to the spleen is interrupted, leading to partial or complete infarction (tissue death due to oxygen shortage) in the organ. Splenic infarction occurs when the splenic artery or one of its branches are occluded, for example by a blood clot.
  29. 29. CASEOUS NECROSIS OF THE LYMPH NODE The node has a cheesy tan to white appearance. Caseous necrosis is really just a combination of coagulative and liquefactive necrosis that is most characteristic of granulomatous inflammation.
  30. 30. PETROFICATION OF THE LUNG
  31. 31. HEMOSIDEROSIS OF THE LUNGS Idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis (or idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis; IPH) is a lung disease of unknown cause that is characterized by alveolar capillary bleeding and accumulation of haemosiderin in the lungs
  32. 32. FATTY HEART Fatty infiltration into the myocardium Cardiac adiposity refers to the presence of a large number of lipid droplets inside the myocytes that emerges because of excessive fat accumulation in the cardiac muscle Another definition of cardiac adiposity is increased thickness or volume of adipose tissue layers surrounding the heart and vessels. Increased Fatty Acid availability is being considered as one of the major players in the development of myocardial damage and chronic inflammation
  33. 33. HYALINOSIS OF THE SPLEEN It is an alteration within cells or in the extracellular space which gives a homogenous glassy pink appearance in routine histological section stained with H&E Hyalinosis is classified according to its localization: 1- Vascular hyalinosis: (arteries are thickened with sharply narrowed or obliterated lumen) 2- Hyalinosis of connective tissue is usually localized: it develops in scars adhesions, in the areas of chronic inflammation.
  34. 34. AMYLOIDOSIS OF THE KIDNEY Amyloid (an abnormal protein) accumulates as extra-cellular deposits, nodular or diffuse, as pink, amorphous material. Initially, the deposits appear in the glomeruli: within the mesangial matrix and along the basement membranes of the capillary loops. Continuous accumulation of the amyloid will compress and obliterate the capillary tuft. With progression, amyloid deposits appear also peritubular and within the arteriolar wall, narrowing them
  35. 35. HYPERKERATOSIS Hyperkeratosis is a skin condition that occurs when a person's skin becomes thicker than usual in certain places. Keratin is a tough, fibrous protein found in fingernails, hair, and skin. The body may produce extra keratin as a result of inflammation, as a protective response to pressure, or as a result of a genetic condition.
  36. 36. TIGER HEART A heart on the inside of which stripes of yellowish or white myocardium caused by fatty degeneration alternate with stripes of normal color so that tiger skin is simulated
  37. 37. LIVER STEATOSIS Fatty liver is a reversible condition wherein large vacuoles of triglyceride fat accumulate in liver cells via the process of steatosis (i.e., abnormal retention of lipids within a cell).
  38. 38. VIKRAM SINGH PANIHARIYA

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