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IOT based green house monitoring and controlling system

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Report (color 1,6,7,8,10)

  1. 1. Page | 1 IOT BASED GREEN HOUSE MONITORING AND CONTROLLING SYSTEM Rathor Vijendrasingh Rudra Pavan Rathava Jaydevsinh Year A project report on
  2. 2. Page | 2 IOT BASED GREEN HOUSE MONITORING AND CONTROLLING SYSTEM (UDP Project) A project report Submitted by: RATHOR VIJENDRASINGH RAMSAHAY (Enrolment No: 130170111092) RATHAVA JAYDEVSINH (Enrolment No: 130170111091) RUDRA PAVAN MALLESHAM (Enrolment No: 130170111095) Guided by: Prof. MAITRI J. PATEL Electronics & Communication Department VGEC, Chandkheda
  3. 3. Page | 3 CONTENTS: Acknowledgements 5 Completion certificates generated from PMMS 6-8 Certificate from college 9 Certificate obtained from the plagiarism checking software 10 Undertaking about originality of work 11 CHAPTER 1 TITLE: INTRODUCTION 12-20 1.1 Problem Summary (What exact problem are you trying to solve?) And Introduction 13 1.2 Aim and objectives of the project 15 1.3 Problem Specifications 16 1.4 Brief literature review and Prior Art Search (PAS) about the project 17 1.5 Project plan 20 CHAPTER 2 DESIGN: ANALYSIS, DESIGN METHODOLOGY AND IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY 21-28 2.1 AEIOU summary canvas 22 2.2 Ideation canvas 23 2.3 Product development canvas 24 2.4 Empathy summary canvas 25 2.5 Business model canvas 26 2.6 Implementation strategy 27 CHAPTER 3 IMPLEMENTATION 29-60 3.1 Hardware requirements 30 3.2 Micro controller AT89S52 32 3.3 ADC 0804 36 3.4 Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) 38 3.5 LM35 Temperature Sensor 40
  4. 4. Page | 4 3.6 MAX 232 42 3.7 MCT2E Optocoupler 46 3.8 LM324 Single Supply Quad Operational Amplifiers 47 3.9 Relay 49 3.10 Resistor color code 51 3.11 LM7805 Voltage regulator IC 52 3.12 LCD 16x2 54 3.13 Capacitor 56 3.14 Diode 58 3.15 System working 59 3.16 Circuit diagram 60 CHAPTER 4 SUMMARY/CONCLUSION OF RESULTS 62-65 4.1 Advantages of your work 63 4.2 Applications of your system 64 4.3 Scope of future work. 65 REFERENCES 66 APPENDIX 67
  5. 5. Page | 5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would like to express the deepest appreciation to our team Guide, Dr. Maitri J Patel, who has given us the idea about to make this type of system. He continuously conveyed us for further research regarding to this project and without his guidance we don‘t know about that type of project which is very useful for agriculture and horticulture sectors in our country. She inspired us through all the way even in study and other works. She always gives us a true guidance in any of the matter. I with my team members am very thankful to her to provide us a huge knowledge about everything and we are always eager to know more about our particular topic of any subject. She has always inspired us to work on new things and to research about new ideas which are necessary in upcoming days for our country because now it‘s time to innovate something and help our people. We express our deep gratitude to Head of Electronics and communication Engineering Department, Dr. Rajesh A. Thakker, for encouraging us to prepare the project on ―IoT based green house monitoring and controlling system‖. We thank almighty, our team guide and friends for their constant encouragement, without which this project work would not be possible. Rathor Vijendrasingh Rudra Pavan Rathava Jaydevsinh
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  9. 9. Page | 9 VISHWAKARMA GOVERNMENT ENGINEERING COLLEGE, CHANDKHEDA ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING CERTIFICATE Date: October 7, 2016 This is to certify that the project entitled ―IOT BASED GREEN HOUSE MONITORING AND CONTROLLING SYSTEM‖ has been carried out by Rathor Vijendrasingh, Rudra Pavan and Rathava Jaydevsinh under my guidance in fulfillment of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in (7th Semester) of Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad during the academic year 2016-17. INTERNEL GUIDE: Prof. Maitri J Patel ASSISTANT PROFESSOR B.E. (EC) HEAD OF DEPARTMENT: Dr. Rajesh A. Thakker Professor B. E. (EC)
  11. 11. Page | 11 GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY Annexure 2 [UNDERTAKING ABOUT ORIGINALITY OF WORK] *[Attach this certificate with Department/Guide /industry copy] We hereby certify that we are the sole authors of this IDP/UDP project report and that neither any part of this IDP/UDP project report nor the whole of the IDP/UDP Project report has been submitted for a degree by other student(s) to any other University or Institution. We certify that, to the best of our knowledge, the current IDP/UDP Project report does not infringe upon anyone‘s copyright nor violate any proprietary rights and that any ideas, techniques, quotations or any other material from the work of other people included in our IDP/UDP Project report, published or otherwise, are fully acknowledged in accordance with the standard referencing practices. Furthermore, to the extent that we have included copyrighted material that surpasses the boundary of fair dealing within the meaning of the Indian Copyright (Amendment) Act 2012, we certify that we have obtained a written permission from the copyright owner(s) to include such material(s) in the current IDP/UDP Project report and have included copies of such copyright clearances to our appendix. We have checked the write up of the present IDP/UDP Project report using anti- plagiarism database and it is in the allowable limit. In case of any complaints pertaining to plagiarism, we certify that we shall be solely responsible for the same and we understand that as per norms, University can even revoke BE degree conferred upon the student(s) submitting this IDP/UDP Project report, in case it is found to be plagiarized. Team: Enrolment number Name Signature 130170111092 RATHOR VIJENDRASINGH 130170111091 RATHAVA JAYDEVSINH 130170111095 RUDRA PAVAN Place: --------- Date: --------------
  12. 12. Page | 12 CHAPTER 1 TITLE: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Problem Summary (What exact problem are you trying to solve?) and Introduction 1.2 Aim and objectives of the project 1.3 Problem Specifications 1.4 Brief literature review and Prior Art Search (PAS) about the project 1.5 Project plan
  13. 13. Page | 13 1.1 Problem Summary (What exact problems are you trying to solve?) and Introduction In India ‗Agriculture‘ has its own history. If we check the statistics of world‘s country we can say that India ranks second in farm output. 13.7% of the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) was accounted for agriculture and allied sectors in 2013; about 50% of the workforce depends on farming. The contribution of agriculture to India‘s GDP is steadily decreasing with the countries less attention over farmers. Still agriculture is the broadest sector and plays a significant role in the overall social fabric of India. Today automobile industries, mills and factories are expanding their areas in India. One side these are beneficial for us as it provides job and products and at the other side these are polluting our environment. And have become a serious challenge for global warming. Global warming is affecting our climate and we face uncertain change in our environment which damages our agricultural crop. As told in above passage, In India about 50% of people depends on agriculture. And global warming is one of the major problems for them. Recently India faced a big drought in Vidarbha area of Maharashtra. The announced by government after one year was gone. Some of the farmers were suffered too much by this drought even some did suicide. Some of the crops of specific season are not able to get required climatic conditions due to uncertain change in our environment due to greenhouse effect. Some of the Industries are polluting rivers by ejecting harmful chemicals in it. Some horticultural plants don‘t grow due to insufficient watering and some due to insufficient temperature and etc. Green house is one and only solution against uncertain climate change or global warming. Green house helps our farmers to create an artificial environment for maintaining required temperature, humidity and light. Today Green house systems are available in market as user desires it to work like. But the problem is user has to observe it continuously to check whether it is working properly or not. There is no effective monitoring of green house systems to monitor the green house climate conditions at unbounded distance.
  14. 14. Page | 14 Green house systems need proper care. For example, we have to fill water manually or make water pump on at ourselves. Means systems are less automatic. They cannot be monitored from Rajkot at Ahmedabad. Or the installation of green house systems available in market is quite complex means customer cannot operate it as he wants. Here we are designing a green house system fully automatic and monitoring of it can be done from anywhere in the world having net access. In our system we have used three main sensors needed to check climatic changes in our environment. The sensors we have used are light sensor, humidity sensor and temperature sensor. A microcontroller is used to operate on these sensors and to provide required light, water and heat when the environment has some change. Internet of things is interfaced through a computer system. Internet of things make monitoring of system accessible everywhere having net access on any device.
  15. 15. Page | 15 1.2 Aim and objectives of the project A greenhouse is an important part of the agriculture and horticulture sectors in our country. It is used for growing plants faster at any season whether the climate is according to plant or not. Automatic monitoring and controlling of the climatic parameters will directly or indirectly govern the plant growth and hence their production. Green houses are used where climatic conditions are not as expected. At those places Green houses are used as an artificial environment to create required environmental conditions. Main aim of this project is to help farmers even in opposite environmental conditions like in overheat and less humidity conditions. Here controlling part will be handled by our microcontroller and monitoring part will be handled by the computer and the data will be sent to cloud through website created. So user will not need to go to their sight and observe the conditions. Through web interface our user will have comfort to monitor their system from their home or any place. No need to have specific application or Bluetooth devices to monitor the conditions.
  16. 16. Page | 16 1.3 Problem Specifications  Prior green house systems were not using microcontroller. Means the systems were not automatic. User checks the conditions and takes proper action.  After sometime the green house systems were made automatic means system will work for the user and takes proper action to maintain climatic conditions. But monitoring was done by live presence of user.  After some time monitoring was made easy and user was able to monitor the green house from his home. Here the distance from the system was limited.  Manufacturers use Bluetooth app or system specific screen having data of green house climatic conditions. Here also the monitoring becomes bounded.
  17. 17. Page | 17 1.4 Brief literature review and Prior Art Search (PAS) about the project [1] Patent Number: US 2011/0035059 A1 Title: Method and system for irrigation and climate control Remarks: A wireless system is provided for monitoring environmental, soil, or climate conditions and controlling irrigation or climate control systems at an agricultural or landscape site. The wireless system includes a wireless sensor network including a plurality of sensor nodes for monitoring environmental, soil, or climate conditions and controlling one or more irrigation or climate control systems at the site. The wireless system also includes a server computer system located remotely from the site. The server computer system is coupled to the wireless sensor network over a communications network for receiving data from and controlling operation of the sensor nodes. The server computer system is also coupled to a device operated by an end-user over a communications network for transmitting the data to and receiving remote control commands or queries from the end-user [2] Patent Number: US20090223128A1 Title: Hydroponic Monitor and Controller Apparatus with Network Connectivity and Remote Access Remarks: An apparatus for monitoring and controlling a hydroponic installation which measures various sensors, controls electrical devices, and provides a rich user interface through a standard web browser accessible anywhere on the Internet. Network connectivity allows the operator to manage the system remotely, as well as view recent and historical data through web pages. Digital cameras, of the kind typically used with PCs, provide visual feedback. The apparatus can notify the operator in the case of certain predetermined conditions, using a variety of messaging methods, including email, SMS or MMS page. The operator can remotely initiate control through reply messages. An industry standard expansion bus provides the ability to attach external devices for additional functionality. Network access can be provided by Ethernet, WiFi, or a nearby cell phone with Bluetooth.
  18. 18. Page | 18 [3] Patent Number: US4430828A Title: Plant oriented control system Remarks: A system for controlling environmental conditions in greenhouses having a plurality of crop beds. The system comprises sensors stationed over crop beds comprising an aspirated enclosure and means therein for generating analog electrical signals indicative of wet bulb and dry bulb temperatures. The system comprises a microcomputer located within the greenhouse having a central processing unit with associated scratch memory and program memory sections; An analog to digital input section for receiving the analog electrical signals from the sensors; An output section for converting the computer logic signals to electrical signals at power levels to operate electromechanical apparatus; And serial digital pathway means for connecting the central processing unit, input section and output section. The system further comprises a memory programmed with a task for inputting digital data from the input section indicative of wet bulb and dry bulb temperatures and for calculating the moisture content of the atmosphere over each bed; A task for comparing the temperature and said moisture content with preselected command levels; And a task which in response to said comparison generates commands to the output section capable of initiating there through electromechanical action to move the temperature and moisture content toward the preselected command levels. [4] Patent Number: US20030083980A1 Title: Greenhouse effect gas emission index monitoring and converting system Remarks: A system for providing an exchange market for trading assigned quotas of permissible pollutants and monitoring the pollutants through a global computer network is provided. A standardized source for providing formulas or algorithm data to establish a relationship between pollutant emissions and an assigned quota to enable a usage rate relative to a predetermined index value can be provided by a regulatory body connected to the global computer network. Individual users can provide monitoring units for measuring the actual pollutant emissions and outputting a corresponding signal. An operation control unit can store the algorithm data or formulas and the pollutant emission signal and calculate a real time usage rate. This usage rate can be monitored to determine compliance and provide a real time usage rate over a number of different users forming a
  19. 19. Page | 19 particular district or division. A trade market unit is established for listing real time surplus usage rates relative to a predetermined index rate that is common to all users. Users that are below their assigned quota can be advised to purchase or trade with users who are above their assigned quotas. The individual users can be connected so that the trade market unit can determine a matching of a listed surplus rate with the real time usage rate when the user rate is over the assigned quota, or a listed shortage rate with the real time usage rate when the user is under the assigned quota. [5] Patent Number: US20100038440A1 Title: Method and system for remote wireless monitoring and control of climate in greenhouses Remarks: A remote wireless climate monitoring and control system for a greenhouse is provided. The system includes a wireless sensor network including a plurality of sensor nodes for monitoring climate conditions in the greenhouse and controlling one or more climate control systems. The system also includes a server computer system located remotely from the greenhouse. The server computer system is coupled to the wireless sensor network over a communications network for receiving data from and controlling operation of the sensor nodes. The server computer system is also coupled to a device operated by an end-user over a communications network for transmitting the data to and receiving remote control commands or queries from the end- user.
  20. 20. Page | 20 1.5 Project plan  Apparatus used in this project are:  Relay driver circuits  Relay  Analog to digital converter  Microcontroller  Light sensor  Temperature sensor  Humidity sensor  Bulb  Cooling fan  Water pump  DB9 connector  Laptop  We have divided the project work in two parts- 1. Controlling 2. Monitoring  In controlling part we are controlling the green house change with the help of sensors, microcontroller and fading elements (bulb, cooling fan, water pump etc.)  We have designed a platform where we will install our microcontroller, sensors and fading elements then we will do controlling of green house.  Monitoring part is quite complex because we have to create a server and send the data of controlling to the cloud.  Monitoring is done with the help of laptop, db9 connector and a server or website.  Laptop will be used to get data from microcontroller through db9 connector and then the data will be processed in programming language and will be sent to cloud.
  21. 21. Page | 21 CHAPTER 2 DESIGN: ANALYSIS, DESIGN METHODOLOGY AND IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY. 2.1 AEIOU summary canvas 2.2Ideation canvas 2.3Product development canvas 2.4Empathy summary canvas 2.5Business model canvas 2.6Implementation strategy
  22. 22. Page | 22 2.1 AEIOU summary canvas
  23. 23. Page | 23 2.2 Ideation canvas
  24. 24. Page | 24 2.3 Product development canvas
  25. 25. Page | 25 2.4 Empathy summary canvas
  26. 26. Page | 26 2.5 Business model canvas
  27. 27. Page | 27 2.6 IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY 1. AEIOU SUMMARY CANVAS:  We have done some activity like we visited a village of farmers, went to farms having green house system implemented. And watched the techniques how mass production is being done.  We visited farms, bungalows, green areas, industries and zoo for checking the environment maintained in green house.  We interacted with our friends, vendors, businessmen, farmers and searched on Google.  Common objects we observed in green house were different types of sensors, controlling machine and monitoring screen.  Green house systems are being used by farmers, individuals, food experts, industries and smart farms. 2. IDEATION CANVAS:  Farmers, individuals, food experts, industries and smart farms are using conventional green house system implementations.  They are using machine manually and not taking any automatic work.  In situations watering is slow; user has to himself on the water pump.  Possible solutions are designing a machine with automatic work and an effective monitoring platform. 3. PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT CANVAS:  Purpose of designing this system is to automate the controlling part and make the monitoring worldwide.  This system will be helpful to farmers, individuals, food experts, industries and smart farms.  AT89S52 microcontroller is central controlling processor. LDR, LM35 are sensors which will sense the light and temperature and through ADC outputs of sensors will be converted to digital form and will be given to microcontroller then microcontroller will on the light, cooling fan or bulb if needed.
  28. 28. Page | 28 4. EMPATHY SUMMARY CANVAS:  To fulfill this canvas we interacted with different users using green house systems.  They told us their problems related to existing green house systems and we listed those problems.  We searched on internet about those problems like system was not working automatically and monitoring was possible up to some distance.  Heater sometimes goes overheated  By manually operating green house systems farmers were happy when they were near to the system.
  29. 29. Page | 29 CHAPTER 3 IMPLEMENTATION 3.1 Hardware requirements 3.2 Micro controller AT89S52 3.3 ADC 0804 3.4 Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) 3.5 LM35 Temperature Sensor 3.6 MAX 232 3.7 MCT2E Optocoupler 3.8 LM324 Single Supply Quad Operational Amplifiers 3.9 Relay 3.10 Resistor color code 3.11 LM7805 Voltage regulator IC 3.12 LCD 16x2 3.13 Capacitor 3.14 Diode 3.15 System working 3.16 Circuit diagram
  30. 30. Page | 30 3.1 Hardware requirements 1. Printed Circuit Board (8051) 2. Microcontroller IC(AT89S52) 3. Supply Jack 4. 40 pin IC Socket 5. Rectifier Diode 6. Capacitor 1000uF/25V 7. Capacitor 100uF/16V 8. Capacitor 10uF/25V 9. Capacitor 0.1uF (104) 10. Capacitor 0.1uF/1000V 10. Capacitor 33pF 11. Voltage Regulator IC (7805) 12. LED 3mm / 5mm 13. Push-button Switch(small/Big) 14. Crystal 15. Resistor 1K 16. Resistor 10K 17. Resistor 10E 18. Resistor 10E/5W 19. LDR 18. 16 Pin IC Socket 19. IC MAX 232 20. Socket DB9S (Female) 21. LCD 16 X 2 23. Temperature Sensor (LM 35) 24. ADC 0804 / ADC 0808 25. 10K Pull up Resistor Strip 26. IC LM324
  31. 31. Page | 31 27. Relay 12V DC (Single contact/Double contact) 29. MCT2E (Opt coupler) 30. 8 Pin IC Socket 31. Preset (10 K) 32. Transistor (BC547 / BC557) 33. Transformer(12-0/500mA)/(12-0/1A) )/(12-0/2A) 35. Acrylic Plate(8x10/10x12/12x15) 36. Relay Card PCB 37. Two Pin PCB Mounted Socket 38. Flexible Wire 39. Two Pin Socket 40. Bulb Holder
  32. 32. Page | 32 3.2 Micro controller AT89S52  8051 is microcontroller family developed by company ATMEL.  ATMEL has following list of micro-controllers- 1. AT89C51 (8051) 2. AT89C52 (8052) 3. AT89S51 (8051) 4. AT89S52 (8052)  Here AT stands for ATMEL, C stands for CMOS, S stands for Schottky diode and the brackets are for the number given 8951 or 8952.  Difference between 8051 and 8052 micro-controllers. Family ROM RAM Timer External interrupt sources 8051 4kB 128B 2 6 8052 8kB 256B 3 8  Difference between AT89C52 and AT89S52. Power consumption (difference is in milli Watt) Switching frequency (difference is of few Hz) Crystal frequency AT89C52 Low Slow 24 M Hz AT89S52 High Fast 33M Hz
  33. 33. Page | 33  Features: 1) 8052 has 40 pins (DIP) 2) 8052 has four ports (i.e. 8×4=32 pins) for Input output. 3) Compatible with MCS-51® Products 4) 8K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash Memory 5) Endurance: 1000 Write/Erase Cycles 6) 4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range 7) Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz 8) Three-level Program Memory Lock 9) 256 x 8-bit Internal RAM 10) 32 Programmable I/O Lines 11) Three 16-bit Timer/Counters 12) Eight Interrupt Sources 13) Full Duplex UART Serial Channel 14) Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes 15) Interrupt Recovery from Power-down Mode 16) Watchdog Timer 17) Dual Data Pointer 18) Power-off Flag 19) Fast Programming Time 20) Flexible ISP Programming (Byte and Page Mode)
  34. 34. Page | 34  Description The AT89S52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 8K bytes of in-system programmable Flash memory. The device is manufactured using Atmel‘s high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry- standard 80C51 instruction set and pinout. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with in-system programmable Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89S52 is a powerful microcontroller which provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications. The AT89S52 provides the following standard features: 8K bytes of Flash, 256 bytes of RAM, 32 I/O lines, Watchdog timer, two data pointers, three 16-bit timer/counters, a six-vector two-level interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial port, on- chip oscillator, and clock circuitry. In addition, the AT89S52 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port, and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator, disabling all other chip functions until the next interrupt or hardware reset.
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  36. 36. Page | 36 3.3 ADC 0804  Features: 1) Compatible with 8080 μP derivatives—no interfacing logic needed - access time - 135 ns 2) Easy interface to all microprocessors, or operates ―stand alone‖ 3) Differential analog voltage inputs 4) Logic inputs and outputs meet both MOS and TTL voltage level specifications 5) Works with 2.5V (LM336) voltage reference 6) On-chip clock generator 7) 0V to 5V analog input voltage range with single 5V supply 8) No zero adjust required 9) 0.3" standard width 20-pin DIP package 10) 20-pin molded chip carrier or small outline package 11) Operates ratiometrically or with 5 VDC, 2.5 VDC, or analog span adjusted voltage reference  Key Specifications 1) Resolution 8 bits 2) Total error ±1⁄4 LSB, ±1⁄2 LSB and ±1 LSB 3) Conversion time 100 μs  Operating Ratings Temperature Range TMIN<TA<TMAX ADC0804LCJ −40°C<TA<+85°C ADC0801/02/03/05LCN −40°C<TA<+85°C ADC0804LCN 0°C<TA<+70°C ADC0802/04LCWM 0°C<TA<+70°C Range of VCC 4.5 VDC to 6.3 VDC
  37. 37. Page | 37  General Description: The ADC0801, ADC0802, ADC0803, ADC0804 and ADC0805 are CMOS 8-bit successive approximation A/D converters that use a differential potentiometric ladder — similar to the 256R products. These converters are designed to allow operation with the NSC800 and INS8080A derivative control bus with TRI-STATE® output latches directly driving the data bus. These A/Ds appear like memory locations or I/O ports to the microprocessor and no interfacing logic is needed. Differential analog voltage inputs allow increasing the common-mode rejection and offsetting the analog zero input voltage value. In addition, the voltage reference input can be adjusted to allow encoding any smaller analog voltage span to the full 8 bits of resolution.
  38. 38. Page | 38 3.4 Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) A Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) or a photo resistor is a device whose resistivity is a function of the incident electromagnetic radiation. Hence, they are light sensitive devices. They are also called as photo conductors, photo conductive cells or simply photocells. They are made up of semiconductor materials having high resistance. There are many different symbols used to indicate a LDR, one of the most commonly used symbol is shown in the figure below. The arrow indicates light falling on it. A light dependent resistor works on the principle of photo-conductivity. Photo conductivity is an optical phenomenon in which the materials conductivity is increased when light is absorbed by the material. When light falls i.e. when the photons fall on the device, the electrons in the valence band of the semiconductor material are excited to the conduction band. These photons in the incident light should have energy greater than the band gap of the semiconductor material to make the electrons jump from the valence band to the conduction band. Hence when light having enough energy strikes on the device, more and more electrons are excited to the conduction band which results in large number of charge carriers. The result of this process is more and more current starts flowing throgh the device when the circuit is closed and hence it is said that the resistance of the device has been decreased. This is the most common working principle of LDR.
  39. 39. Page | 39 LDR‘s are light dependent devices whose resistance is decreased when light falls on them and that is increased in the dark. When a light dependent resistor is kept in dark, its resistance is very high. This resistance is called as dark resistance. It can be as high as 1012 Ω and if the device is allowed to absorb light its resistance will be decreased drastically. If a constant voltage is applied to it and intensity of light is increased the current starts increasing. Figure below shows resistance vs. illumination curve for a particular LDR.
  40. 40. Page | 40 3.5 LM35 Temperature Sensor  General Description The LM35 series are precision integrated-circuit temperature sensors, whose output voltage is linearly proportional to the Celsius (Centigrade) temperature. The LM35 thus has an advantage over linear temperature sensors calibrated in ° Kelvin, as the user is not required to subtract a large constant voltage from its output to obtain convenient Centigrade scaling. The LM35 does not require any external calibration or trimming to provide typical accuracies of ±1⁄4°C at room temperature and ±3⁄4°C over a full −55 to +150°C temperature range. Low cost is assured by trimming and calibration at the wafer level. The LM35‘s low output impedance, linear output, and precise inherent calibration make interfacing to readout or control circuitry especially easy. It can be used with single power supplies, or with plus and minus supplies. As it draws only 60 μA from its supply, it has very low self-heating, less than 0.1°C in still air. The LM35 is rated to operate over a −55° to +150°C temperature range, while the LM35C is rated for a −40° to +110°C range (−10° with improved accuracy). The LM35 series is available packaged in hermetic TO-46 transistor packages, while the LM35C, LM35CA, and LM35D are also available in the plastic TO-92 transistor package. The LM35D is also available in an 8-lead surface mount small outline package and a plastic TO-220 package.  Features 1) Calibrated directly in ° Celsius (Centigrade) 2) Linear + 10.0 mV/°C scale factor 3) 0.5°C accuracy guaranteeable (at +25°C) 4) Rated for full −55° to +150°C range 5) Suitable for remote applications 6) Low cost due to wafer-level trimming 7) Operates from 4 to 30 volts 8) Less than 60 μA current drain 9) Low self-heating, 0.08°C in still air 10) Nonlinearity only ±1⁄4°C typical 11) Low impedance output, 0.1 W for 1 mA load
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  42. 42. Page | 42 3.6 MAX 232  Features: 1) Meets or Exceeds TIA/EIA-232-F and ITU Recommendation V.28 2) Operates From a Single 5-V Power Supply With 1.0-_F Charge-Pump Capacitors 3) Operates Up To 120 kbit/s 4) Two Drivers and Two Receivers 5) ±30-V Input Levels 6) Low Supply Current . . . 8 mA Typical 7) ESD Protection Exceeds JESD 22 8) 2000-V Human-Body Model (A114-A) 9) Upgrade With Improved ESD (15-kV HBM) and 0.1-_F Charge-Pump Capacitors is Available With the MAX202 10) Applications − TIA/EIA-232-F, Battery-Powered Systems, Terminals, Modems, and Computers  Description: The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver that includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply TIA/EIA-232-F voltage levels from a single 5-V supply. Each receiver converts TIA/EIA-232-F inputs to 5-V TTL/CMOS levels. These receivers have a typical threshold of 1.3 V, a typical hysteresis of 0.5 V, and can accept ±30-V inputs. Each driver converts TTL/CMOS input levels into TIA/EIA-232-F levels. The driver, receiver, and voltage-generator functions are available as cells in the Texas Instruments LinASIC library.
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  44. 44. Page | 44 DB9 Connector
  45. 45. Page | 45
  46. 46. Page | 46 3.7 MCT2E Optocoupler:  Features: 1) Compatible with standard TTL integrated circuits 2) Gallium Arsenide Diode Infrared Source Optically Coupled to a Silicon npn Phototransistor 3) High Direct-Current Transfer Ratio 4) Base Lead Provided for Conventional Transistor Biasing 5) High-Voltage Electrical Isolation . . . 1.5-kV, or 3.55-kV Rating 6) Plastic Dual-In-Line Package 7) High-Speed Switching: tr = 5 μs, tf = 5 μs Typical 8) Designed to be Interchangeable with General Instruments MCT2 and MCT2E
  47. 47. Page | 47 3.8 LM324 Single Supply Quad Operational Amplifiers The LM324 series are low–cost, quad operational amplifiers with true differential inputs. They have several distinct advantages over standard operational amplifier types in single supply applications. The quad amplifier can operate at supply voltages as low as 3.0 V or as high as 32 V with quiescent currents about one–fifth of those associated with the MC1741 (on a per amplifier basis). The common mode input range includes the negative supply, thereby eliminating the necessity for external biasing components in many applications. The output voltage range also includes the negative power supply voltage.  Short Circuited Protected Outputs  True Differential Input Stage  Single Supply Operation: 3.0 V to 32 V (LM224, LM324, LM324A)  Low Input Bias Currents: 100 nA Maximum (LM324A)  Four Amplifiers Per Package  Internally Compensated  Common Mode Range Extends to Negative Supply  Industry Standard Pinouts  ESD Clamps on the Inputs Increase Ruggedness without Affecting Device Operation
  48. 48. Page | 48
  49. 49. Page | 49 3.9 Relay A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to mechanically operate a switch, but other operating principles are also used, such as solid- state relays. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a separate low- power signal, or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. The first relays were used in long distance telegraph circuits as amplifiers: they repeated the signal coming in from one circuit and re-transmitted it on another circuit. Relays were used extensively in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations. Since relays are switches, the terminology applied to switches is also applied to relays; a relay switches one or more poles, each of whose contacts can be thrown by energizing the coil. Normally open (NO) contacts connect the circuit when the relay is activated; the circuit is disconnected when the relay is inactive. It is also called a "Form A" contact or "make" contact. NO contacts may also be distinguished as "early-make" or "NOEM", which means that the contacts close before the button or switch is fully engaged. Normally closed (NC) contacts disconnect the circuit when the relay is activated; the circuit is connected when the relay is inactive. It is also called a "Form B" contact or "break" contact. NC contacts may also be distinguished as "late-break" or "NCLB", which means that the contacts stay closed until the button or switch is fully disengaged. Change-over (CO), or double-throw (DT), contacts control two circuits: one normally open contact and one normally closed contact with a common terminal. It is also called a "Form C" contact or "transfer" contact ("break before make"). If this type of contact has a "make before break" action, then it is called a "Form D" contact. The following designations are commonly encountered: SPST – Single Pole Single Throw. These have two terminals which can be connected or disconnected. Including two for the coil, such a relay has four terminals in total. It is ambiguous whether the pole is normally open or normally closed. The terminology "SPNO" and "SPNC" is sometimes used to resolve the ambiguity.
  50. 50. Page | 50 SPDT – Single Pole Double Throw. A common terminal connects to either of two others. Including two for the coil, such a relay has five terminals in total. DPST – Double Pole Single Throw. These have two pairs of terminals. Equivalent to two SPST switches or relays actuated by a single coil. Including two for the coil, such a relay has six terminals in total. The poles may be Form A or Form B (or one of each). DPDT – Double Pole Double Throw. These have two rows of change-over terminals. Equivalent to two SPDT switches or relays actuated by a single coil. Such a relay has eight terminals, including the coil.
  51. 51. Page | 51 3.10 Resistor
  52. 52. Page | 52 3.11 LM7805 Voltage regulator IC:  3-Terminal Regulators  Output Current up to 1.5 A  Internal Thermal-Overload Protection  High Power-Dissipation Capability  Internal Short-Circuit Current Limiting  Output Transistor Safe-Area Compensation Absolute maximum ratings Input voltage, VI: μA7824C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 V All others . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 V Operating virtual junction temperature, TJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 150°C Lead temperature 1.6 mm (1/16 inch) from case for 10 seconds . . . . . . . . . 260°C Storage temperature range, Tstg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ……. . . . . . . . . . . . –65°C to 150°C
  53. 53. Page | 53 Description A voltage regulator is designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. A voltage regulator may be a simple "feed-forward" design or may include negative feedback control loops. It may use an electromechanical mechanism, or electronic components. Depending on the design, it may be used to regulate one or more AC or DC voltages. Electronic voltage regulators are found in devices such as computer power supplies where they stabilize the DC voltages used by the processor and other elements. In automobile alternators and central power station generator plants, voltage regulators control the output of the plant. In an electric power distribution system, voltage regulators may be installed at a substation or along distribution lines so that all customers receive steady voltage independent of how much power is drawn from the line. This series of fixed-voltage integrated-circuit voltage regulators is designed for a wide range of applications. These applications include on-card regulation for elimination of noise and distribution problems associated with single-point regulation. Each of these regulators can deliver up to 1.5 A of output current. The internal current-limiting and thermal-shutdown features of these regulators essentially make them immune to overload. In addition to use as fixed-voltage regulators, these devices can be used with external components to obtain adjustable output voltages and currents, and also can be used as the power-pass element in precision regulators.
  54. 54. Page | 54 3.12 LCD 16X2 LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) screen is an electronic display module and find a wide range of applications. A 16x2 LCD display is very basic module and is very commonly used in various devices and circuits. These modules are preferred over seven segments and other multi segment LEDs. The reasons being: LCDs are economical; easily programmable; have no limitation of displaying special & even custom characters (unlike in seven segments), animations and so on. A 16x2 LCD means it can display 16 characters per line and there are 2 such lines. In this LCD each character is displayed in 5x7 pixel matrix. This LCD has two registers, namely, Command and Data. The command register stores the command instructions given to the LCD. A command is an instruction given to LCD to do a predefined task like initializing it, clearing its screen, setting the cursor position, controlling display etc. The data register stores the data to be displayed on the LCD. The data is the ASCII value of the character to be displayed on the LCD. Click to learn more about internal structure of a LCD.
  55. 55. Page | 55 Pin Description: Pin No Function Name 1 Ground (0V) Ground 2 Supply voltage; 5V (4.7V – 5.3V) Vcc 3 Contrast adjustment; through a variable resistor VEE 4 Selects command register when low; and data register when high Register Select 5 Low to write to the register; High to read from the register Read/write 6 Sends data to data pins when a high to low pulse is given Enable 7 8-bit data pins DB0 8 DB1 9 DB2 10 DB3 11 DB4 12 DB5 13 DB6 14 DB7 15 Backlight VCC (5V) Led+ 16 Backlight Ground (0V) Led-
  56. 56. Page | 56 3.13 Capacitors: A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores electrical energy in an electric field. The effect of a capacitor is known as capacitance. While capacitance exists between any two electrical conductors of a circuit in sufficiently close proximity, a capacitor is specifically designed to provide and enhance this effect for a variety of practical applications by consideration of size, shape, and positioning of closely spaced conductors, and the intervening dielectric material. A capacitor was therefore historically first known as an electric condenser. The physical form and construction of practical capacitors vary widely and many capacitor types are in common use. Most capacitors contain at least two electrical conductors often in the form of metallic plates or surfaces separated by a dielectric medium. A conductor may be a foil, thin film, sintered bead of metal, or an electrolyte. The nonconducting dielectric acts to increase the capacitor's charge capacity. Materials commonly used as dielectrics include glass, ceramic, plastic film, paper, mica, and oxide layers. Capacitors are widely used as parts of electrical circuits in many common electrical devices. Unlike a resistor, an ideal capacitor does not dissipate energy.
  57. 57. Page | 57
  58. 58. Page | 58 3.14 Diode A diode is a device which only allows unidirectional flow of current if operated within a rated specified voltage level. A diode only blocks current in the reverse direction while the reverse voltage is within a limited range otherwise reverse barrier breaks and the voltage at which this breakdown occurs is called reverse breakdown voltage. The diode acts as a valve in the electronic and electrical circuit. A P-N junction is the simplest form of the diode which behaves as ideally short circuit when it is in forward biased and behaves as ideally open circuit when it is in the reverse biased. Beside simple PN junction diodes, there are different types of diodes although the fundamental principles are more or less same. So a particular arrangement of diodes can convert AC to pulsating DC, and hence, it is sometimes also called as a rectifier. The name diode is derived from "di-ode" which means a device having two electrodes.
  59. 59. Page | 59 3.15 System working: For power supply in the ―Greenhouse Monitoring and Control System‖ to provide 5V and 12V, the circuit consists of step down transformer of 230/12V. This transformer steps down 230V AC from main supply to 12V AC. Then that 12V AC is converted into 12V DC with the help of bridge rectifier. After that a 1000/25V capacitor is used to filter the ripples and then it passes through voltage regulator. There are two power supply arranged in same manner one containing 500mA transformer and second has 750mA transformer. This project comprises of sensors, Analog to Digital Converter (ADC), Micro – controller AT89S52, Relay driver IC (ULN2003), Relays, MAX 232 IC, dB9 connector and laptop. The AT89S52 micro – controller is as the heart of the system, it makes the set-up low- cost and effective nevertheless. Each sensor gives their measured parameter found to the micro – controller through ADC after being converted to a digital form. When any one of the parameter read by the controller crosses a safety limitation which has to be maintained for protection of the crops, then micro-controller performs the required actions by employing relays until the strayed-out parameter has been brought back to its optimum level. Monitoring of parameters is done through IOT means internet of things. For monitoring means to see status of temperature, humidity (wet/dry) and light (day/night) we created a website (Note: Currently we have just used local server host). Then from respective port output is fetched to “Terminal” software where readings are stored in log folder and continuously saved. “Pycharm” software fetches the data from log folder and displays it on website. For example when temperature exceeds its level, microcontroller will on the cooling fan connected with relay. Same way when temperature is lower, microcontroller will on the bulb or heater. Hence the temperature will be maintained.
  60. 60. Page | 60 3.16 Circuit Diagram:
  61. 61. Page | 61
  62. 62. Page | 62 CHAPTER 4 SUMMARY/CONCLUSION OF RESULTS 4.1 Advantages of your work 4.2 Applications of your system 4.3Scope of future work.
  63. 63. Page | 63 4.1 Advantages of your work    This project is automated and does not require any human attention after installing.  For monitoring IoT is used so person can monitor the temperature, humidity level etc. from his home easily.  Laptop is used for controlling and programming so system is portable.  We can easily modify the controlling program and change the criteria as required.  Can be easily implemented.
  64. 64. Page | 64 4.2 Applications of your system  Air temperature control  Humidity control  Soil condition control  Light fading control  Can be used in Greenhouses, Botanical gardens and farms.
  65. 65. Page | 65 4.3 Scope of future work This paper describes the design of a greenhouse monitoring system based on Cloud IoT. Agriculture projects even in urban areas are on a rise in recent times, in unique forms. Technological progress makes the agricultural sector grow high, which here is made by the Cloud IoT. The IoT will dramatically change the way we live our daily lives and what information is stored about us. This cloud computing is free to use anytime and anywhere as long as the computer is connected with the Internet. This monitoring system percepts different parameters inside the greenhouse using sensors, GSM, and cloud to provide the updates. The developed system can be proved profitable as it will optimize the resources in the greenhouse. The complete module is of low cost, low power operation hence, easily available to everyone. This project is a basic idea of the research regarding greenhouse but still there is a lot more to be explored technologically.
  66. 66. Page | 66 REFERENCES Patents  US 2011/0035059 A1 by Bulut F Ersavas  US20090223128A1 by Brian C Kuschak  US4430828A by Oglevee James R, Oglevee Kirk A  US20030083980A1 by Tsukasa Satake  US20100038440A1 by Ersavas Bulut F Books  The 8051 Microcontroller by Kenneth J. Ayala Websites  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agriculture_in_India  http://www.bluefrogindia.com/?page_id=1335  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2013_drought_in_Maharashtra  http://followgreenliving.com/air-conditioners-blessing-curse/  www.engineersgarage.com  http://www.alldatasheet.com/  www.keil.com/
  67. 67. Page | 67 APPENDIX  Copy of PPR of all members (4 PPR each)  Business model canvas report  All canvases pictures