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SUPERVISION & GUIDANCE
Supervision is a teaching learning
process which provides constant
observation, monitoring, evaluation,
guidance to workers to enable them
to perform their activities
effectively and efficiently
maintaining required standards.
considered as a part of
teaching- learning function.
Educators think of supervision
is a guidance or working
together for common goals.
Desirable ends are mutually
It is someone with experienced
helping someone who is less
The supervisor’s function
therefore is one primarily of
“ Supervision is that phase of management
which undertakes direct face to face
oversight of task assigned to a small
group in order to assure correct and
To persist in the delivery of high quality of
To plan services co-operatively and to develop
co-ordination to avoid overlapping
To develop standards of nursing care and
methods of evaluation of nursing care and
To assist and to help in the development of
the staff to their highest potential.
To assist in problem solving of the matters
concerning the administration and the
operation of nursing services
To evaluate the services given, personnel
performance, progress made, etc...
To suggest changes for improving the work
effectively and the outcome of the
Supervisors should create atmosphere of
cordiality and mutual trust.
Supervisors should be planned and adopted to
the changing conditions
Supervision must possess sound professional
Supervision to be exercised without giving the
subordinates a sense that they are being
Supervision should foster the ability of each
staff- member to think and act for herself/
Supervision should encourage workers
participation in decision making.
Supervision needs good communications.
Supervision is a process of co-operation and co-
Supervision should create suitable climate for
Supervision should give autonomy to workers
depending from personality, competence and
Supervision should respect the personality of
Supervision should stimulate the workers/ staff
ambitions to grow and development.
Supervision is responsible for checking and
Good leadership is part of good supervision
Supervise diagnose, do not overestimate his
understanding and memory.
Observation Eg. Ward rounds
Interview and questioning
Individual and group conferences
Performance evaluation- self evaluation
,peer evaluation, supervisor’s evaluation,
evaluation by general public.
Verbal and written reports –anecdotal
reports, critical incident reports,
confidential reports etc.
Orientation and guided experience
Manuals and protocols
In service education program
Orientation of the new staff
Assessment of the workload of the
individual and groups
Arranging for the flow of materials
Co-ordination of the efforts
Promotion of effectiveness of
Promotion of social contact within
the work team
Helping individuals to cope with their
Facilitating the flow of communication
Raising the level of motivation
Establishment of control
Development of confidence
Emphasis on achievement
The qualities of the supervisor
is derived from..
Emotional maturity / stability of
Integrity and firmness
Good power of judgment
Good listening ability
Socially acceptable manners
Open door policy-
Set good example, punctual
and organize the unit.
skill, techniques and
Awareness of the job, rule,
regulations, and existing
Intelligence and willingness
to teach and learn.
Regulate control and co-
Net-working and good IPR
with other staff, student and
Good technical skill
Maintain interest in good nursing care
Promote good public relations
Should have human approach to human problem
Direct - through face to face
Indirect - through the help of
records, reports and
A good supervisor always has
something to give, which is
greater than what the individuals
whom she is supervising.
Admired and respected by
Treats all issues on merit
Has patience and hope
Realizes that the growth is
slow, time and opportunity
are essential for change.
She puts herself in the other
person’s place to see how
she would be affected by her
The direction and control of
guidance services flow from the
chief administration officer in
straight vertical line down to the
assistants. From those
assistants, the direction and
control proceed in a straight
line to their subordinates.
The chief administrative
officer distributes activities
according to function.
Usually adopted in a large
educational institution. It
combines the nature and
advantages of the Line Type
Staff Type organizations.
Line and Staff
for a College
Director of the School
Coordinator or Director
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Line of Cooperation
Line of direct supervisory
Authority & responsibility
- - - - - - - -
The guidance service or a
guidance program will function
effectively and successfully if
there is a plan or an
organizational set-up, whether
it is simple or complex.
There must be a provision for
assigning responsibility for
carrying out the guidance program,
and the one responsible to
organize or develop such program
is the administrator.
of an Administrator
in Respect to the
1.Knowledge and acceptance of
the basic philosophy and
principles of effective guidance
2. Leadership in the
organization of the services.
3. Encouragement of a guidance-
pointed attitude among the
members of the entire staff by
means of one or another form of
4. Selection and assignment of
qualified guidance personnel.
5. Direct or indirect supervision of
6. Provision, within budgetary
limitations, for space, equipment, and
materials needed to implement the
7. Activation of periodic appraisal of
Vital Steps in Developing and
Managing a Guidance
• Preparatory Part
• Implementing Part
• Appraisal Part
• Goal-setting and planning
• Coordinating – proper
communication should be
open to proper
• Directing/Managing – the
guidance center leads in the
delivery of services with the
help of the management staff.
• Development – there should
be a continuity of services.
• Education – a checklist is
provided to gather both the
positive and negative feedbacks.
• Future Design – based on
evaluation, designing future
plans/moves is done.
Guiding Points on the Delivery
of the Guidance Program
1.Begin with an end in mind through
the staff receptivity.
2.Developmental needs of the clients.
3.Objectives of the program and
coordination of functions must
be clearly defined.
4. Leadership, personal
commitment, and in service
training must be considered.
5. Use of community
6. Evaluation must always be
a part of every effective