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Construction methods and equipments

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Construction methods and equipments

  1. 1. P a g e | 391 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry CONSTRUCTION METHODS AND EQUIPMENTS UNIT – 1 1. Define excavation. What are the methods are used in excavations? Excavation work generally means work involving the removal of soil or rock from a site to form an open face, hole or cavity using tools, machinery or explosives. Excavation has a number of important applications including exploration, environmental restoration, mining and construction. The two methods of excavations are,  Mass excavation  Structural excavation 2. What are the problems normally developed during deep excavations?  To prevent the collapsing of sides of the trenches  To prevent water oozing or coming out from the sides and bottom of the trenches 3. What are the remedial measures to avoid the problems in deep excavation?  Providing shoring for the trenches  Dewatering of the trenches 4. Define foundation. Foundation is a part of the structure which is present below the ground level. It supports the weight of the structure and the load carried by it. The type of the foundation depends upon the bearing capacity of the soil.
  2. 2. P a g e | 392 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry 5. What are the types of foundation?  Shallow foundation  Spread foundation o Strip footing  Simple footing  Stepped footing o Column footing  Isolated column footing  Combined column footing  Raft foundation  Grillage foundation  Deep foundation  Pile foundation  Pier foundation  Well foundation 6. Define pier foundation. A pier foundation consists of a cylindrical column of large diameter to support transfer large super imposed loads to the firm strata below. Generally pier foundation is shallower in depth than the pile foundation. It has two types.  Masonry pier  Concrete pier 7. What are the types of caisson?  Open caisson
  3. 3. P a g e | 393 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry  Box caisson  Pneumatic caisson 8. What is caisson? Caissons are structural boxes or chambers. These are sunk in place through the ground or water by excavating below the bottom of the unit which enables the caisson to reach the final depth. These structures have a large cross – sectional area and hence provide high bearing capacity, which is much larger than what may be offered by a cluster of piles. 9. What are the materials used for construction of caissons?  Cast iron  Reinforced Cement Concrete  Steel  Timber 10.Give the uses of caissons.  To reach the hard bearing structure for transferring the load coming on support for bridge piers and building columns  To serve as an impervious core wall of earth dams When placed adjacent to each other  To provide an access to a deep shaft or a tunnel 11.What are the operations involved in open caisson method of foundation?  Constructing or fabricating the caisson and preparing site to receive it
  4. 4. P a g e | 394 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry  Placing the caisson over the site of the pier  Excavating the soil from the interior of the caisson and advancing the caisson so than its cutting edge is at or below the bottom of the excavation  Continuing this process until the foundation in the hard stratum is reached  Sealing the bottom of the caisson to exclude water and soil 12.Define box caisson. It is open at the top and closed at the bottom and is made of timber, reinforced concrete or steel. This type of caisson is used where bearing stratum is available at shallow depth. 13.Define open caisson. Open caisson is a box opened both at top and bottom. It is made up of timber, concrete or steel. The open caisson is called well. Well foundation is the most common type of deep foundation used for bridges in India. 14.Define pneumatic caisson. Pneumatic caissons has its lower end designed as a working chamber in which compressed air is forced to prevent the entry of water and thus excavation can be done in dry conditions. 15.Define basement. Basement or cellar is the lower storey of a building constructed or partly below the ground surface.
  5. 5. P a g e | 395 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry 16.Define basement construction. Construction of basement is difficult for it must be carried out below deep ground in adverse condition such as existence of ground water, muddiness or limited working space. Besides, works are needed to be done amidst layers of props, struts, waling and shores, which cannot be removed until the permanent works are completed and capable of carrying the final loads. 17.What are the methods of basement constructions?  Use of lattice beams  Use of ground anchors  Construct floor slab as support (top down method)  Cast the centre basement slab to support struts  In – situ reinforced concrete and tradition formwork system 18.Define braced wall. What are the types of braced wall? A braced wall is a structural system composed of braced panels (also known as shear panels) to counter the effects of lateral load acting on a structure. Wind and seismic loads are the most common loads that braced walls are designed to carry. TYPES:  Single diagonal  Double diagonal  Chevron bracing  Storey height knee bracing (eccentricity braced frames)
  6. 6. P a g e | 396 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry 19.Define soil nailing. What are the types of soil nail wall? Soil nailing is an earth retention technique using grouted tension- resisting steel elements (nails) that can be design for permanent or temporary support. The walls are generally constructed from the top down. Typically, 3 to 6 feet of soil is excavated from the top of the planned excavation. TYPES:  Grouted soil nailing  Driven nails  Self-drilling soil nail  Jet grouted soil nail  Launched soil nail 20.What are the applications of soil nail wall?  Roadway cuts  Road widening under existing bridge abutments  Tunnel portals  Repair and reconstruction of existing retaining structures  Hybrid soil nail systems  Shored Mechanically Stabilized Earth (SMSE) walls 21.What are the advantages of soil nail wall?  Creates less noise and traffic obstructions  Less impact on nearby properties  Allow excellent working space in front of the excavation face  Can be used for strengthening of either natural slope, natural or man – made cut slopes
  7. 7. P a g e | 397 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry  Grouting only once is required, saving time and labor  The technique is flexible, easily modified 22.What are the disadvantages of soil nail wall?  Nail encroachment to retained ground rendering unusable underground space  Generally larger lateral soil strain during removal lateral support and ground surface cracking may appear  Tendency of high ground loss due to drilling technique, particularly at course grained soil  Less suitable for course grained soil and soft clayey soil, which have short self-support time, and soils prone to creeping  Suitable only for excavation above groundwater 23.Define sheet pile wall. What are the types of sheet pile wall? A sheet pile wall consists of a series of sheet piles driven side by side into the ground, thus forming a continuous vertical wall for the purpose of retaining an earth bank. They are commonly used for water front structures, temporary construction and light weight construction where sub – soil is poor for supporting a retaining wall. A sheet pile wall may be of three types. They are,  Cantilever sheet piling  Anchored sheet piling  Braced sheeting 24.Give the different types of sheet piles based on materials.  Concrete sheet pile
  8. 8. P a g e | 398 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry  Timber sheet pile  Steel sheet pile 25.Write the functions of sheet piles.  To enclose a site or part thereof to prevent the escape of loose subsoil, such as sand, and to safeguard against settlement.  To retain the sides of the trenches and general excavation.  To protect river banks.  To protect the foundations from scouring actions of nearby river, stream etc. To construct costal defense works 26.What are the uses of sheet pile?  To protect river banks  To retain the sides of foundation trenches  To resist flow of underground or loose soil or of both  To resist bending abrasion or other stresses which may arise in use 27.Define dewatering. Dewatering means removal of excess water from the saturated soil. It is used where the water table is high or in the case of deep excavations the foundation trenches for buildings and other structures, are filled with seeped water. 28.What are the methods of ground water control?  Pumping from open sumps  Pumping from well points  Pumping from bored wells
  9. 9. P a g e | 399 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry 29.What are the methods of dewatering?  Ditches  Well point system  Shallow well system  Deep well system  Vaccum method  Electro osmosis method 30.Write the essential features of a pump to be used for dewatering.  The pump should be portable so that it can be easily moved as and when required  The pump should be capable of handling water mixed with impurities such as sand, earth, etc.  The pump should be of strong make  The performance of pump should be reliable 31.What are the methods of water proofing?  Cementitious water proofing  Liquid water proofing membrane  Bituminous membrane  Bituminous coating  Polyurethane liquid membrane 32.Define trenching. A trench is defined as a narrow excavation (in relation to its length) made below the surface of the ground. In general, the depth of a trench is
  10. 10. P a g e | 400 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry greater than its width, but the width of a trench (measured at the bottom) is not greater than 15 feet (4.6 m). 33.What are the types of trenching?  Single slot trenching  One side stepped trenching  Two side stepped trenching  Multi stepped trenching  One side sloped trenching  Two side sloped trenching 34.What are the advantages of using trenchers?  It is faster and cheaper method of trenching  It digs only as much as is necessary  A 10cm pipe can be installed in a 15cm wide slot cut by a trencher  It is a continuous process and is not like that of backhoe excavator (i.e.) dug lift – dump 35.On what basis you will select the equipment for the construction?  Volume of the material to be removed  Size of the machine used  Depth of excavation  Height to be lifted  Soil type  Duration of period  Rented or purchased  Production cost
  11. 11. P a g e | 401 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry  Spares availability  Skilled operation 36.What are the types of earth moving equipment for construction?  Production equipment  Equipment used for digging and moving  Service equipment  Dozers and motor girders 37.List out the material handling devices. These are the lifting and lowering devices (vertical motion).  Block and tackle  Winches  Hoists  Elevators  Pillar crane  Overhead crane 38.List out the transportation devices (horizontal motion).  Wheel borrows and hand truck  Narrow gauge mine rail road  Tractors and trailers  Skids  Pipe line 39.List out the applications of motor grader.  Land clearance
  12. 12. P a g e | 402 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry  Snow clearance  Material mixing  Hard surface cutting  Ditch filling or digging  Bank cutting and reshaping 40.What are the devices used for combination of lifting, lowering and transportation operations?  Spiral chute  Lift track  Crane truck  Forklift truck  Conveyors of various types 41.What is a tractor? Mention its types. Tractor is earthmoving equipment which converts engine energy into tractive energy. The two types of tractors are,  Crawler or tract type  Wheel or pneumatic type 42.What are the factors to be considered while selecting a tractor?  Size of the dozer for a given job  The type of work expected from the tractor dozer  Example: bulldozing, ripping, land clearing, pulling a scraper  The type and condition of hauled road  Gradient of the haul road  Distance to be moved
  13. 13. P a g e | 403 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry  Type of work expected to be taken from the equipment after the present job is completed 43.What are the advantages of crawler excavator?  More tractive effort, hence can also operate on loose or muddy soil  In absence of tyres, can easily operate in rocky conditions, as there is no danger for the damage of the tyres  Where maintenance of haul roads is difficult, it can be easily travel, especially in rough terrains  Crawler tractors are more compact and powerful and hence can handle difficult jobs as well 44.What are the advantages of wheeled tractors?  Can travel at higher speeds during the operation and also from one job to another  Can travel long distance at its own power, whereas crawler mounted needs trailers  When work is spread over long area, there are found to be producing more output  Easy in operation. Operation feels less fatigue. 45.What are the uses of excavators?  Digging of trenches, holes and foundations  Material handling  Brush cutting with hydraulic attachments  Forestry work  Demolition
  14. 14. P a g e | 404 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry  General grading/landscaping  Heavy lift, e.g. lifting and placing of pipes  Mining, especially, but not only open-pit mining  River dredging  Driving piles, in conjunction with a Pile Driver 46.List out the types of excavators.  Compact excavator  Crawler excavator  Wheeled excavator  Backhoe loader  Dragline excavator  Bucket wheel excavator  Long reach excavator  Power shovel  Suction excavator 47.What are the main uses of a bulldozer?  Clearance of shrubs and small trees  Clearance of trees by using raised mould blade as a pusher arm  Acting as a towing tractor  Acting as a pusher to scraper machines 48.What are the applications of bulldozer?  Land clearing  Stripping  Side hill cuts
  15. 15. P a g e | 405 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry  Ditching  Spreading  Dozing rocks and frozen ground  Maintaining haul roads  Clearing the floors of borrow and quarry pits 49.Differentiate between crawler and pneumatic types of wheels. CRAWLER TYPE WHEEL PNEUMATIC TYPE WHEEL The crawler moves on an endless chain It moves on pneumatic tyres They are slow speed They are faster in speed They are used for uneven & rough ground They operate best on smooth roads They have a speed of about 12kmph They have a speed of about 50kmph 50.What is motor grader? Motor graders are used for leveling and smoothening of the earthwork, spreading and leveling the base courses in the construction of roads and airfield. It can be used for land reclamation, snow clearance, gravel road repairing, mixing of stabilizing materials such as tar, asphalt, cement and lime, maintaining quarry roads, etc. 51.What is a scraper? Scrapers are the device to scrap the ground and load it simultaneously, transport it over the required distance, dump at desired place and then spread the dumped material over the required area in required thickness level, and
  16. 16. P a g e | 406 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry return to the pit for the next cycle. The scrapers are of three types. They are,  Towed type  Self-propelled or motorized  Self-loading or elevating scraper 52.What are the three types of scraper?  Crawler drawn scraper  Two axle scraper  Three axle scraper 53.What are the advantages of elevating scraper?  Better loading ability in loose free flowing materials  Good finishing ability  Can be operated independently  Pusher tractor dozer is not required  Smooth and complete unloading of bowl by reversing the elevator rotation  Pulverizing and mixing action by the elevator places material in uniform and homogeneous state for compaction. 54.Write short note on skimmers. These excavators are rigged using a universal power unit for surface stripping and shallow excavation work upto 300mm deep where a high degree of accuracy is required. They usually require attachment haulage vehicles to remove the spoil and need to be transported between sites on a
  17. 17. P a g e | 407 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry low loader. Because of their limitations and the availability of alternatives machines, they are rarely used today. 55.What are the factors governed the output of a dragline? Output or the performance of the dragline depends on the following factors,  Nature of soil  Depth of cut  Angle of swing  Capacity of hauling units, if employed  Mechanical condition of the dragline  Efficiency and skill of the operator 56.Write short notes on draglines. Cranes are machines designed to move materials vertically (rise by rope pulley operation) or horizontally. The range of cranes available is very wide, from gear wheel to a complex tower crane. Therefore, choice must be based on:  The loads to be lifted  Height of lifting  Horizontal distance to be covered  Time period of lifting operations  Utilization factors and  Degree of mobility required
  18. 18. P a g e | 408 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry 57.What is the power shovel? It is used to excavate the earth of all classed and load it into wagons. They are mounted on crawler tracks. It consists of a mountain, cab, boon, dipper, strip, hoist line. 58.What is a clamshell? Clamshell is a machine having most of the characteristics of dragline and crane in common. Digging is done like a dragline and once the bucket is filled, it works like a crane. It is very useful for accurate spot dumping of material in a confined space in a vertical plane. It can be used for handling of loose or soft and medium hard materials only. 59.What are the methods of underwater concreting?  Tremie method  Pump method  Toggle bags  Bags work 60.What are the types of temporary earth retaining structures?  Braced wall  Sheet pile wall  Soil nail wall 61.Define blasting. Blasting is the process of discharging of an explosive to loosen the rock.
  19. 19. P a g e | 409 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry 62.What are the parameters to be examined while blasting for quarrying? While blasting for quarrying or excavation, the following parameters are to be examined.  Spacing of the drill holes  Diameter of the drill holes  Depth of the drill holes  Burden of the rock at the toe  Burden of the rock at the crest  Degree of fragmentation desired and  Strength of the explosives to be used 63.Define dredging. It is the process of excavating from river bed, lake or sea for the purpose of deepening them. It is an important operation in navigation canals, harbors, dams etc. 64.What are the types of dredgers?  Dipper dredger  Ladder dredger  Suction dredger 65.What is line system? This system is employed when excavation area is long. The header is laid out along the sides of the excavation, and the pumping is continuously in progress in one length as further points are jetted ahead of the pumped down section and pulled up from the completed and back filled lengths and repeated till entire length is completed. For narrow excavation, like trenches,
  20. 20. P a g e | 410 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry header is laid only on one laid, while for wide excavations, the header are required to be placed on both sides of the area. 66.What is ring system? When excavation is done in area of appreciable width, line system is inadequate. The ring system is used in such condition and the header main surrounds the excavations completely. This system is used for rectangular excavations such as for piers or basements. 67.Where is grout anchors used in constructions? In most cases, however anchorages may be embedded below ground level, with backstays connecting them to adjacent towers, or they may constitute the end abutments of the end spans. In addition to stability sliding, the anchorage structure must also be checked for stability against tilting and overturning. 68.Define texture. What are their classifications? Texture is defined as the grain size of the rock. It is classified into 5 categories such as,  Porous rock  Loose grained rock  Granitoid rock  Fine grained rock  Dense rock 69.List out the construction equipment.  Bull dozers
  21. 21. P a g e | 411 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry  Graders  Skimmers  Scrapers  Loaders  Face shovels  Backhoe  Draglines 70.Mention the various operations involved in grading.  Grading  Spreading  Finishing and leveling  Ditch digging  Cutting  Bank cutting  Earthen road maintenance  Earthen road construction  Repairing gravel road UNIT – 2 1. Define pile foundation. A pile is a slender column made of wood, concrete or steel. A pile is either driven into the soil or formed in situ by excavating a hole and then filling it with concrete. A group of piles are driven to the required depth and are capped with R.C.C. slab, over which super structure is built. The pile transfer the load to soil by friction or by direct bearing, in the latter case,
  22. 22. P a g e | 412 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry piles being taken up to hard strata. This type of foundations is used when top soil is not capable of taking the load of the structure even at 3–4 m depth. 2. Write the situations under which pile foundation is recommended.  When spread footing, raft and grillage foundations are uneconomical  When heavy concentrated loads are to be transmitted by the foundation  Where there is scouring in the soil near the foundations  Where the soil is made up and of a compressible nature 3. Give the different types of piling.  Rotary board technique  Continuous flight auger piling  Low head room continuous auger pile  Cased flight auger piling 4. What is the equipment used for driving a pre – cast pile in a sandy soil? The equipment used for driving a pre-cast pile in a sandy soil is a hammer. Hence maximum stresses are developed at the top due to direct strokes and at the point in overcoming the resistance to penetration. Therefore additional reinforcement is provided. 5. Define well foundation. What are the types of well foundation? Well foundation is a type of deep foundation which is generally provided below the water level for bridges. Well foundation is a box of timber, metal, reinforced concrete or masonry which opens both at the top and bottom, and is used for building and bridge foundations. Well
  23. 23. P a g e | 413 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry foundations are being used in India from very early days. TajMahal was built on such foundations. TYPES:  Open caisson  Single wall open caisson  Cylindrical open caisson  Open caisson with dredging wells  Box caisson  Pneumatic caisson 6. What is well cap? It is a RCC slab laid at the top of the well Steining. It transfers the load to the Steining. 7. What are the components of well foundation? The components of well foundations are,  Well curb  Cutting edge  Steining 8. What is a Kent ledge? In well sinking, to overcome the increased skin friction and the in weight of the well due to buoyancy, additional loading is applied on the wall. It is called Kent ledge.
  24. 24. P a g e | 414 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry 9. What is cofferdam? Cofferdams are temporary or permanent structure which is constructed so as to remove water / soil from an area and make it possible to carry on the construction work under reasonably dry conditions. These are constructed by driving sheet piles in the form of cells which are filled with granular materials and become self-stabilizing retaining structures. 10.What are the factors you will consider while selecting cofferdams?  The area to be protected by a cofferdam.  The depth of coater to be dealt with shallow depth or deep depth.  The possibility of overtopping by floods, tides, etc.  The nature of bed on which the cofferdam is to test, (i.e.) previous layer or an impervious layer. 11.What are the uses of cofferdam?  To facilitate pile driving operations  To place grillage and raft foundations  To construct foundations for piers and abutments of bridges, dams, locks, etc. 12.What are the types of cofferdams? The types of cofferdams are,  Dikes  Single wall construction  Double wall construction  Cellular cofferdam  Rock filled
  25. 25. P a g e | 415 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry  Concrete cofferdam  Suspended cofferdam 13.Define shoring. Shoring is the construction of a temporary structure to support temporarily an unsafe structure. These support walls laterally. 14.What are the types of shoring? Depending upon their supporting characteristics the shores are classified into 3 categories.  Racking or inclined shores  Flying or horizontal shores  Dead or vertical shores 15.Why is shoring provided in foundation? When a wall cracks due to unequal settlement of foundation and the cracked wall needs repair. So, shoring is provided in foundation. 16.Under what circumstances shoring is provided?  When walls bulge out  When walls crack due to unequal settlement of foundation and repairs are to be carried out to the cracked wall  When an adjacent structure needs pulling down  When openings are to be newly made or enlarged in a wall 17.What are the methods of providing shoring for the trenches?  Stay bracing
  26. 26. P a g e | 416 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry  Box sheeting  Vertical sheeting  Runners  Sheet piling 18.Define wales. The depth of sheeting is held in position by means of horizontal beams called wales. 19.Define rakes. If the excavation is too wide, the wales may be supported by inclined struts known as rakes. 20.Define struts. Strut is a compression member to provide temporary support to in-situ retaining walls in deep excavations. It is mostly a steel beam of various sections or a pipe. Reinforced concrete beams are seldom used. 21.Define underpinning. The process of placing a new foundation under an existing one or strengthening and existing foundation is called underpinning. 22.What are the types of underpinning?  Pit method  Pile method  Chemical method  Other methods
  27. 27. P a g e | 417 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry 23.Define diaphragm wall. Diaphragm wall are structure elements, which are constructed underground to prevent the seepage into the excavated area. 24.Define RCC diaphragm wall. Diaphragm Wall is generally reinforced concrete wall constructed in the ground using under slurry technique which was developed in Europe. The technique involves excavating a narrow trench that is kept full of an engineered fluid of slurry. Walls of thickness between 300 and 1200 mm can be formed in this way up to depths of 45 meters. 25.When is diaphragm wall used? A diaphragm wall is basically a deep trench excavated in soil in to which reinforced concrete is placed. Diaphragm walls are used in permanent and temporary foundation walls for deep basements in earth retention schemes for highway and tunnel projects, as permanent walls for deep shafts for tunnel access, and as permanent cut – off walls through the care of earth dams. 26.Write down the construction procedure of diaphragm wall.  Fixing of alignment  Guide wall construction  Trenching  Trench cleaning  Stop ends fixing  Reinforcement cage lowering  Placing of concrete
  28. 28. P a g e | 418 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry  Withdrawal of stop ends 27.What are the various methods adopted to construct a diaphragm wall?  Slurry trench technique  Soil mixing method  RC continuous diaphragm wall  Precast diaphragm wall  Glass diaphragm wall 28.Give the uses or applications of diaphragm wall.  Commonly used in congested areas.  Can be installed in close proximity to existing structure.  Practically suited for deep basements.  Used in conjunction with “Top Down” construction technique. UNIT – 3 1. Define scaffolding. These are temporary erections constructed to support a number of platforms at different heights raised for the convenience of workers so as to enable them to work easily and raise the needed materials. 2. What are the component parts of scaffolding?  Standards  Ledgers  Braces
  29. 29. P a g e | 419 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry  Putlogs  Transoms  Bridle  Boarding  Guard rail  Toe board 3. Give the materials used for formwork. Formwork can be made out of timber, plywood, steel, precast concrete, fibre glass, used separately or combination. 4. When the removable of formwork are done? The form should be removed until the concrete has hardened sufficiently and they may be left in place for as possible up to maximum days of 28 in normal weather conditions. A hard metallic sound indicates the concrete has hardened sufficiently for safe removal of formwork. 5. State briefly the essential requirements of formwork.  It should be strong enough to withstand all loads coming on it, such a dead load of concrete and live load during its pouring, compaction and curing.  It should be stiff enough so that deflection is minimum  It should be as be light as possible  This form work should rest on non – yielding supports
  30. 30. P a g e | 420 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry 6. Define centering and shuttering. Part of the form work which supports the horizontal surface is called centering for example slab bottom, beam bottom etc. Part of the form work which supports the Vertical surface is called Shuttering for example column sides, beam sides, slab side, wall side etc. 7. Define hoisting. A hoist is a device used for lifting or lowering a load by means of a drum or lift-wheel around which rope or chain wraps. It may be manually operated, electrically or pneumatically driven and may use chain, fiber or wire rope as its lifting medium. The load is attached to the hoist by means of a lifting hook. There are three types of hoist namely,  Wire rope or chain hoist  Construction hoist  Mine hoist 8. Define rigging. Rigging is the apparatus through which the force of the wind is used to propel sailboats and sailing ships forward. This includes masts, yards, sails, and cordage. 9. What are the types of cranes?  Overhead crane  Truck mounted crane  Side lifter crane  Rough terrain crane  All terrain crane
  31. 31. P a g e | 421 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry  Pick and carry crane  Carry deck crane  Telescopic handler crane  Crawler crane  Harbor crane  Railroad crane  Floating crane  Aerial crane  Tower crane  Level luffing crane  Gantry crane  Deck crane  Bulk handling crane  Stacker crane 10.Define plastering. The process of covering the surfaces of masonry, beam or column with mortar is called plastering. Mortar is a substance obtained by mixing sand, a binding material (cement/lime) and water in definite proportions. 11.Define flooring. What are the types of flooring? Flooring is the horizontal area in any floor of a building that is actually the space used by the occupants for moving in the building. TYPES OF FLOORING:  Mud flooring  Cement concrete flooring
  32. 32. P a g e | 422 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry  Terrazzo flooring  Mosaic flooring  Glazed tile flooring  Marble flooring  Linoleum flooring  Brick flooring  Stone flooring  Granolithic flooring  Timber flooring  Asphalt flooring  Rubber flooring  Epoxy resin flooring 12.What are the requirements of good flooring?  Low cost  Good appearance  Sound and thermal insulation  Strength and durability  Smoothness  Damp and fire resistance  Comfortability  Anti-skid 13.Give some aspects you consider while choosing the floor type.  Initial cost  Appearance  Cleanliness
  33. 33. P a g e | 423 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry  Durability  Damp resistance  Sound insulation  Thermal insulation  Smoothness  Hardness  Fire resistance  Maintenance consideration 14.What are the components of flooring?  Sub floor or base course  Floor covering 15.Define aggregate crushers and screening equipment. Screening is the separation of material into 2 - 6 different sized products. The material is separated by passing it through a vibrating 'screen box' which a number of different has sized screens, or meshes, which the material falls through like a sieve. The material falls onto attached conveyors which stock piles the end products. The end products can then be used in the building and construction industries. 16.Define aggregate feeders. Aggregate feed bins are used for each of the size of the aggregate and sand, and control their quality, weighting system is used for important jobs, since control by volume is not perfect as it varies due to closeness of packing of the material. The aggregate fed bins are loaded by any of the following methods
  34. 34. P a g e | 424 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry  By shovels directly into the bins  By lorries tipping directly into the bins  Aggregate are stored in bulkhead at ground level 17.Define batching. The measurement of materials for making concrete is known as batching. There are two methods of batching.  Volume batching  Weight batching 18.What are the methods of equipment are used by volume batching?  Aggregate feeders  Cement silo  Water measuring device and  Mixing unit 19.Define mixing. After measuring the materials required for preparing the concrete it has to be mixed well before placing the concrete. It should ensure that the mass becomes homogeneous and uniform. There are two methods of mixing.  Hand mixing  Machine mixing 20.What are the methods are adopted for transportation of concrete?  Mortar pan  Wheel barrow
  35. 35. P a g e | 425 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry  Crane, bucket and rope way  Truck mixers and dumpers  Belt conveyors  Chute  Skip and hoist  Transit mixer  Pump and pipe line  Helicopter 21.What is meant by transit mixer? Transit mixer is a piece of equipment that is used for transporting concrete, mortar or ready mix material from a concrete batching plant directly to the site where it is to be utilized. Transit mixer is loaded with dry material and water. The interior of the transit drum is fitted with a spiral blade. 22.What are the types of conveyors?  Belt conveyors  Roller conveyors  Chain conveyors  Pipe conveyors  Elevating conveyor 23.What are the advantages of using belt conveyors?  Its suitable levels eliminate a good deal of lifting and lowering of material.  It require no stopping or standing but is continuous operation.
  36. 36. P a g e | 426 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry  Transportation is affected by friction between material being transported and the belt.  It largely saves labor cost.  No noise  Carry the material horizontal, vertical, inclined.  It can withstand 1600 C. 24.What are the activities normally followed during concreting?  Batching  Mixing  Transporting  Placing  Compacting  Curing 25.Define compaction. Compaction is defined as the process of densifying or increasing the unit weight of a soil mass through the application of static or dynamic force, with the resulting expulsion of air. 26.What are the factors influencing compaction?  Drum diameter  Frequency and amplitude  Relationship between frame and drum weight  Driven or non-driven drum  Centrifugal force  Total applied force
  37. 37. P a g e | 427 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry  Static weight  Number of vibratory drums  Roller speed 27.Name some compaction equipment.  Towed static smooth compactors  Static sheep foot or pad foot compactors  Static three wheel self-propelled compactors  Static tandem compactors  Three axle static compactors  Rubber tyred compactors  Vibrator compactors  Tandem vibrator compactors  Towed vibrator compactors  Sheep foot & tamping foot vibrator compactors  Self-propelled vibrator compactors  Hand guided vibrator compactors 28.What are the various types of concreting equipments?  Concrete mixers  Concrete hauling equipments  Wheel barrows  Dumpers  Ready mix concrete mixers  Concrete pumps for placement in different conditions  Concrete vibrators for compaction
  38. 38. P a g e | 428 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry  Poker or internal vibrator  External clamp or tamping board vibrator 29.Define shotcreting. Mortar or high performance concrete conveyed through a hose and pneumatically projected at high velocity onto a backing surface is known as shotcreting. 30.How pumps are classified?  Positive displacement pump  Reciprocating pump  Rotary pump o Gear pump o Vance pump o Screw pump  Rotodynamic pump  Volute pump  Circular pump  Diffuser pump  Vertical turbine pump  Centrifugal mixed flow pump  Propeller pump 31.Define drilling. Drilling is a cutting process that uses a drill bit to cut a hole of circular cross-section in solid materials. The drill bit is a rotary cutting tool, often
  39. 39. P a g e | 429 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry multipoint. The bit is pressed against the work piece and rotated at rates from hundreds to thousands of revolutions per minute. This forces the cutting edge against the work piece, cutting off chips (swarf) from the hole as it is drilled. 32.What are the types of drilling equipment?  Percussion drills  Rotary drills  Pressure drilling  Abrasion drilling 33.What are the factors affecting the selection of drilling equipment?  Nature of terrain  Required depth of holes  Rock hardness  The purpose for which holes are required to be drilled (i.e.) for blasting or grouting or for exploration purposes  The size of the project 34.What are the methods used for building demolition techniques?  Manual method  Mechanical method  Demolition by machine  Demolition by hydraulic rushers  Demolition by wrecking ball  Explosive method
  40. 40. P a g e | 430 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry 35.What are the methods used for tunnel driving?  Full face method  Top Heading and benching method  Drift method  Pilot tunneling  Needle beam method 36.What are the factors you will consider while selection of route in tunneling?  Geological conditions  Right of way  Alignment restraints  Environmental considerations 37.Give the various methods of tunneling through soft ground.  Fore poling method  Needle beam method  Five piece set method  Other methods  Casting methods  Square sets and logging method  Horse cups method 38.Give the various methods of tunneling through rock.  Full face method  Top heading and benching method  Cantilever car pump method
  41. 41. P a g e | 431 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry  Drift method  Pilot tunneling UNIT – 4 1. Define bridges. What are the types of bridges? A bridge is a structure constructed to provide the passage for a road or railways over an obstacle such as river, valley etc. without closing a wall.  Masonry arch bridge  Reinforced cement concrete bridge  Slab bridge  T – beam bridge  Hollow girder bridge  Balanced cantilever bridge  RCC arch bridge  Steel bridge  Plate girder bridge  Steel arch bridge  Cable stayed bridge  Suspension bridge  Cantilever bridge 2. What are the types of sub structure?  Foundation  Abutment  Pier  Wing walls and return walls
  42. 42. P a g e | 432 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry  Revetment  Apron  Approaches to bridge 3. What are the types of super structure?  Bearings  Deck  Hand rails  Girder or truss  Roadway 4. Define abutment. The abutment is a terminal support of the bridge. It is built on either side of a valley where the road or railway joins the bridge. 5. Define pier. In a multispan bridge piller like supports are constructed between the abutments. These supports are called piers. 6. Define multispan bridge. In a multispan bridge there are several piers and hence several spans. The multispan bridges are built in the middle or lower reaches of rivers where the valleys are generally very wide. 7. Define suspension bridge. A bridge which is suspended with the help of cables and steel towers across a deep and narrow river valley is called suspension bridge.
  43. 43. P a g e | 433 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry 8. Define RCC bridges. What are the types of RCC bridges? Reinforced Cement Concrete is well suited for the construction of bridges in the small and medium span ranges. Different types of RCC bridges which are usually constructed are: Slab bridges, T – beam (girder and slab) bridges, hollow girder bridges, balanced cantilever bridges, continuous girder bridges, rigid frame bridges, arch bridges and bowstring girder bridges. 9. What are factors to be considered for selection of site for bridges?  Span of the bridge and number of spans  Purpose of bridge  Intensity of loading on the bridge  Type of super structure adopted  Headroom to be provided below the bridge  Type of foundation soil, available  Nature of material used  Nature of alignment  Relative position of floor of the bridge  Prevailing wind force and earth – quake possibilities  Life expectancy of the bridge. 10.Define cable stayed bridges. What are the types of cable stayed bridges? This type of bridge is especially suited for spans ranging from 200 to 500m. The main component of a cable stayed bridges are,  Inclined cables  Towers  Decks
  44. 44. P a g e | 434 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry In a simple form the cables are provided above the deck and connected to towers. This eliminates intermediate piers and provides large width for the purposes of navigation. The deck is supported by a number of cables. This type of bridge is widely used in recent years because of the availability of high strength steel. 11.What are balanced cantilever bridges? Providing continuous spans can minimize the bending moment and hence individual span lengths can be increased. But this requires unyielding supports. Any yielding of supports results in distress in structure. In order to avoid this, a combination of cantilever and suspended spans may be adopted. The bridge with this type of super structure is referred to as balanced cantilever bridges. This type of bridge is suitable for medium span in the range of about 35 to 60m. 12.What are the erection methods of launching of heavy deck?  Balanced cantilever erection method  Progressive placing method  Span by span (or) Steeping form work method  Incremental launching method UNIT – 5 1. Define roads. What are the types of roads? Road is specially prepared path on which the transport vehicles pass lawfully.
  45. 45. P a g e | 435 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry CLASSIFICATION OF ROADS ACCORDING TO LOCATION AND FOUNDATION:  National highway  State highway  Major district roads  Other district roads  Village roads CLASSIFICATION OF ROADS BASED ON MATERIALS USED:  Earth roads  Gravel road  Water Bound Macadam road  Bituminous road  Asphalt road  Cement concrete road 2. Define flexible pavements. What are the types of flexible pavements? Flexible Pavements are those, which on the whole have low or negligible flexural strength and are rather flexible in their structural action under the loads. The Flexible Pavements layers reflect the deformation of the lower layers on to the surface of the layer. TYPES:  Conventional layered flexible pavement  Full depth asphalt pavement  Contained Rock Asphalt Mat (CRAM)
  46. 46. P a g e | 436 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry 3. Define rigid pavements. What are the types of rigid pavements? Rigid pavements are those, which possess noteworthy flexural strength or flexural rigidity. The stresses are not transferred from grain to the lower layers as in the ease of flexible pavement layers. The rigid pavements are made of Portland cement concrete either plan, reinforced or pre-stressed concrete. TYPES:  Jointed Plain Concrete Pavement (JPCP)  Jointed Reinforced Concrete Pavement (JRCP)  Continuous Reinforced Concrete Pavement (CRCP)  Pre-stressed Concrete Pavement (PCP) 4. What are the factors to be considered for selection of site for roads?  Type and purpose of road  Cross drainage works  Bridges  Railway crossing  Existing right of way  Public demand  Availability of material  Availability of labour 5. What is a tunnel? What are their uses? A tunnel is an underground or underwater passageway, dug through the surrounding soil/earth/rock and enclosed except for entrance and exit, commonly at each end.
  47. 47. P a g e | 437 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry USES:  Tunnels are made for highways and railway for regular traffic and transportation of goods  Tube railways are made through tunnels  Diverting the river water through tunnels in the construction of dams  Pressure or hydropower tunnels are used in power generation  Tunnels are used for supply of drinking water, and oil or sewage disposal or laying cables  Tunnels are made to extract minerals  Discharge tunnels to convey water from one point to another by gravity 6. What are the advantages of tunneling?  Time saving and reduction in fuel  Avoid unwanted traffic congestion  Maintain a proper speed  Avoid tiredness of travel  Avoid unwanted accidents  To avoid deforestation and death of animal while crossing  To avoid land slide in hilly region  To avoid the long route around the mountain  To reduce the length of highway and railway and it may be economical 7. What are the types of tunnel construction methods?  Classical method  Mechanical drilling / cutting
  48. 48. P a g e | 438 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry  Cut and cover method  Drill and blast method  Shields and Tunnel Boring Machines (TBM’s)  New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM)  Immersed tunnels  Special methods (tunnel jacking) 8. Define cut and cover method. Cut and cover is a simple method of construction for shallow tunnels where a trench is excavated and roofed over with an overhead support system strong enough to carry the load of what is to be built above the tunnel. 9. What are the component parts of pipe jacking?  Thrust yoke  Skid base  Power packs  Intermediate jacking stations 10.What is meant by pipe jacking? Pipe jacking is a method of installing a pipe under roadway, railway or highways without using an open cut trench. The pipe jacking procedure was a casing pipe of sheet or reinforced concrete (i.e.) jacked through the soil.
  49. 49. P a g e | 439 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry 11.What are the techniques used in box / pipe jacking? A technique used in box/pipe jacking requires the construction of just two pits:  The thrust  Reception pits Dimensions of the pits vary according to site conditions. Excavation of soil can be by manual or mechanical means depending on the type of machines used. 12.Give the applications of box jacking. The applications of box jacking are,  Underground pipes  Ducks and culverts 13.Give the advantages of box / pipe jacking.  Environmentally friendly with minimal damage to the surface  Highly accurate and cost effective  Suitable for all kinds of profiles for a wide variety of soil conditions  Traffic congestion and additional pollution will not cause  Extremely suitable for all kinds of underground utility infrastructure. 14.List the disadvantages of box / pipe jacking.  Limited tunnel run resulting in more required shafts (approximately every 1000ft)  Relatively straight alignment required (minimum radius of curvature approximately 4000ft)  Difficulty in replacing damaged pipe.
  50. 50. P a g e | 440 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry 15.What are the types of cut and cover method?  Conventional method  Bottom – up method  Top – down method  Cast – in – place method 16.What is grouting? Grouting is an engineering and art combined to fill up the voids or cavities in rock or soil masses with fluid that will increase the overall strength and impermeability of the mass. 17.Give the types of grouting.  Chemical  Cement  Jet grouting 18.Give the characteristics of grouting materials. The characteristics of grouting materials are,  The grouting material has high permeability  No vibrations are used  Application requires no additional structures used 19.Explain about cement grouting. In this method, cement grout which is a mixture of cement, sand and water is used. The process consists of making a number of holes in ground and then filling these holes by cement grout under pressure. This process is continued till no grout is coming up through the hole.
  51. 51. P a g e | 441 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry USES:  The grouting procedure can be used in stopping leakages from rock  It can also be used to fill the voids in soil so as to strengthen the soil and to make the rock or soil water tight 20.Define TBM. A tunnel boring machine (TBM), also known as a "mole", is a machine used to excavate tunnels with a circular cross section through a variety of soil and rock strata. They may also be used for micro tunneling. They can bore through anything from hard rock to sand. Tunnel diameters can range from a 1 meter to 19.25 meters to date. 21.List out the advantages of tunnel boring machines.  There is very less danger of fall outs in machine bored tunnels, since adjacent or surrounding rocks are undistributed as no blasting is done.  Mucking is also safe and convenient, since muck is conveyed from the face to the rear of the machine and is loaded automatically by means to the rear of the machine and is loaded automatically by means of belt conveyors.  Higher speed of excavation.  Reduction in the tunnel supports requirement.  Less manpower requirement. 22.Define shafts. In civil engineering a shaft is an underground vertical or inclined passageway. Shafts are constructed for a number of reasons including:  For the construction of a tunnel
  52. 52. P a g e | 442 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry  For ventilation of a tunnel or underground structure  As a drop shaft for a sewerage or water tunnel  For access to a tunnel or underground structure, also as an escape route 23.Define tunnel lining. What are the types of tunnel lining? The finishing touch given to the cross – section of the tunnel is known as tunnel lining. The plain and reinforced concrete is generally used for the lining. TYPES:  Temporary ground support  Primary lining  Secondary lining 24.Mention the sequence of operations involved in during the tunnel through rock.  Setting up and drilling  Loading the holes with explosives and firing  Ventilating and removing the dust resulted by explosion  Loading and hauling the muck  Removing ground water from the tunnel  Erection of supports for the roof and sides  Placing reinforcement  Placing the concrete lining  Curing and shuttering removal
  53. 53. P a g e | 443 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry 25.What are the objectives of ventilation system in a tunnel?  To provide fresh air for workers  To remove poisonous gases and fumes produced by explosion  To remove the dust caused by drilling, blasting, mucking and other operations Performed in the tunnel. 26.Define mucking. The operation of removal of excavated material in tunneling operation is called mucking. Different methods of mucking are,  In small tunnels, hand carts or wheel barrows are used  Special power shovels are used in medium size tunnels which are with a short boom and a dipper strikes.  Specially made mucking machines are equipped with dippers in large tunnels.