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Supervision & guidance

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Supervision & guidance

  2. 2. Supervision is a teaching learning process which provides constant observation, monitoring, evaluation, guidance to workers to enable them to perform their activities effectively and efficiently maintaining required standards.
  3. 3.  Supervision nowadays considered as a part of teaching- learning function.  Educators think of supervision is a guidance or working together for common goals.  Desirable ends are mutually decided .
  4. 4.  It is someone with experienced helping someone who is less experienced.  The supervisor’s function therefore is one primarily of guidance
  5. 5. “ Supervision is that phase of management which undertakes direct face to face oversight of task assigned to a small group in order to assure correct and adequate performance.” TEEK
  6. 6.  To persist in the delivery of high quality of nursing services  To plan services co-operatively and to develop co-ordination to avoid overlapping  To develop standards of nursing care and methods of evaluation of nursing care and nursing personnel.
  7. 7.  To assist and to help in the development of the staff to their highest potential.  To assist in problem solving of the matters concerning the administration and the operation of nursing services  To evaluate the services given, personnel performance, progress made, etc...  To suggest changes for improving the work effectively and the outcome of the personnel.
  8. 8. Supervisors should create atmosphere of cordiality and mutual trust. Supervisors should be planned and adopted to the changing conditions Supervision must possess sound professional knowledge. Supervision to be exercised without giving the subordinates a sense that they are being supervised
  9. 9. Supervision should foster the ability of each staff- member to think and act for herself/ himself. Supervision should encourage workers participation in decision making. Supervision needs good communications. Supervision is a process of co-operation and co- ordination. Supervision should create suitable climate for productive work.
  10. 10. Supervision should give autonomy to workers depending from personality, competence and characteristics. Supervision should respect the personality of the staff. Supervision should stimulate the workers/ staff ambitions to grow and development. Supervision is responsible for checking and guidance. Good leadership is part of good supervision Supervise diagnose, do not overestimate his understanding and memory.
  11. 11.  Observation Eg. Ward rounds  Interview and questioning  Individual and group conferences  Performance evaluation- self evaluation ,peer evaluation, supervisor’s evaluation, evaluation by general public.  Verbal and written reports –anecdotal reports, critical incident reports, confidential reports etc.
  12. 12.  Orientation and guided experience  Manuals and protocols  In service education program  Continuing education
  13. 13.  Orientation of the new staff  Assessment of the workload of the individual and groups  Arranging for the flow of materials  Co-ordination of the efforts  Promotion of effectiveness of workers  Promotion of social contact within the work team
  14. 14.  Helping individuals to cope with their personal problems  Facilitating the flow of communication  Raising the level of motivation  Establishment of control  Development of confidence  Emphasis on achievement  Record keeping
  15. 15.  The qualities of the supervisor is derived from.. personality character and professional competence.
  16. 16.  Emotional maturity / stability of character  Integrity and firmness  Good power of judgment  Good listening ability  Good communication  Self confidence  Self control  Tactfulness'
  17. 17.  Sensitivity  Empathy  Impartial  Socially acceptable manners  Open door policy- approachability  Set good example, punctual and organize the unit.
  18. 18.  Leadership qualities  Knowledgeable and resourceful  Update professional knowledge, competence, skill, techniques and procedures
  19. 19.  Awareness of the job, rule, regulations, and existing situations.  Intelligence and willingness to teach and learn.
  20. 20.  Regulate control and co- ordination  Net-working and good IPR with other staff, student and departments.
  21. 21.  Competent  Honest  Good Patience  Independent  Good leader  Good technical skill  Maintain interest in good nursing care  Promote good public relations  Updated knowledge  Should have human approach to human problem
  22. 22.  Direct - through face to face talk -observation.  Indirect - through the help of records, reports and through written instructions.
  23. 23. A good supervisor always has something to give, which is greater than what the individuals whom she is supervising.  Inspires confidence  Generates enthusiasm  Approachable  Encourages discussion  Admired and respected by students.
  24. 24.  Treats all issues on merit  Has patience and hope  Realizes that the growth is slow, time and opportunity are essential for change.  She puts herself in the other person’s place to see how she would be affected by her own actions.
  26. 26. Definition of Guidance Organization Administration
  27. 27. Administration • Concerned with the conduct, operation, and management of the guidance program • Implies authority and responsibility
  29. 29. 1. The guidance service should out of the interest, needs, and purposes
  30. 30. 2. The guidance services should be continuous and serve all youth, not merely the maladjusted ones.
  31. 31. 3. Guidance service should be concerned with the whole individual in his/her total environment and with specific needs and problems.
  32. 32. 4. Guidance service should be organized to deal not only with serious problems but also with the causes of such problems.
  33. 33. 5. It should provide for all phases of student problems and student study.
  34. 34. 6. It should provide for specialists; and the services of these specialists should be so organized and administered.
  35. 35. 7. It should provide for securing and recording, through tests and other devices, adequate information regarding occupational requirements and opportunities.
  36. 36. 8. All guidance activities should be directed toward improved individual self-knowledge and self- direction.
  37. 37. 9. A functional guidance program should be an integral part of the total program and be vitally related to home, community, and other out-of- experiences
  38. 38. 10. It should be a cooperative undertaking of the entire organization
  39. 39. 11. It should be as simple as possible and should be easy to organize and administer.
  40. 40. 12. It should provide for leadership and for coordination of all agencies
  42. 42. Line Organization  The direction and control of guidance services flow from the chief administration officer in straight vertical line down to the assistants. From those assistants, the direction and control proceed in a straight line to their subordinates.
  43. 43. Staff Organization The chief administrative officer distributes activities according to function.
  44. 44.  Usually adopted in a large educational institution. It combines the nature and advantages of the Line Type Staff Type organizations. Line and Staff Organization
  45. 45. Organizational Structure for a College Guidance Program President or Director of the School Students School Agencies Civic Organization s Student Personnel Coordinator or Director Of Guidance College Counselors Psychiatrist Dean of Men Faculty Psychometri- cians Psychologist Dean of Women ----------- ---------- ------- -------- ------------------ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Line of Cooperation Line of direct supervisory Authority & responsibility ________ - - - - - - - -
  46. 46. The Administration and the Guidance Program
  47. 47. The guidance service or a guidance program will function effectively and successfully if there is a plan or an organizational set-up, whether it is simple or complex.
  48. 48. There must be a provision for assigning responsibility for carrying out the guidance program, and the one responsible to organize or develop such program is the administrator.
  49. 49. Fundamental Responsibilities of an Administrator in Respect to the Guidance Program
  50. 50. 1.Knowledge and acceptance of the basic philosophy and principles of effective guidance services. 2. Leadership in the organization of the services.
  51. 51. 3. Encouragement of a guidance- pointed attitude among the members of the entire staff by means of one or another form of in-service education. 4. Selection and assignment of qualified guidance personnel.
  52. 52. 5. Direct or indirect supervision of guidance activities. 6. Provision, within budgetary limitations, for space, equipment, and materials needed to implement the program. 7. Activation of periodic appraisal of the program.
  53. 53. Vital Steps in Developing and Managing a Guidance Program • Preparatory Part • Implementing Part • Appraisal Part
  54. 54. Preparatory Part • Goal-setting and planning Implementing Part • Coordinating – proper communication should be open to proper people/agencies.
  55. 55. • Directing/Managing – the guidance center leads in the delivery of services with the help of the management staff. • Development – there should be a continuity of services.
  56. 56. Appraisal • Education – a checklist is provided to gather both the positive and negative feedbacks. • Future Design – based on evaluation, designing future plans/moves is done.
  57. 57. Guiding Points on the Delivery of the Guidance Program 1.Begin with an end in mind through the staff receptivity. 2.Developmental needs of the clients. 3.Objectives of the program and coordination of functions must be clearly defined.
  58. 58. 4. Leadership, personal commitment, and in service training must be considered. 5. Use of community resources 6. Evaluation must always be a part of every effective program.
  59. 59.  B.T. Basavanthappa, ‘Nursing Administration’, Jaypee brothers, page no.126-133.  Jean Barette, ‘Ward Management & Teaching’, 1st edition, Konark publications, New Delhi, page no. 312-317.  Laura Mae Douglass, ‘The effective nurse leader & manager’, 5th edition, Mosby publication, page no. 323.  www.google.com