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Kanji isn't that hard (kanji wa muzukashiku nai)

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Learning Kanji by easy way

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Kanji isn't that hard (kanji wa muzukashiku nai)

  1. 1. z« ...n u. %anasa j?, Yoshiaki Takebe W v” -' * :y *L - %L *`«~I~<'~4«'«' na w x _ :- + a; g ~~ ~ r t r z?? 1 ;v t' Q Thf, /r _' 'i s a'. Jsouam .~ y. , ,, . . ,_ .. ., . , 1 ' " "g, _ ,r/ -. *- . :Z . 'I ; r iā n g V I . , ` 1 ` %nisema r . ' g A, 3» ' .... . ?l k. %ex- 7 ë Jgààà ., ` 1 ` ,.. '*.~_,",“ L . " 'if'. ~ “cha :i '4 (hy
  2. 2. 7lbăwã$šší$l F OALC Press Japanese Textbook Series E$ltt3Tb*b<7JL KANJI ISN'T THAT HARD! 240JíšãUZ“'ë""Z0)ä$75*7Z9-Täă Kanji Can Be Mastered with the "24 Rules" ääãm Yoshiaki Takebe
  3. 3. h-” mch.. n.. musí šăifš cz-vfíiăăš@ăíñzí L, i To U ~<7TâeTOD “moutHčííHli %@ãAñ#ãá0šTo%?@š%%íLíToä?ã%@%%% @TäLšfoä?@rUJ@āųr<gJ@üTLü: `%$mruJmyųF<2jó@:@t?eeU:tngä$u ü%äW%0š?}rUJ@äMUrščd@âK&UšLtJTTo ä$@rUJdW%TT}r<BJ@$HščT?o$@šč#.ä $?um%cá0šLtoä$cucôupäwwáošfo ãimăüëäàhdtäiëăítâmämäwbmoifoi fri» L' I! '3 č ( H!! I» i. čliñčlüy) i Lfco FH (TJWZzEEšZJJ J?” r7(@:))=@5 7D>"7EJ b. Efiāíis ičbdílššāHêTñír íš$āfifāllêäàhíit Tš $CiU3SVJWJ<íL`WT"To CVDâčZL íášãaTifāüwáxT`fo CWZi-A/C" ä$@&MčäiíL;5o %?Cü.%W@Aâb%ê%UíToä$@r%J@%UrV' '7 'i'm @šüãštâbü“č`ä'o “M l: Wră" 0.1 @šêfx %Wíššüíāli riPàçDJ 'CTO r`7_| (i ríšfö L.] @äêí-X %Wšínëfšíš Wie) LJ `C"9"o "JJLJ (i FCEBJ @šêfčk %āñăíëkíi FCEBJ ?To W". Eāāfčñhššü šTo %Wíílãăcczčit fāíüröfä) 0 iTc %ăVHšëíi %mw%%#$ot'Wo:ôJ«ãăâToä$w“%J@ä% fit rN/vš i 53'Z>J ?To “l - '7 ' ?J íiš$@%í_íT“To %?mã@%ăàhdä$%@T`%mă%#b%UiTo“n ODT-ăüáâãi rb>ã"UJ 'C““9"o “Tšé (7|< ~ 'V - är) :ã < 52.1 0) “w *iā “à (v ~ 7 - m) :bífcšu v) “w %) %mäíüäāti “frãüų 'C To äíízmäíüāêêăàüli" ?šíliüfñw < ?LVCTD :mālšfä íízmšíibkêäii L; 59
  4. 4. 5' ~A t' J» Mh Išāč< t/t L' lš?li%“." %äLiTo :mg/scn išímāíāñutzšimälšrmăuáā číäànlatä ?šilitf see Löwcb; 5.. is!! 1993515 4 FJ rššãlšäññ h/t NO ki? ~< i Lbā (i: ' âfiāfü ä) (ik h t! 7.' 7.'l'ü'<` ?Lkn Preface Roman letters signify how to read a word. By looking at the Roman letters "mouth," you can tell how to read the word. Kanji signify meaning. Kanji express their meanings through pictures. The kanji E! was originally a picture of a mouth. The outline of the kanji D is not exactly the same as a picture of a mouth. There are rules to kanji. The rule for E! is that "Circles became squares." The kanji El is a square. A picture of a mouth is a circle. The circle in the picture has become a square in the kanji. Such rules as this are found in kanji. If you leam the rules to kanji, you can tell the outline of the original picture when you look at a kanji. Circles became squares. The square in the kanji E! (hi "sun") or 67 (yu "evening") was originally a picture of the round sun. If you learn the rules to kanji, then kanji aren't difficult. This book is a manual on those rules. Let's learn those rules with this book. There are kanji that are combinations of pictures. The outline of the kanji i is a combination of "J, '7, ?. "J is a picture of a decoration, and thus means "decoration" '7 is a picture of a cap and thus means "cap" -T- is a picture of a child and thus means "child" The child wears a cap. The cap has a decoration on it. The child wears that cap and goes to school (ga/e/eou). The meaning of the kanji i* is "to study." 'Y, '7, T are kanji units. If you learn the units found in kanji, you can understand the meaning of kanji when you look at them. “7 means "decoration" The V found in (PK. "/. 'k' I sakura "cherry tree") or ă ("/, '7, Hi Z hotaru "firefly") means "decora- tion." If you leam the units found in kanji, then kanji aren't difficult. Let's also learn those units with this book. Kanji signify meaning. If you learn the rules to kanji and the meaning of kanji units with this book, then kanji should be very interesting, I believe. April 1993 Yoshiaki Takebe Professor, Waseda University (reh)
  5. 5. Q ã IA t; < L' Contents mamo. .K ..u :P i h: V ?Wã J 24 aeeeeeater l ::au 24 Rules for Kanji Kanji Express Xleaning HLųIã *65 UöiitâTäl/ä?" ba» The Meaning of Adjectives Is Expressed by Their Pictures 1 a íš-äñ-@iàllâêãi 3 L J: 5 Let's Learn the Basic Units in Kahjl t A. ' : H sl 2 L: Tlíâiiiā] U %āuäâfiâ- The Same Outline indicates the Same Meaning hu: tu L* I; 13 šámëläčéêbü' i L J: 5 Put Two Meanungs Together . âúfã?iltc 0 i l, f:: Pictures Turned into Kanji L _ . ü 18 ' ` āmăíâmãâëñâ i L J: 5 Let's Consider the Outline of the Original Pictures 4 i %J lilëiâ i: t: 0 i L T: Circles Became Squares ,,. 23 fiäšāliāšâl: 7; i) š L T: Curved Lines Became Straight Lines 5 č fäañfâi: l, i *'9" Verticals and llorizontals r» ~ w ` v ` 28 šānbămfšiílhä L, J: ") Let's Fit the Kčiñjl into a Square Gnd 6 b* C č 'CWT Three signifies Many . An 9339* * 33 %hii T: < o? há) l) i T Fiepresenting a Lot of One Thmg Zfú* ă i T Writing from Left to Right ' Lwn e- úrš ` 38 %fr Bš/Eã š 'ë' Writing from Top to Bottom 8 ;ãāf i) išâií 73' 7) i T Adjectives Can Also Become Pictures r- . X. 43
  6. 6. gibi?? i) šâil 73: 7) i T Verbs Can Also Become Pictures 7 X. on e?" . *t ') TčãâTšL ä T The Meaning of Verbs Is Expressed by Their Pictures 10 `/"C" hãāč L i T Expressing Verbs with Signs “ E ā L :m: 515” %ãvi š L J: 5 Imagine the Actions 7 s ' I kn 11 [P < 0 i L?: Chinese People Invented Kanji %WEWE/t WA L' FFTUDJC 5 T7U<bb` i) Z T You Can Grasp the Chinese Situation 12 iiiăíb* à C 5'C"T A Far Place in the Upper Portion a 2. a “ Uíiiāk* č'. C. ôTT A Near Place in the Lower Portion ZTJiXVDlš 5 ?T Left Is East . on wi 415013 ;J T?" Right Is West h! Wi« 14 ā; %ñfš%?iCč? U i L?: Symbols Appear in Kanji _ y., _ , *čmäãläib{bü` U i T?? Do You Understand What Symbols Are? 15 %hii zmãlšóăfrä' That Is This Part i? .if/L *čnli::i:ä>l) i?” That ls Here 107) Hôãíüfă U i T There Are Many Types of Hands %mãläkiiiā L; T?" They AII Have the Same Meaning 17 šâëêãââbä i T A Combinatíon of Pictures ' ( 753 U Look at the Entire Picture 35% i T Combining Special Features . .v , âñšmišüičäräâ i L .I "J Consider the Whole Meaning ?Im-in h J» M!
  7. 7. %Hãâbäüfšhāāllíí 7.; y) i T Combínations Become Verbs ~ ( t; " a 1.9 “ 93 šâüêbüüíāftšāpš; (Z E; f; U i T Combinations Also Become Adjectives 20 y) i T The Outline of Units Changes " b “i ' 103 ;čmíšäšíigāl U TT The Meaning Is the Same 21 làčlHôüü/f .V/Jíä) V) There Are Many Signs 108 F] U #4 Včiíā Uš”/TTT'T Ilm: Same Sign Has the Same Meaning :a L» a uxôwôàxā-Aúfä, O i? There Are Many Stems 22 113 En: Zč-“Alilăl Ušiăš?? The Same Stem Has the Same Meaning 23 ;Owíāuäííñö U i T There Are Two Meaníngs > ' .s ~ L' a " ' ` 118 `“ íšmāäšh`äâb`ní L T: One Meaning Branches off from the Original Meaning T ?(13 T) L 5 r'C'“T Kanji Are Interesting 24 ?A” X) 123 ;M?íiãíčímíñ<ãi7i~âbë"f"ë` Kanii Are combinations of Units k? More Beginníng Kanji 128 L l . il ?WA U To Teachers; t* E' vu .- '* “_ ' ,k MA 158 íųa) a) Z, (2 ~ fšmăām) The “Kanji Díagram" Theory behind This Book (Ux :A: 0-1: D-A L 't' Hisia/i `{ $ I I Kanji Index 152 fP/L L' 3 ( U/L <ā2i=%x&e @ä=ä ru Illustrations : Hiroshi Tanaka Letterings : Humiaki Kikuchi
  8. 8. e$osn~m f' ?k U l15č( Kanji Express Meaning ewemeäzeuaā šiñ ki'. ln mi' 24 Rules for Kanji Let's Learn the Basic Units in Kanji läili. äãêâLšäá/o äíli. fêíüjčêãl, #4; U tāolík bâb 't' šToã$u.ã?To%egnM,%mă%#b #0iTo@ü@AO&c#@Am%#%nü% NA« l?: i.) Sh? Uk fLGiíCVDiāFJiTTO D-'??li` šiêäuëäLíTo 'chilãšãhíá'. 55% 539351» Mh J» A %mb#0;rHnEbų$%ubm0šeAJfi m%%Ef<üâwo$WãT?ofe5HTwá M?, 37. i: Y @To Liíbffdytfč`j~o rvifAJ rtj-ETJJ : #1! %Wíčšíülāfa-bvw l) :To D -víií'č*`ëš~`tafz'child'litch-i-ld ::artič c th* L' a» eăi$o:m~o~o#n~v$m%ã@$ü ug ::ask mt, u ?To ch is i %i ld s. wôwômšäāãmänäw i io%nee%eešL:roM` %%wr%-ë-%~ä'ül%āT<üăWo bsöbwôāñäíôjšlií "TJ #7) "J íTo "Tu @iā $@ã%@äü?TonäJ%ãT<ñãWomă hi» u (it ""/.' '7 "TJ ?To r-Tzi ii "Cčël ?To ăá-ülwiëčăuäíëãišblāo Mëã Kanji do not express sounds. They express meaning. Kanji take the form of outlines. The meaning is understood from this form. If the outline for “woman” is found at the entrance to a restroom, it's a women's restroom. Roman letters express sounds. When you see the word “childf you know what the pronunciation is, but not what it means. Look at the outline of the kanji ? . The top is the head. The arms are spread out. The bottom is the body. The meaning of the kanji ? is “child” because it shows the outline ofa child. The word “child” written in roman let- ters can be divided into ch-i-ld. Each division represents a unit of pronuncia- tion. “Ch," “i," and “id” are found in many words. They express sounds. Look atthe kanji ä, š, G,ãí{, and ñ . ? appears in many kanji. lt is a basic unit of meaning in kanji. Now look at the kanji š . $ is made up of y , 'j ,and ë . ā- means “child” Let's leam the outline and its meaning for each basic unit in kanji.
  9. 9. Kanji Express Meaning ã?ü$@ëābä? 1, mua» -ckāmvt meaning reading ''/» ă J: 5 T 5 @#9 to learn l @i @ii Mnemonlcs _“~”“-í' v» (_ "/ ' ?T čVU s* Y: .7 _ ` / ~ decăration " ' '7 - lš 7 L a* .> Cap 4” % - f. či f) ,_ i' Child - 5773: '1711 ii?išê'č7o r'7_i ii$ã%'C'To r"/J lgâñ; l) 'G -T is the kanji lor"child." 'D isacap. 3 5 59 l” l' N' “J isadecoratlon. Look al the outline of ?o ršwöñšiăăT < fíä ka, %ëtbñ iiã-"y-%bxšt l) š the kanji e. A child is wearing a cap. f" am " _ M The cap has a decoration. The decora- To 'čmliã%líãiñil Wi) U 3 To 'Pã:r"@âilí') iix ?gm tion on the cap IS a school logo. The LöLT?o%äU%w@%ê#$oT$H~Hă :a: %J niggaz. Wašâíö; w: ''/»2.t'3 child is going to school. wearing the cap. The kanji $ means “to study." r ` írčirf: wwa; i ;ampe t V ` a m . writing meaning reading i i @wa ' J @s<e * êšlšiüfc r , Mnemonlcs *- y ' jrëii) ..i i decoration 'L ii J!) ?K ~ ă ;J i .a ` tree "` il' ' ?SAME 5 4 woman 'JM i: Fân ?to 'in l: Vis/wau 'cāųrvJ c; Elaine., lšémiëcii trbânwāío 'šTOD/ifšālz wa' ë<5 :U: sw uz m:: âlāuëfjimlá: zreănwčëá, Eci âfñilélülf TTšCUDATTo $š`č0>?`t`,ü*"ãàái.f:č ê aānëmtzomë %ifwšävo čTbăhUTLJ: 5.. Na? :l: is the kanji for “treef” 3! is the kanji for 'womanf' "J is a decoration. Cherry blossoms are very beautiful. A woman is very beautiful when she wears a hair decoration. H is a woman wear- ing a hair decoration. Imagine a cherry tree in bloom as a gaily-dressed woman. Isn't it a beautiful image?
  10. 10. šăwàăñü ' 24 iā àl/c l: tiôč< r_._,.... ,, ,___.. ._,,.. . K í i 'f' . . l` .WA L __.___, - , < i33lãi7ä`t Mnemonics j; - 'J 5 earth n A. b* brick Fi; li “DBJ ?To "čmzāii rUJ T" FWJ čã UTTO Wmillšlšflñíü) äTo răvüu li rh/c/Jü 0) v 52. 'àfčäl h/JNL :tTfEU šTo ztërilāäfí. WOLI: tnč ::gasto iliã< tu) :v: n/srraaeegur: am., .ww tamu za., 24 Rules for Kanji :t is the kanji for "earth" Below this is "fire." usually written W . Some earth is on top of a fire. Red is the color of bricks. Bricks are made from earth. The earth is packed hard and placed over a tire. The earth turns red. Look at the color oi bricks. That is "red" Fixmö meaning ' * f. ~ - A, = .L _ U love wčiâlšăfrf: a "g Mnemonics mšxf: -._, h... cover 'Wi y '* _ i_ ë“””@@@ê f ` .. - lu ~ --72 ñ v ~; J heart 1 1 ;J r'l`.>_i iāiüüümñšTä r::ăJ ?Ta %UDJLiI FUJ L/wfč ükã 31 'c'. ik; tãuvfto .hii Kwa 'Mu, fwsmir: ëLš-tTTo gçímicäëăã âTo W0)_l;l:.š~f:'ã- ăă äTo trii. ET bšë< ?EU šiâü. Zhb* "ZUJ ?To "fWíTt3ā5b<b7J`čTL J: "Je IO The kanji ID shows the outline oi the heart as an organ, which means the heart itself. Above this is “fire.” usually written W . Above the ñre is a cover. lt is a cover usually put on a pot. A tire is placed over a heart. A cover is placed over the fire. The heart becomes very hot This is love. No doubt you can understand this feeling.
  11. 11. 16 " 't 'er 79.. rd. w šâráãmčyč-šābä? eí-“Lš Kanji Express Meaning ?a bbb t?: l. W) meaning Mnemonics ~" , ' l , _ _ 5 , E-LVD? . i “- . ,i ©~::6-* * tr Xâh üw ,WQ y fr?: “e” 0 h' “b” i . ;l t..;. 8 @ m<B .v%”c E! ' < *5 _-> w ~ l ' mouth © © © gate 4 The bottom half of the 'š on the left is a mouth. Because the top half is a :Li standing on its side, the second stroke is longer than the others. The heart is issu- ing from a mouth. That is what language is. The right side indicates five gates. Words come out of the mouth, and we take them in through the two ears and two eyes. The C] on the right signifies these exit and entrance gates. EmršJ@TUrU(VWJTTçiHIütrú ms» Li: a; y; (llčxiTT/TB. ZUHJiñELVCTO IDZJWJZPBHQ' á-f: 'm' ::a (5 'o ãTc%n#F:tdJTTošu.5vmnTTo: na tlílât n/rBtyT. zdmāzzdmgfrüàvšt, ämumšäšlit Háüt AUEWDFTTTO 'l' 05 U hi» “Düāä meaning @v @uaL-ua: thousand 0 ' 'i %Ji “**ll onto E0ršJUr:čwJTTo::TUr:čW%U 0159 52224 ?To šü) ríü ti *WEJCTO 3.0) rDJ 'ttk fit "lítfkàôlčlíJTTa ššlit f:< ä/.autiír RRL flši) äTo *f-a): člíê-'šilä *čhifăāizäU šTo šãlã. TV): L' líiâršö .Z č ?To The Tā on the left is language. Here, it means “to speak language.” The š on the right indicates one thousand D . Here, El means “words spoken by the mouth." A story is made of many words. If you speak a thousand words, they form a story. A story 'is the speaking of a thou- sand words. H
  12. 12. E. a 24 24 Rules for Kanji #1» l: lăăê< y... meaning à i `i5lãib`ít r r Mnemonics , l, ,, » i". l. l _ *.ă /" (y-Tii-.T i. igig /li il: tree hand , ,n i, , , V a `«..#--'<7ü~><>( _., ` pulse l 4`T~r a, l: e, e, w, t: r« ra Tag-o rHJr_-_ri` ;akifa l) :To ;t Z Eli. vAkhWš/KG People live there. These people work ._ with their hands. This is a place that has U ä T. "čfDAt *à (is ?Tíêāíë L i T., ?F/Jiãö 7 'C . trees and people working. Such is a vil- ` , lage. No doubt you know the image of AbWšJiLVCväT., *čhifāāTTo WWJC 0?b{ c: < avillage. Rkã bbWâTLJ: 50 wa» meaning affairs?: ,Q , Mnemonics . __' ... ;fă ê-ãšnà 'M', s... .c . - . “Q t. *jr sr - 'c -> .- - 'čl~*>( 'à hand pulsg 'ili e, li m, m ra c: ia L; Toy-o ;miuizäpāt-jçj" %mšáršäl/y?: z: hi? placed over a hand, so thatthis hand T 5* *i 3 5* ' cannot be moved. In atemple, it IS forbid- ãätko ãmñPTfig EJ< ZčfJVCëät/c. %03 den to move. The monks inatemple 'ô a* always sit still. They Justsitstill andthink. %ë/vlt. U? ôëáTlüšTo l-"3bíëoTk-Vč. ã Such is atemple. MJ ?ITV šT. *fhääfčíü 12
  13. 13. .v v« J: ããwăä-M gš WA. U lāčč< ,v 24 Rules for Kanji The Same Outline indicates the Same Meaning goošgeew- L-Lôā' Put Two Meanings Together %?Hā%%šLíTo@tEgmă%ü.@t ífíTăLato "#4 @íăüášíi Fa ::tra-wi m: Fâioñäurczdieaomceųãtāa ?To ašíãäā) Fãâu mfšüäáfafáafr U :wa ícáttà. “ñ :ärëcw %g au t F; t med: “iā-n üsw@mñWr5tJ??o%h@B$%ürM šüiíí l: life .f ?To íăííāā): à: liliffšb>T`To r LJ0)%*šliE< z. 05 an« ::ask tm? 72:0 iTfwâ. C tlíličf %JššUTT (1 :hiii: šíigifërl*'č`ñ")o %ft-aii Na a T* rLJ %ãăLššTo Wi: @āHf/Fbiw) šT/Po “TJ li Wi« 79:3: WN CčZJ ?To r-?J @íăüëišii m) Cf/Pâ* m Ta: “à :bwçcn: ti t W=< c :J ?Th Fm išíā) “íšfi Wfšüäíii. ršOJ 'Oh WA. U 1 n àwàãâtz. “änmšsâtix %a (aagiza) I! 5" s :in ?To J? “fri 41th' `/ (ljrāāšlšāt) ?To x -Fzubfšášmzšíüäāčā L :To *M yúiíëíWëäH J; Mh Llbčll gm, :p EäLiToš0@š%%âb%íL;5o bázã ' W . 'v' . -- rí" F ."T' jäë' 9 ` ; z) s S' P V-'u- ` v ` , , l a ã-vr i v-A x - “n” _ A 'w p` l l x: - ~ ....._....... %_ ..--.~_.._...l , _. _ __| Kanji express meaning. Meanings belonging to the same category are expressed by the same form. ã means “still” à: means “language” The same outline always indicates the same meaning. Can you tell what the kanji šã means? is made up of“sti11ness" and “lan- guage.” ăă are ancient Chinese songs. The Japanese for ãã is shz'("poem"). Ordinary language is spoken quickly. The pronunciation in poetry is drawn out and spoken very slowly (i.e., lan- guage is still). Thus in kanji ã and Iš together indicate “poem” Can you tell what the kanji iā means? i is half of the kanji FJ and means “go” 35: means “still” The kanji i?? is made up of “stillness” and “going” and means “to wait.” In these examples ã is the stem (basic segment). ::g and i are the signs (Supplementary segments). The stem expresses the basic meaning. The sign signifies the category or field of the word. Let's practice putting two meanings togethen 13
  14. 14. asema:: ~ 24 ili* WA« l: iāāë< V mem: ua» writing meaning - áãlšăüt Mnemonics <- à - 5 3115 FHJ ii FUãJ ?To FEJ (it šffăãiñäíöíá ?#5 'Cx Fi; EELJTT., Fi; ti F5šnšu ?To FEãJ ii Fāh`löëíhitš0h {'To %nii ::TE Făh tu ?To “Pišrčiit FtTbãnUüši ii Fãöäi 'C' SU5C< a., ili-Ad) Feā cat. Ftreāntu T?: 24 Rules for Kanji iā means "moon" E, which shows grass coming out of the ground, is usually written E . E means "be born." iā means "something born of the moon." Such a thing is very beautiful. In China, "a very beautiful color" signi- fies “blue." As a stem, ã means “very beautiful." U?? . meaning (in i ` F I fine weather L ... ._ . _..... ..a ášlšiüf: v Mnemonics ' ':~í I, El K?: ~> b beautiful 5 sun " ' i?” Faai ä-E'C<f:'ël., 251.:: Fa; wa, %na Farsamxi mr.. twyc: Fa; 'on -Hmgg Ear-sr., FasJ ::t rtreănufaem; z rjKJ ;c- an %nu Fczm 'cm a .r ôliñfānTT. :gaar (fšäw iüãifčTbãhLVčTo 14 Look at the kanji [iā . The stem isš, which means “very beautiful." The sign is E , which means "sun" E is made up of "a very beautiful thing" and "sun" That is. fine weather. it's fine weather today. Take a look at the sky. The sun is very beautiful.
  15. 15. . hu,... ..a .. in iā.. _.i IS i up that jay. new 1* .vųvJh wwa.. .. n ___________________//T`________________a__ @ugmauggza iā The Same Outline indicates the Same Meaning <K?Lc7>* :tairi: meaning reading ?OC ©7137 to wrap ©0913 'T` ësišāhvt _ Mnemonics il' 2 --_* ~ <_ 7 ' Bãâk* r ..t cover ` 4 nose "J a “EJ Li âmšwāišfāä Amiăāā-šäàāãío 0155 àhà %WWEJTTO *lāTiit ššăTāää-ãbãčío FEJ är) f< L? RA. :m: mšgm'U$AJ??o%mäbuhâraiëoák 'ümit, “ãmšüiātit Footrčäų x-iamraJ wlāãäb ráát: t; 'Wi, E is the outline of a person's nose. Look at a person's face from the right side. That's what E is. In China, one indicates oneself by pointing to the nose. Thus E means "oneselt" A cover wraps around the E. ã means 'wrapf' As a stem, ā; means 'Wrapping" %Uāä t. álãäírf: meaning reading E( @ao I to hold @EL - tnirà 5 # w Biãiírrç _ _ , Mnemonics 1 `_ ' ili ' : í i $.T_-> eã"37L íäjf>"l h d wrap “ * ' an z' $%Q xí-ztmrāiizt r7'>ö;::č:J'C"9"o *Hyavrh ii. “art, %J tāljTöų %atam à: FTJ #āã%@rE<JTTor:čb%@ãí?JųF: asešrgaztivnrägagzäviarñ 42 ëāTãü š TJ ?To The stem ã means "i/vrapping." The sign t is "hand," usually written š. 'Wrapping" and "hand" together indicate "to hold" in Japanese. “To hold a child" means "wrapping a child in the arms (hands)." "To hold a package" means 'wrapping a package in the arms (hands)." 15
  16. 16. gâagaau ~ 24 24 Rules for Kanji Wi» U iāôč( Qui) meaning Qāsiãifrrz Mnemonics F ~ 17-7 -> curve (__ 1 _ .C hand “ili i: "TJ 'CTO %WfbR/%ă%< ?EL ã Lfzc/ iizšă (gifi) i Lto "iíimëätiit “iā (Eàifšu Të-o %wasemao Dášu 'CTo/ff/Oñfáizâiči) ä mtu:: mt, Lt., *čh/fšâā) fr; (JUU ä Uf:o Zíhā) r/íJ čJ -C-'To Oütüírf: writing VX y is a hand. This hand pressed hard against a / . The / bent sharpiy. ;i means “bend sharply." The Japanese for this is soru. The / turned into af. This then became the kanji i' .As a stem. Ií means "bending" OL a OJZJHN: meaning reading Cäãiāãjrf: ` Mnemonics P fi - *f %a bend :t ' 'J *a -> earth ili-Ad) Visa ti “tšcti 'mi, +f~r>a> Eti (L raiai 'Gto %zuti t Vote; 'Wi, %hii räb`J ?To t* m! 80 'ht fr.? h at. iāëāoT. .E;0):I:o)1&<tč::6~?"ră :n tā wat. "nei mgäüt/a/*c-r. 16 ;hii The stem ii means "bendingf The sign j; is "earth" "Bending" and "earth" together indicate "slope" Go up a slope to the top of the hiii. Go down the slope to the bottom of the hiII. in a slope the shape . ottheeanhís f-orj.
  17. 17. c @Uñšláfāj umi-cg- 1: The Same Outline lndicates the Same Meaning MS u a r- i i E . ífčfft i ;Ltãy l ' ` meaning l 4,. f. WäSiãihV: Mnemonics of) a v- ~_ < 50:5 2: i e D ' ( 15 D n J mOUth 1 "DJ i; rjgxf; @J 'ca-o FQJ i; F( i-DJ (ug-o g 7] is a sword. El is a mouth. ln the ñ _ Mm* g army, one draws a sword and barks J' 'Hit nëäíUTt D'C'%'-?s`ä'7ā`0í'5'o *ETEM FUJ E commands with the mouth. In China 5 'm' 'à c?” “ "L" " m: < also, people were assembled by means ii t "DJ Tâëšw 3 L» to *čhhšāäăām WDTTJ T' 3 oftheswordandthe mouth. InJapanese, , w _ ` _ this is represented by mesu. Mesu T” rw-ë-J m* rāšbųäāát* *- t J ?To X TAG) FEJ means "a summons from the emperor." mšäñák p; Uăočb 6 : t J .Care As a stem, a means assembling. . em« w »- .--T i” ' , . _ *Tírčtvíc a tia; r .kama l I *a writing meaning reading l ' 9 ` l i V`~ i M i L to beckon ' âãlãiüf: Se; ..L Mnemonics k. y g .W f, '. i i 'T ' ' t. ` , V . ,,, *, “E-JU&áwö J;_ A ~l;_i * . l» > ' $ T _) assemble I v l; ` *g i -I hand l i m?, 171447) FEJ (it reh UãfNbča 1 CJ ?To *Tf `/ ThThâ si?" E means "assembling" _ _ _ 9 Slgn is "hand," usually written š. :iā: a) r i J li "TJ "C To rš-J čí En; l, TT., rJC Uöâčb "Assembling" and “hand" together gndi- ų _ l, { E . ` 5 cae “to beckon" in Japanese. Signal 306 « 5 ~ č .l č TJ 75 Fi 19 < J TTo %māäš 'Please come over here" with the hand. ;L r_-_ 15 %Nšštxä Urüto šTãuàtäTo %nñ That is "to beckon» rEJ@š%TTo
  18. 18. awamu - 24 e? rh l: tiăč< Pictures Turned into Kanji 24 Rules for Kanji @w@@%Eeiâb$5 @th ?YP/ichi Let's Consider the Outline of the Original Pictures äíli. iiáfãllšlščã L, ii) %mg WA, L' Wză lv* 6 bãb %āôiêñiëílcà V) à* Lta iâärāhlít fëílšlšiafinäl) ii?, "t Uiwiêčñ @even KA na hii %hii rt 04 ?To %fm “Eu l: "t O; m%?To%mā%e?.ä$mV%JëñT<f âwoāmëwbüüšfo %mB$Aų$@@$%@äLiLto$Eä am l: ::Mr/t %au Bk sana t 'iiíêlăš@íššläičč El l, i L to WE%mr%JüH$%@i&DJ?roit Elzkšäm 'it OJ eăāiëm rišăi tt., ?c @rãJ%ñTB$%T$AšLüoä$@r%J māñagl: F: 04 m: :kuw: @in tim» ni acacia @mājáéäiñiã Fāgšñai mt., ä$@üAFEüb5~0b0šTo%n#. bili/l? .k #7: ut %im %arwa mcDer., @Wšñäflit eo) ä$@$E%m%%?Lto%h#.B$%m$? āwâč< .f ::aas/c t: RA. 2.' mo« :J: Lgb '7 ăč Lfc.. rãų @ăičiüílí 'f' a '74 'C' T., GDODăñAWlJ. räiā-*cãų ?To 18 `~ .r Y s "f _l f *UCG ' v ,g ni!! 3 1 ;Xfñ- ..il l j ' y* l' “V V l; l Kanji express meaning with their out- lines. The original bases of these out- lines were pictures. These pictures have tumed into kanji. When we look at a picture we know what it means. When we look at a pic- ture of a bird, we know it's a bird. The kanji ã is a picture of a bird. With this in mind, look at the kanji š. You can tell what the original picture was. The Japanese of old studied Chinese books. They looked at Chinese kanji and translated their Chinese meanings into Japanese. The Chinese ä means tan' in Japanese. Tan' in Japanese was written with the kanji šš. One looked at this and read it in Japanese. The reading for the kanji is tori. This is Reading 2. Reading 2 is called kun-yomz', or the Japanese reading. There is another reading for kanji. This is Reading 1. Reading 1 is the kanii's Chinese pronunciation. This pro- nunciation changed a little in Japanese. The reading for š is choo. Reading 1 is called on-yomz', or the Chinese reading. r* r'*"-'*- -*-*-' "d
  19. 19. ni. se. ng; ëh`š$lí7ãl D â b?: i.. ?loli Pictures Turned into Kanji atema líclzāsbvt: meaning reading II t v @h v bird @t U Mnemonics / - (talib beak t T 4- 5' ' li?? ` AA ' i) L N wings legs iā) -Fmmgmāiák rč th @E-Cg-o imara; FAAJ :- The four dotsat the bottom are the w: :v w» M b: w» g bird's feet. The original outline wasAA. 'C' L to *čnúiámgâtz f; l) g L to %mia FçjçafgJ This turned into four dots. Above these az _ are the wings, right and left Above these 'CTJZ, Egč %UDFTTO %will răT: i J 'UTC, gši: is the head. The head has an eye. The 6 l). l fa . 0 _ ' beak is on the top of the head. The kanji i: rčbj iTäl i) i To ãāmii: r< 5 (( ?Tă E is a picture of a bird, l) :a: ššlā) F,%J lit rčUJ wiišTTo WA, l: ?Llāá V :kati: meaning reading f: @5" `/ @Tz ' ?älãiñt g Mnemonics /_* ~ 'T / 'a ` ~ l _.' __I + ' ăfāsä ' Z g J __l footpath à @lšllliit üüAíFšiiJiābU šTo "člërlüñllãtšlú $|D`):( Uč Al.) 'F' l« t« < _C rfzJ &ü')šTo %w rfzJ hi. 7: < â/uãbi) i T., %Wfāašllt ăfš/Diă U äTo rt-Ji* T: < ä/"m them. A paddy is made up of many mg ?are %0)=Pb5` 9 %m U i L, to ;šgmraü E squaresgFour of these were taken out *m .to a w. U 3 The kanji [H IS a picture of a paddy. fit rt; mătêTTo i Hi ln China there are wide, open fields. These are marked off into squares to form paddies. There are many square paddies. Footpaths are running between 19
  20. 20. meaning Mnemonics m. roof A - UU CE -> entrance %rg ::ezt Fräcmäfai t Fot:a>ã>7:rJ bññi) äTo fãím Wi; tit %umeitwa UJJUJãTTO .t WA. L' l* ') i. e ilëišifä: i) i Ta 46033?: 2 šišwäffā) i) ã To .bir BLF: ä<Tt -Fb{5JEL`TTo CTJTB "ãNIJ VFPNJUJã āü' iā” an, ;šiw Fm tatt “änàų o) “Amru 'mi, "I/X There are two kinds of holes, 'Verticai holes" and "horizontal holes" or caves. The kanji W is the entrance to a cave. The top is a roof. Below this are two posts. The top is narrow, the bottom wider. This is where you enter the cave. The kanji Ti is the entrance to a cave. t , ` Ha! * l meaning reading .4 sv y©$;v ' hiII @sw _ _ i êsiãāíavā: a Mnemonics *" / ' g l« %i L iandmark ' :L- fzbfítx -> ;t , high ground "fi/TJ (it ãiàčlôTía rB/JU Wāišíi. Sita? *To *čhëiā(b`löăhiít 'âWmíšiiAhšTTo %(7) us a www Mză . m: _t-_t: dcãwkhwzisäai) in :ami: *tafsiri 88 S mit/u @g UčLTTo šíā) FEJ čăT<fčëvo %hii 'fi/TJ mfâTT. 20 A hiII is a high place. The top of a hili is ilat When you look at it irom a distance. the outline oi the hiii as a whole is a tra- pezoid. On its top is a big tree. This tree is the hi|I's iandmark. Look at the kanji E. It is a picture oi a hiII.
  21. 21. __________________//`__________________ Pictures Turned into Kanji evescuoäut à” :mt: FFLW) meaning iUčJ iătvôbäă šTo *čnârčiāüfrlăăäí Lt., :mmh: a āāčüët Fâšízlzbä Lfz., zmmzexā (às-à ä L M:: #5!! blukx. tu, bL :na m f:o lxmãti āüciüivo 65 |$mEc; íäôl: Malik :l 'D ăL aUzvog?w“âi&ār<tswozxmawb U:ëųFAimtFUzJm@r1o People are always walking. A person is walking as seen from the left The head and body are Simplified. The two legs are drawn large. One loot is put forward. The other is behind. Look at the kanji A. There are two legs. A is a picture ol a person. ?Uö ' ckāáiíNL' . 4 meaning reading (DP :L @T Mnemonics ring @U T «-sema “me” thumb K,5r arm %in iši li. “C (šfh m*iâT.š-Q :tim F-J mt, v: (it ')`?ăčă$3ă'T'7-o LO) ñ-J Uk %Tăčíkë l/?ET :sw :sr a: w) uz vogeuznewcsuäroeeurmvhiñe vera%net/(ww-enrroeszmmtm nā .R 51 fr: UMšTT (íDl/Eäñ* i) 37% in f: x The kanji ã is a picture ol a (right) hand. The bottom - is the little linger and thumb. The - above this is the ring and index iingers. The middle linger is right in the middle. A ring is on the middle linger. This is the / (a part oi iy). The middle linger and arm take the lorm oi a vertical stick, slightly beni.
  22. 22. gäoygnu - 24 24 Rules for Kanji baš« U iăôê< wa» r :am: meaning reading ©ü @tin ~ li Mnemonics ~ w g A ~ «+~>*, T'lT' g ._ <-'l-l;tia(āā) t r;.r.šeíí”m*m`* i i ` 313 r č i) J 0) Win; (i. E č Hili) i) i To iā) U 717?? A bird hasa leftwing andarightwing. M” “' m m' ' They have the same shape. The Ielt wing To EU) ričtnJ ëäãää-o *nüiăäm riinJ ë' isdrawn.Thentherightwíngisdrawn.A âToriinJ C:ti r: < s/.mglgsurrxiatāārāh Xíçšhăsàíümiăäit:číātšāhšäíâa3; hii) i) äčTo *čhbiäm i`/J ?To ä$0 5131.: %E It is a picture of a bird's winga íP/vl! h 'C < fíë v., Futa; enter?: F. _ la waant reading .v r i isegzerrrs Mnemonlcs f: H' -+ bamboo if: (TJ (i. i 'J T Ciälfš T., rfzHJ i: (i. 7: ( à Bamboo stands straight up. Bamboo ' _”_ -_ has lots ol Ieaves. Bamboo leaves are Amäffä) i) i ?o r?: Uimäii. č "C b íñüíi-TWX ã E very narrow. Look at the kanji 11. There I: i!! t' 2 are two bamboo trees. On top ol each are K: 5:47) FWJ *čāfC < Tčã U. rfzHJ 79* Zššăô i) i To à two leaves. The kanji 10' is a picture oi 1 two bamboo trees. each with two leaves czämäñauãt.ä$mF%Ju2$m'tHJ Mgt 2 tltf-:mä a :is l) i T. 22
  23. 23. ..a WA« l: ll')~f( Circles Became Squares ;Sri v 24 F ~ i' g* 24 Rules for Kanji Eăšfiíiāizšíëiāí: D b?: šl<fí`lí 7):<'Q`/L Curved Lines Became Straight Lines . ., i “ E T, l Tim-e” pia; ;vi pi iàmg ëäābëiiiâfñdihë in šêwāišfñ? L' “b 0 W» ' uns t: xa- i» i Lto i êiiilíifiāilãU i Lfco L b*< išàã) W: 'JJ @iištt 1713-%103 Wišëu @iiščšă'č< Wsä :hub U A fjël'o iâā) "<`: 'U @ššíii "ščų ?To %hii 51:1 FGJ 'CWTD @im riêu ?miili rHJ ?To %il ii "WHEN ?To L iJN šíšā) FUJ ii r< %J ?To rlJJ @štšiit r< *DJ @iêTTo (ka) r< BJ li. jšñāii l-"j 'CT i. J. ') ñ iiátāê. %átêāišgiiii FOJ 61720 i?: "< Bi Wišlë$ii FUJ 617330 šLto “O (ššah i: “U (lEJíāLi ilëtl) šñí, L fJ>( ššfiliis rščiiiãü) ifčko ;č-“J~-O0)ä'ãč člíff<fi`ãbio rOiiičliíbăoäírä/uo FOJ ist FDJ ::w :in iäemmeeñrwàëuų L iJ`-< ?šãäāwšiñë ršču iCLT < fiëho šêmúišliãbišíwãiãilt0 šTo iš$wãiăë MHH» íP/v l: āñiš/v mäKLr<üãwomñ%ãénãLf`Eã% LOW fiiíífāiliāā L/C < ffā no %übfíšă)šíà'č'â`o -šăšgl Kanji were originally pictures, but the outlines of these pictures were changed a little. Circles became squares. Look at the form of a picture ofa bird and the outline of the kanji The head of the picture of the bird is a circle. It is a (7). The head of the kanji is a D. It is a square. The kanji D means “mouthf” The ori- ginal D was a picture of a mouth. A person's mouth usually looks like ~ , but when it's opened it becomes a . The kanji for mouth tumed into D . T (circle) becomes m* (square). 'There are no Circles in kanji. Look at a series of kanji. There is not a i any- where. . become Viti. Look at the squares in kanji. Then turn these squares into circies. The curved lines of the pictures become straight too. Tum the straight lines in kanji into curved lines. Make the squares into Circles and the straight lines into curved lines. Those are the original pictures. 23
  24. 24. o 34 24 Rules for Kanji :Wii L' l3āč< CLW) meaning Oäsiãihtf: Mnemonics á ä Kileo) khxä i:<`</L n _ Kg? sunspot Fhgã jçišãwäâii. ăčšUTTO rā; ti lüñTTo hujr) i. L 17% $mä6ñâ$wmñE@UšLtox%Eu%V @wanasa %nl1 rălă.] 'Wi, xišãmärâii “(94 :<'(/v ?Tíwöt ãčwiiíiābñiñ) âTo *ččbãñiäāvšāií M!! fâáTt š<üIU i Lto %im rBJ iií<5ăT"9"o .MB meaning B The picture of the sun is round. The kanji B is square. The circle oi the picture became a square in the kanji. In the sun is a black dot This is a sunspot. in the picture of the sun, n» , there IS a black dot in the circle. This dot became a short line and was Iengthened. The kanji a is the sun. Oaäiãiütf: y a Mnemonics 6 6 _ “JEE ' ' b / -/-i:L0>*<9ã SU" G / mountain to the west “Plāhčiit KFãiIäUDíāúWötET. Ewäiíkll šTo sana ranki Wi. 51» :L ii” rãi 'Mit (-) úWšKFãfftHšTo H IEāmíFãbEm HEE; (i. %Umma « äëi 'W'. Lzhālá iak t' CM Ekkk EL l!!! "94 ?Uk tüm?? (/) GZJKFQNAU âTa "DJ Mit MTT. i öiiñiiü U äTo bü< 24 5' In China the sun rises from the sea to the east and sets on the mountains to the west The kanji E is the sun rising from the horizon (- ). The phrase 755; (gan- tan) used in New Year`s cards means “the first morning oi the year." 'S' is the sun setting into the side of a mountain ( / ). CJ is the sun. The circle became a square.
  25. 25. D le I.) ãăláãlčtbãčbt Lb'< Circles Became Squares r._._.. wwa vàöot Q meaning reading @i- :L '7 ~ T @t L L__ _ _ «`“3'5lâ'i7r7: V Mnemonics l; El -írlăfšá body rCLJuäêVTíoäEüsā#ăUäTo%ų An insect IS small. An insect has a mt: *Wi head. The body IS round. An insect has g g, “Tra-c ala* %#5 l) j in @(3 3 $9fá'("'d“o a tall. The tail is S-shaped. Look at the i* L' W* kanji EE . The top IS the head. The El is šíā) rSšJ %ET < fíë Ao JjišãTTo "Eu 61125? the body. The round body became a W” b' '* ” 'W square. The bottom is the tail. Because To š 6 Jüšlis @E 13733 U i L» 720 ECIETWTO curved lines became straight lines, the t: Ešāc: f; U š L f: big* ātiëšāmáááaâbtTéá tail lS an assemblage of straight lines. E) h" l l , i sua» v. ;ame J meaning reading l > _ l l ~ 2 l 1 % ; %L @V9 l foot (233) L J ~' ââtãiífñ: Mnemonics ___Q . Uê. ' ' knee (PO O il: - za L a a - footprint %Li mvãlzh :ewen ;ším FEJ %E mk!! b (view, .tm Fm la Uămārávaä, ãšalilëšlñl: 51 bkă Lü*< t: U 3: L/f:o gíoaāfšlzL “tbl tãuräų Utu l:.t W; Läačų WñáTTo Uk; m,~ã%lit "čâšu ?Ta iā ?W FEJ lit "Uăų č "ãablñčų “GT A knee has a round shape. Look at the kanji @The E] on top IS the outline ota knee. The circle became a square. The figure below this IS usually written LI: .it IS the outline of a footprint. U: means "to stop." The kanji E is a knee and a foot- print.
  26. 26. ___________________/::____________.______ eeoew-M H: %Art Iāôč( 24 Rules for Kanji l' Uãzt meaning i Z» i” circle i_ ,,____ ,, ._ n, âslãiirf: Mnemonics . .m u ia-li -%*”"šã circle ` i ' diameter WA L' L »*< iirš6JT"9"o rPāJwçiiãšwúíiàiaštit ãíêmštšTTo FFU i). äxvlih UJIO) r-"J %Qjbāišllāãšíä EíšifQMJFJfN) Mit' ãTo íäimāfáifçt < t: U äí Lto íš$0> "FEJJ ii Fi Dñā %u à: rātšų ?To @míöH`â$@WñCUUíLtoš$mrnJ The picture of a circle became a square in the kanji. The kanji [j] means "circle." The vertical stroke in the kanji F? IS the diameter of the circle. The bottom - of D is written a little higher. The diameter becomes a little shorter. The form of the kanji has been improved. The kanii Pâ is a circle and its diameter. ` ~ua 'àöbt meaning reading T, (53 ©>v l l wma @(52 I _, ........ .._ . āslãiírrç .__- - à â 7; Mnemonics '__- _ E <6š-- 53:1 wheel ' '_ _ i-U< . J axle _ à à a :I: 3mT@Jmäm%??.ä5uäH`ã?mmñ n mas ' 1« 'M CUUâLtommëU%@rU(JTTo%mñm i' 1 IP) 'DHMb mFeäxicu.5#aU:1o'U<iu`%wñt ju) :a'o ;fm "ii %ET < fčëtn., FEJ myñšâär m. m a 231» äbcãàhw.WaãimçuüUäTo 26- The EB in the middle is the outline ofa wheel. The round wheel became a square in kanji. The venical stick is the wheel's axle. There is a hole in the sup- port on each side. The axle fits into these holes. Look at the kanji š. If the EE is turned into a circle, it becomes a picture of a wheel.
  27. 27. L__ ____.L___ äătggtzfgçgä [Al: k: A Circles Became Squares L#( ::wa 335737: i meaning reading ;ma*T” '-||T:1E35 ae @D i: ear ©9343* l , "üfšlšifffc Mnemonics -, -r E-es-» T' ear H? A picture of a person's ear has curved àā) 5718; wăííšliHEifâT'To íšíliüšíëlšUšü “W” W* V '”" lines. Kanji don't use curved lines. The ho ââmüšãtix išímãiñāiíü U i L to răläiüų (Jk . curved lines of the picture became “W” ` straight lines in the kanji. The right and ?E č ZEC 35 'J 'C ?Tšüâ-WTTO %im rEJ (it 3507 ' Ieftears have opposite outlines. The kanji h:: W' :E: "m" . M' H is the right ear. Look at the kanii H . 5973' ?To šā'm FEJ %ā-T < f: 3 “o ..Aali a) , The ear's curved folds are also straight . E l' . gtgwüftâw rUtJ alisema, 3 “es , . -__._ ,, _.-.. W _ W L.-- D -.ñ -..E -“:~Lāj l ckāalfff: meaning reading ` ,vM ,_ _,_, _....-_,,A .._--. ._ D”, , .... ,_ - .. au-? .m-w. wa ©*1ü T bow @wa l âälšăfrk _ Mnemonics a T ca-» «-ā~ma « f string bow w A picture of a bow is a curved line. The curved line of the picture became straight lines in the kanti. Look at the kanti 53. It the straight lines are turned into a curved line. it becomes a picture of a bow. The bow has a thin string, but it IS so TVDJM wiiâtatüitâTío iêâwütālát ššíwãtāll ;L kam, two 13 sxHt/c auâutoãímrãi&g1<EavoEã&üä Eíäihiít rVbíi-J @áíâilfxil šTo rVDüJ lZiIšiíilA “Dšu #3, l) g Tt-;rnčųh %à :the jääā) "EJJ thinyou can'tseeit.Thestring ofthekanji E.? also can't be seen (i.e., there IS no ©TOöJbăâíüA(@mü#ăUäüAL 5 wmmmi 27
  28. 28. ä$wăăü ' 24 #1» l: Rčč( l itW %sr Ni. 24 Rules for Kanji 'ni'. . ;i , t. . l ~ F* a ~` “ “i i l» ` A' l (l " TJT J: t. Verticals and Horizontals z ... - IEHRUJFP l..}7". Lăë b J: 9 eu 125 m- w:- n» Let's Fit the Kanji into a Square Grid g .ni i' hp,... , y - . í.;.'“'“* "lia x ~ i: 2 i l,c, .li Mu-.. iL-__c_ %?H@tšăā@šš%m$Kà0íToă$ 0) FHHUJM liíE7í7ë'C“9"o ščh r< %J %J Ză in Whl:&0ää} š?māu@ero&e@m@eëwüeHem au iem., lêtzliêiäamávāeäw) :To @ime âWNDVDFIiPWH) šâü, “MUUJ =<= “óüvbôh (it 7Išlčö7>Lí5lT`Tç çöhxôííšëlčiiíçuäfl`To “liilii huwniu m: .a úrmíëët-“li, ãêlšémltlútiškímltlífčfo .;:~/c íâëciíā) FH (weu %ET < fjâwo ríátwltlúä ili* mtu* A 7:? :M .:: @mr-mto lâmltųíāšciíéeërmgxšíšíàzzú-l) i ;wa āmáêíšciñhãšiāfaí, Httšfêt Foăimāíliâíëcli 25 ') šü/w 2317330) "Hi (J. štlfámlêlit šăftmāfšbfâălàofmto Fāãifwiâl z» más i. %lemu wat; id: :buti: bm:BHemKLšLtoümm:BãeEäc 21 ãxhtk whr/t, t:Lno%5L<.ewm%ešggm3c;n i Lfc., šlšröwtñ < 'C, türöw* Líābvčäñ, 8.0) tt t: mo' J:: :wir aäim FH; māfāemüccor. âlzlrmāráeâläa lzLfwsãw.. %hyàfām "Dăi 'Na 28 Kanji fit into squares of the same size. The kanjiEUa) is a square. And a round mouth also turns into the kanji El. Kanji were originally pictures. Pic- tures do not only have vertical and horizontal lines. They also have diag- onal strokes. Some kanji also are set on a diagonal. For example, AUzüo) and 57 (yuu) are made of diagonal strokes. This kind of kanji is exceptional. Most kanji are made with vertical and horizontalstrtikes. Look at the kanji iā (rsnki). lt is made with vertical and horízontal strokes. Since curved lines in pictures became straight lines in kanji. the (iriginal picture had curved lines, but the moon it showed not vertical. The kanji E represents a crescent moon. The picture of the crescent moon is set on the diagonal. With the kanji, this diagonal crescent moon was made vertical. The curvilinear cres- cent moon was turned into straight lines. Then the entire form was fit into a square. The verticals are a bit longer than the horizontals. Tum the straight lines of the kanji ã into curved lines, and put the entire fonn on the diagonal. That's the original "moon"
  29. 29. “LųOCBF-rZH-vf' Verticals and Horizontals Witiālä i! cham: meaning reading o â @#7 ' #7 moon - month @Oâ êilšiüf: Mnemonics 'r “T H`””ôë`” `5>:-<sU . -T crescent moon !/'/ blur i ' 13 ;šgm FEJ uk EEñT-ā-D imāfám` %How ra) The Kariii iā isacrescentmaon u w; :mi: z, mag w, The original form was that of a ăJ Tra-o %btăê šä-o %a “ñ ráãJ diagona! moon The upper part is umu., si; 3 missing. The curved lines of this är: L 33 L to .âñçăqjñãwmu L ã b to : nüçš$m moon were made into straight lines. www ::r m, The whole thing was made vertical. rgJ (eg-o rgăJ Ki; r< b UJ 75:5 i) i 3-0 ;tm r< This IS the kaniiã. There are blur- red spots on the moon. These blurs t, i) J bāípāl: L 1 L, to were also made into straight lines. i l Učüt P« wa I aaah l ` writing meaning , reading N l V “n” M* W T T *l , il in nyiale a ;Tea l .__ - _ ___l,__-__ y A eye 'wa J l _ ll i L ~ Tčfilãifff: Mnemonics l. ' 1 :l e-ma 4 lZl'(7>čö 6 iris a BZKAO) 1773.! lix lälíâúëzfí -ë-o El$Tišíä7 < Japanese peoples eyes are hOfI' i: Kivu/v J:: x * : “V L z zontal. lf kanji had been invented in TLH: rwJ l; rImJ KUU 370 L/b`l/ Jôpögi Wíeve" would have become '”' ` llll. ut ook tth f eeer<esuųFmieemraoemewmrmi mmewmwímê?$ãâmZ . .há h _ w' ` '___' h dlagonal These diagonal eyes ñx iš-sTliíiršlJxll i Lfzo ;šā-(D iā; lilioéTT., became vertical in the kañjl. The "Pmāk*šâ'čli. rčöJ liâiăYčbto eye kôñjl ã is vertical. ln old Chinese paintings the eyes were diagonal. 29
  30. 30. s.__ ggmgâgg . 24 24RuIesforKanii #1. l! li9č< .,..,.-] `i t; Liāi meaning ;wa-%imgggm rb ( J 14:5 L g 3-0 ;ç/ämgñâëã A well is indicated by the “frame” i- t* 'Ji x :a w: i J» 3 on the upper part of the weli. Look 'C ( 753 uo ;Him Fb < J 016253 $ämágāčâšiwm$ã at the picture ofa weii. The picture et: W» *M g of a well-frame has horizontal and Tra-o jš$fųi` majfggčjgmfgāi: f; i) g a'o ;çñwrjç 3 diagonal lines. In the kanji they turn mi: tr 3 into vertical and horizontal lines. (J %Lägg-t ( fgggxo mmăígçãmšgrío ;n Look down at a well-frame. It's g made of yerticai and horizontal bzgâgm Igų-.J 1.70 g lines. This |S the kanji?? T, - _ i watia» « -çkāsírt 2 " f ' ' meaning reading x š » ësiãiírf: Mnemonics ~ x » _ > 'x äiâ Učšă-' i_ , T" spool y; d $II` r - ' o I l. "ut o),,4`ä»7b( Thread is very thin. You can't v t J t; t T b?? TT m J *f g easiiy draw a picture of thread. But - tht-eg 31th rçxčJëáçàggçggç-jrijçx štmjçgë« 3 if the thread is wound on a spoola "' o ut x i picture can be drawn of that. This _<. i l- 2 I' d 'I.ik", i» ww mtu %wäëeăëtüt-bíto zzëv :trees r r :f- ` L I' i' ::fw O becomes a A . In the kanji ë OJ U: DJ t *úr "há ` OJ U: AJ c; ) 5 achi|d's round head aiso becomes :a: r-rJ mamaaa. %ili rvJ m: aV- ãk! WA. l! 30
  31. 31. 'šmšnmgñ Verticals and Horizontals r" tia, if :tairi: meaning reading @#5 a @sasa ' "J is Mnemonics .'.' /y ""-. e-âne T:: fish * " * - ;atm -~ .. ?m tail fin 'm râbxfâJ tu* āčiāzjnütă i) i 3-0 rgü mia) A fish has a head and a tail fin. :m: in' 5 i “JJ iiāāíx zlícöigiôdāãiifšlfhfčTo Wwišišâ-š* fràf J? ..H/u ščvTTo$EHWu#t<ëAñUä?o%öUô %%mTLEüUäío:h&Eãv%ETnd.W L D* < th?: c@Uä?oâW%mm%uLäLto hmm: hr The 0 on top of the ñ is the head, and the four dots on the bottom are 'he tail fin. The body section is round. There is a Iot of meat inside it. This section is shown as a (9. if this IS made into a square shape it becomes E. The whole thing has been turned into a vertical form. i _ r Uāz* i .g _. ,g_ meaning ii'd~ii c< í ' A g g ` meat <č`išiü`t Mnemonics F* o " - f 4 A] i..(0.f)Lš) /' AA_?.U hunk of meat Fc<i0@&ā1<Eëvo%nųšāvF#tā 'M 'Fire %W Wrtí UJ (; šöKATWU, *čálärä CTN:: %fm Miti ::tg U âöz, W: < J tu: “T U; 779372” šTo %im FWJ %ET ( TfëVo FAAJ (it riZ<J 05:0) FTUJ ?To JSJHUV: g reading ;a CD... t-j* :ñ p i» 3 T t. i il f à HAA Look at the picture of meat. It's a big hunk. This hunk is round. If it's made vertical, it becomes the kanji BêJ. Meat has sinews, Look at the kanji If). The AA are sinews in the meat.
  32. 32. o 24 24 Rules for Kanji WA. l: IiãIIC OLMB meaning salam: Mnemonics f: 'C 79977* ' 5 š "" mane horse ili?” FöāJcd4$mšñhUšío%n#ã$mmo lil» ñ-lu I .to aai-Erat, iā :J ili:: Frzrrzñai 25%!) san, %mr ã$mšmVšiTToê%%@cLâLtoEmãö %Atu k wsvi na šātăfx Frzr/äaiañbušío tawi; 1180) M! (II L?: M!! “išišâčlābññü âTo %UTFl-Z 4ZKW/E/JWM) ãTo .KK/u H A horse has four legs. These are the four dots in the kanji. A horse has a mane. That is thešon the top of the kanji. The whole thing has been made vertical. On the left is the head and neck, with the mane on the right. Below this are the body section and the tail. Below these are the four legs. Qui» meaning r*`č"").i @šāiii Zšă ( 'C i čLVCTo šălíiiãüfä) Mr! U šTo *tnbñšímlüñVăiñfšTío r%.öJL:ti E WA. U L ü'< R .Klu Uã/JWBU šTo glgā) "7J WJTT. “55 J izii. l-Eifă U šTo TODEODãSâNETTo ?fāmälšãfffà hb Lk D!!! b! au» L%T-é_o %Wčëii L i L fza -lkmi . 32 mim t An elephanfs head IS big and round. There is an eye in the head. This is the square section of the kanji. An elephant has a long trunk. The 0 on top is the trunk. An elephant has stout legs. The section on the bottom left is the legs. The part on the right is the short tail. The whole thing has been made vertical. i. F
  33. 33. šäāmātaij- 24 ,tg 24 Rules for Kanji :Plu l! R'}%( 80 i v v' Three Sígnifies Many %illiiä < âí/tzäā D Representing a Lot of One Thing T ' I: m, , " ili" R-Q 1*;#a{1*;'š'Hl. W.rk in* . 5.3.1* .. v", t vya., n ww ., . l x*- A l l! i “J ` >r“"r _i ." y'u-l; i, m. ' f* i x V ` .. . , . ,_ i l _ >~ ...i _ , .AAT » eweeueoatnoeeetneeeero i fJ/vL @ht/o išăfiña) üiñšh *člífč<7`i`ãiio lääili. ñšäëf íāígwšääâb`ëf`jbo iā?” l-*J @IEIQVPCCLVCTTU rši @Ki-EEH 775441: #4 T< i k lil f:< âAmíššüfäü) i?, f;< ë/y7wtiašëăi) íToä$mr*J%@n@tHW3âüHTtm e3$üHc?o %?mëu%?THhEëtä$ü&emãuL äLto %mčšla f:< ë/cmbm/Jñíöttií. “Jlltši Lto f:< 'ëkmíšääšíilti LLD f: <eAm@e3$tLäLto&?mT*iwüu 3$Tmë3$TTo%J@&@t<ã&@& #,3$uã0iLtot<ëAmmbt3$u& 0iLto;neä$@&M@~0?To 51514 ve äíwümmnātsmwzobhddñuft w» l! Mct *xü- is? bo <eAes::Jeto:ouãm;:cTo%m @utümüneeaüäeaonmmtwówa @íšllfyfb0 âTo ?alii L: "Jo Pictures tumed into kanji. Kanji are simple pictures. Look at the kanji ?IK (ki). Kanji are assemblages of simple strokes. The kanji ?F has few strokes. If you look at a picture of a tree, it has many branches. It also has a lot of roots. But if you look at the kanji ?R there are only three branches and three roots. Although the kanji was originally a picture, the kanji simplified the pic~ ture. When that happened, if there were a lot of things they were made into threes. A lot of branches were made into three branches. A lot of roots were also made into three roots. The kanji ?F is made of three branches and three roots. The many branches in a picture of a tree became three branches. The many roots were turned into three roots. This is one more princíple of kanji. If there are three of the same thing in a kanji, this signifies "there are a lot of them." Three signifies many. ?F is not the only example of this. There are many other examples. Let's take a look.
  34. 34. ___________-_---J e L_________----- 24 Rules for Kanji š$wăāü ' 24 ljš* @L B Rô%< ' U?: meaning i āôlšifr?: Mnemonics <-- i t' - branches x-e-» tree 56* š - trunk Tšâjā) "7FJ miwälšâiz râfči ?To Twšišíšli @k L 51 R.Rk LE rh; ?To rãJ (Ciit 7:< vš/vā) riffJ č T:( E' AU) "tu ffãöi) íTo išälā? l-?FJ ëušff<ffêbo Fit] f) rhJ ö37l<TTo E7lIăVCčTTo 7-1: Rk 37 33 53 mígêañfáiñhfrê 'C- L .r 5 o ME l ;r -txa Thetop part ofthe kanii ?F is the branches. The bottom part is the roots. A tree has many branches and many roots. Look at the kanii PK. There are three branches and three roots. Three signifies many. No doubt you know what the origi- nal picture was like. Q j ' ' meaning z" . g s z -' " W. l z” l L__,L,, L, _ _ čšlãiírf: Mnemonics v.-_- 51 - Mbani mulberry leaf :__ , āš. < *)a)ă _~_> w t."J +-jk o ă ,K “I ` mulberry tree ,au ' n” tree Wrt:JliāLä1'GTa íiãonáeãrm i) :To 'au üä UL Sh ht :J lātt Win dāšê-â/*ãíä r<bi mâoāātáix. MS àm$m%T?o%mä#;$mLCt<ëAăUã?.š 3 ii äãfātm rãi %āfC < fíêln. "SU lišfāñfáTTo "f ?L n#'$ioLtaU:?.šouâu::rt, 34 A silkworm is a kind of long worm. lt makes silk threads. Silk- worms eat mulberry leaves. A mul- berry leaf is shaped like a human hand. There are many of these leaves on the top part of a tree. Look at the kanji iā. 3 is the out- line of a right hand. These are on top of the 7l<. Three signifies many.
  35. 35. ôšjláãuzct? 0 Three signifies Many OLW) meaning articles , Oášlšiiff: G Mnemonics ~ i D-La E one article 51:5! " L« fai: 60)-* ~ articles lil UfšOD "l/fi 5034 7599) U i Ta) 7:( 3 AU) "L/E There are articles of the same M “f ` 5 shape. There are many of these 604 #5) l) i 'To %hbw rbü 50; (it Jä/otišlü S articles. Each of these articles IS a L : z square. This is the kanji El. There %TTQ Zhtñ ãíā) "DJ ?To Sš$UD rãaJ L-tix E are three El in the kaniiã. Three o~< 0 w. i: 3 signifies many. The kanji E: shows āámFnJ#bUä10zauãu:zTToā$w g mmmmms VãJu`t<ëAmFLühmJT?o ` aua Cckāàfffa | l meaning reading l i à 'J ©'U' “J l volume (counter) @í Mnemonics n . j: i-j-'gjj bamboo slip o QUL WA. __ . t U U b ` ancienf b00k binding thread ml._. 9_ šājäTliëñzlíínñubTt 25%'D( U íTo %WFPENZ Nowadays paper is printed and L ` _ W' M” m” "L JM” made into books. There was no 1 (it %Eüññ U ãü/Tčbto FFEJTU. 'FT(7)7FLLãT'! g paper in ancient China. ln China, 'a ` r _ k” f: T” ”` g bamboo slips were written on with )' ă i LTZO in? OBJ Toffă i LTZ., iš-ër-U) FHHJ 3 black ink. These were connected '“_ ' * “i” with thread. Look at the kanJiHH. m ëāT < T: 3 U., 3 TSIOYFTOJFFLirā; i) i To :7 li 5:* U 5 There are three bamboo slips. Three _ *"` '” m* g signifies many. The horizontal - i' ~ č ?To 15:0) r-J li "U b; TUT., 3 is the thread.
  36. 36. ãífbăăü - 24 24 Rules for Kanji àwb' liăč< meaning l ona i ' l l Oâslšăbv: Mnemonics ã-šăb<L-> spiral shell E ) WTUJ lílit FZTSI/JWAJ t râšă iJHAJ ffä) l) i There are bivalved shellfish and l: *“ * 3 spiral-shelled shellfish. The kanji To š$w FEJ lit räăüųu ?To šâā) FOJ liiš 5 E isaspiral-shelled shellfish. O 'MU i E in pictures become j in kanji. 530) FUJ (17: l) š To íšiā) VEJ mingi; E ( The original picture forthe kanji ā M 'W' g is long and round. There are three ,,' 'Cš öUTT. %ătiE?TT(Tnč'B` Eôlââvlà: S spirals, but three signifies many. ii '” “i” E The / on the bottom is the shell- l KTTO EU) r/J li. rfrUJ @ETTQ fish's foot. $ aua» meaning Mnemonics àlč - kw:: hii' -> bundle of rice plants šlč r: ôöJ liílāā) 77:19; ?To Tfălāk ET; i) š Ta S Rice is the seeds of the rice plant. M” ` '* 'm Rice plants mature in a paddy, The ç Bšloñfāêvbj) o 'C, E LZFF l, ä T., %im %Ki %ãT ( g rice plants in the paddy are cut and ` 3 t* a W" U "' 5 dried in the sun. Look at the kanji ffä U., 3 Zkmăíăíñä) i) i To Eöliëh: L' ?To “li 5 ălč. There are three rice plants. W' "” 3* *5 Three signifies many. The horizontal 0) V-J li. :tuu b ?To f:< à Aoñläärätvv t» 'C' g - is a thick rope. Manv rice *t 5 plants are tied with a thick rope and ä/FCX E l?? L, i T. I. hüçäíā) UK; ?To S dried in the sun. That is the kanji àlá. 36
  37. 37. ?Híëníiz ézqčn* Three signifies Many *$aüt reading @U a @t U' úöšiüt Mnemonics b?? ' %Fšñm ffkfųblükčă group tour fãíā) Wi; Li Wiki wíñšTío “FEITCL Wiki 9-1., i: %H S< Tñiâíäríšbäbičc Tâífb Wi. ã-%T<f:'ë.o E ::au A! bWbZEAiETäšTQ âiššāl: Hit; bWjăšíl, %mia 0150 ëktă tc;owFAaMQJñbUäToE0uãu:čT ?«š$mFmiu.E%mñTTo kuwa; t. -) %AAA The kanji 75' IS a picture of a flag, In China, directions were in- dicated by means of a flag. Look at the kanjiññ. It's moving from right to left. A flag lS leading the way. Behind this are three A (people). Three signifies many. The kanji E?? IS a group tour. "Uö .;ant i meaning reading ) ' l is 15%' v Q) ~`/ J. '7 a crowd Q) - člšibV: Mnemonics I//m-Uowmvn splendid roof i?? ' â i a tA -> b? v: assembled people šâm “74 ;; *giāāmëtšTfo šš$0> Fimi (it UvwüāmvíoUowüāmmāctāvmwdu čn#àUäT.E0uâv:tT1oUawaāüm Tt:x T:< ë/N) "Učíi ffšäUš Lfzo .T . Y” r v..! _3.j]. Jr, . t 1 a . i _ l | mLAl»A The kanii 'D is an ordinary roof. The kanji [El is a splendid roof. There are three A (people) below the splendid roof. Three signifies many. Many people are assembled below the splendid roof.
  38. 38. ššäüâăãü - 24 b-l» L' Ii9čC 4 24 Rules for Kanji . wi v j f 'a l ..p-g L l . 'r tu F Y l.. .. * ut-IA ' UED 63 W Writing from Left to Right a ..l- ...'- LhbT«šäi9 5 i. L?: à- Writing from Top to Bottom a a a 5 w `gl e" ;i hi?? aiii? = . l l 'N 'eta Vii/~ni"«:»;i/'âf".- í l ; f g i /~ ,Jçtj ` n %l Vüíh x i :M: r e fl..! l s., -if ç 'A L _ A_____j `L_ _ ____J _ L___,____,,_ _- ei i.- -. __ fi L.. âāųšli. ãmlciyš iTo šWBE/bifă i t: mr) Ufíü To `lí7)>8_Jš'%i7b*šiTo iăíwālii. Evfrââ WA« L' à*< «%giToL#eT«%ăiioE©@â%ãK ãšiioimääêitäăiio ë$mV~(Ut0Mli yimevioiim yw., 1: wolf/i. liā $W%hd.%hHrUčOJ?To1$@%č% azàr<nãwo%negmšweru:oie io%oasreezr<eëwonno@%E# h* f: it'll/ii? egues:ioemeE«aš:eAo%mam Wb#0iT#o ä$uâ%T%šiTo%@$@TëtAA&# frh II b? 'f 0* trirL $Hf< Eāc-Tlšëíií-ëärš i Lfzo EāVC-äflilí. išâwiëüä* i: ñ*( Zriršrăiëí/ä-'ă iTo íâ7b=í3a7šñ“äšš iäho (HiVi íšëilzli. %Wāšiñü iTo lšëíā) “IL W? frh L' ?SC ouëāf < fäëux., šāómfššmlüčt šôāmëā) ālñfäwiio iíëwiāāili. ālšzfràf/íëíăiio i? (UN, maaru,ieeimer«$Z:tn.ism āwāč< @in Lü*BT'“ãă i Lfzo 38 The lines in pictures are drawn freely. Some are drawn from right to left. Some are drawn from bottom to top. Strokes in kanji are written from left to right, and from top to bottom. The part on the left is written first. The top part is also written first. The kanji -(one) is one stick. If there is one stick, that signifies "one" Pick up a stick. If you place it horizontally it means "one" Con- sider how this "one" is drawn. The stroke - is written from left to right. It is not written from right to left. Do you know the reason behind this? Kanji are written with the right hand. In old China. everyone wrote kanji with the right hand. lf you write with the right hand. hori- zontal strokes are written from left to right. They are not written from right to left. Kanji also have vertical lines. Look at the kanjiií (five). There are three horizontal and two vertical strokes. The vertical strokes are written from top to bottom. In old China kanji were lined up from top to bottom. Strokes in kanji are also written from top to bottom.
  39. 39. EfrBENší-ãč?” “a m!! a! b- Writing from Left to Right r* "i F i vvemt aua i'$bbt i t ~ i writing meaning reading i . HEEI :m @w three @602 ų. m, l. _ _ iííčâiãāfff: - Mnemonics i/ v* _ ` i '-' ' ii 7 ~ i _ T. ?Mââ mk .____~ three i i i __. k 3 íšfíjg) F.. (U t @h i; l Zšoñâiš-čë-o %im F: The kañjl -(one) ha: one hoii~ m u mim .klifö zontal stick. The kanii _ (two) has * cwrwimtzšmäevtnäímrztaovn 1 e 3ãmeevtoš$mEgutãveš«%e: rasmmãeñenwtšmeneeāzrogcä wE%ãăšTo%äCTwE%%ăí?o ëU L' L?: two horizontal sticks. The kaniiš (IHFGB) ílJti three horizontal sticks. Horizontal strokes in kanji are writ- ten from left to right. When there are three horizontal strokes, the top stroke IS NJWNBH first. The middle stroke is written next. The bottom stroke is written last r i *ma J iaamt i ` meaning i reading i « ~ * n ' " r n w f« i vao @zi 7; five @Log r t ãäíãiirf: , __ š Mnemonics ..l-T ; ~-eñ ; -{1' T 5 ' V?? stick `V j five %im “ii (www (i. 5$0>tšTTo 3$<Diš7bi ::w L' (ik líă lile :mr F:: 0307); 'mi, zämtšifüfit : hñrzawvwifíoäëmäãeãv ~šă :UM vrro a! i» lb äTo EüWbZE/šã íü/m íš$wšôšgäšb*löT' šíü, TbWaL/ëšă i'd/uo <` 77 The kañjl i (five) has made up of five sticks. Three sticks are horizon- tai; this is E. (three) Two sticks are vertical; this is Z (two). Horizon- tal strokes in kanji are written from left to right. They are not written from right to left. Vertical strokes in kanji are written from top to bottom They are not written from bottom to top. 39
  40. 40. a 24 24 Rules for Kanji ?h l! lă*)~ë( CUöB meaning Oaälãiñvä: Mnemonics .Z Ha) 5 L flame x U-» - fire ivi a) Flāanësi lah ílíb*>`aš~.šzñ”lš?`o “UJ @term Fizmeiwšgewiyeivxvwëäío ;āâw Fm eg.? < rseių, *čhlit ivi a) “lšmësi W* nnae Tbwsrxgāäe/m, išâíwgeiírei* Aga; ;to Um mEiāeLirBT/Eã in CM?? meaning %jk Flames in fire rise from the bottom to the top. ln a picture of fire, the lines of the tlames are drawn from bottom to top. Look at the kanii W. lt shows flames, but they are not written from bottom to top. Strokes in kanji are written from top to bot- tom. The strokes in %are also written from top to bottom. mizani?: reading @ziü @ww %mg Oáãlăibvč: Mnemonics ;é . bxbtiç; ă_____, radiance *gm rU/,xin ug jírxtüšTo JLU) FUWUJ U) :L Lliă -o 53. ñggë. 'FjyišJ-;lxfTă 21'. 2:20) 'UirUJ wăiâêu E et. ` w: mtu O 'W vez~#ă:1.ã?@“%iegr<teva3v mFU#UJ#öUäTHnčb.%nB%L#BT~ gs:1.zvae«IeäTo 40 I / w.. lb A picture of a beam of light spreads out in all directions. The lines of the upper beams are drawn from bottom to top. The lines of the beams on the left are drawn from right to left. Look at the kanji àiú. There are seven beams, but they are written from top to bottom and from left to right.
  41. 41. ~ aw--zv-ez«co<.mmpraws~»~ua- . . Eveaašeäí “F ima b! o- Writing from Left to Right i “ Q i y' waua; V 3235757: i '. meaning reading i *T * i a f' "U, všw © k f? w” winter Qidáã >.*:ā5lā'ā727: . Mnemonics i' 4 A" x. ;z . 3:) L o, } , - legs " ~ . ; ga; c) J/ Z ' . ice x š Kam mitilãiziit %MJWHI šTo âiiâkmjüãä* Um. :au az as ăãTTO râLJ ëãT(ffëUo Ti; r`/_i čiāi :mi: a» w: :v: [STK (lu/J HZKTTX .tmšlšñtit AUDEG) m' gm. m, ifšTTo âkmiä/üiäëãñl íšíf-OD răšų (it 1:03 m?: Efrlàâšă äTo *čhfrlöx Tmăkëäëã ăčTo There is ice on the ground in winter. A person walks on the ice. Look at the kanji-E The bottom part IS the same as `/, and signifies ice (D signifies water). The upper part is the outline of a person's legs. The person walks on ice. The kanji š is written beginning with the legs on top. Then the ice on the bottom IS written. i “T a i i _ VLW) 3235737: i i meaning reading g z", _ " T” 'ii' 'E zinaa @910 * V ' to gather @ä50š5'á5') 5 * Biāiíft I . _ ,_ _ Mnemonics A -f --. - /' ` i :i :z: E . g; i) r . 2 3 f i r . bird Q 3 <---- ?k - ă i tree E ç %im "t U.] iíiišôăi) äTo räi č: TE; 'C' inn/vi: *n 'ãi tit %ju/gm F: tu ?to Të; ci ;ewe 'z' m::- @rčUJTToEV%@rčUJm?@ãK%T% üãTo:n#ã$@r$JTTo@Tusš@%J@ ivi/waweka zš$mit .taa Fun %reešāgvo t» There are two kanii for "bird," ă and ë . %is a bird with a long tail. E is a bird with a short tail. A short-tailed bird has come to rest on top of a tree. This is the kanji i. In the picture, the lines of the tree on the bottom are drawn first. In the kanji, the bird on top IS drawn first. 4!
  42. 42. šãajíau - 24 24 RulesforKanii Wi» L' ii9č< .a is meaning i ) v " .z- ` ` A i HII *O ~8ãi#t _ Mnemonics _ s . .SJ- /' . A" i ' ~ 2 l l . r ` i' . l cover I .__i:1.U/Va)(15 V }*--. mouth of a bottle An TU/,J a) T(15_, t TU/d a) T,S.7*;_, lgt` J: (J) The mouth of a bottle and the 3 cover of a bottle fit together well. Lxí-g-o FUr/VJ o) F(r,_, o) TOJ tg; -äâm TuJ L: g TheOsignifying the mouth of the mi: g bottle becomes aDin the kanji. f; i) i 'g"o 1 hip: jšiā) râJ mTmälšâTTo ia) S This is the bottom part of the kanji L* 3* *Vv 5* š â . The upper part is the outline of 3394; r.š.f;_, mifáTëų, áíâfwi, Ta) r ( 'taJ (Difáiy a cover. ln the picture, the outline wa; x g of the mouth on the bottom is Biyā i 'a'o iäífi; La) KštfgJ iyiöfšă g To drawn first. ln the kanji. the cover 9' : is drawn first. *Ua V$ö#t meaning reading Mnemonics *“-von “ beam of light ` "ā/.J ::tt “at” mäfčäól) in šä$0> "à, a» Gold is glittering in the earth. . 'm W” W” l: 5 Look at the kanji 3 . The bottom is ET ( T: ä Ua Tii "i (OBM ?To ryú (UbW) )_i 5 :t (earth). There is also the upper " W* 5 part of ăiá (beam of light). Gold is miwälšäieä; U i T., ră A; (i, jçiālf: bmTTtp important stuff. So a cover (the ` 5* * “r “W” g upper part ofâ) is put over it. ln b, _|:_l: TZSJ: (Tâų UJLUYEBQOJ 5' L i To íã$T 5 the kanji, the cover on top is drawn 5 first. ti r~šf:_] :in: 42
  43. 43. .,.....`, w- a UI - 24 i 24 Rules for Kanji Mu: B5č< «' Adjectives Can Also Become Pictures eãuöeeä ee 7_ I) L.) i) The Meaning of Adjectives Is Expressed by Their Pictures g' "*"" i f 'A ni i” l' `7 w, H ñ 3 FT~W` `* í . - .w i i vi. i r 2- 'nr-IHI, 'J' - t:: 7 . 'h 'a ~ l « *- - ' . . f,.. l tfųgg. l á`_._ų I I `__gl ,:u, . t, i ; ,wlw v,... ípw l I V j / 1 l f; -A 6,* ig” i i `w V t k ,',` 1; l i t J . i p w* V 'i i J' l ' .c ' .ų " ' . . ` . ' l :ñ V 3 ', ?v i. "= "` “ v.. "v “ H! z, : (w. Mji., Iiāyflf." w ::Inn l}” i ili .adi 'L à `i V y l i i “vir 1 ""'dfl i j Wii ` i; . " . l _ . , y y i__._ _ i _ . J l J L, ____ _,__,i L A_____._i .. _ N-.. * l '.._... J ?iā/Jfăáíii: < s: X 75"`T`ă i To Zā5]0)ia% If something has shape, pictures l! ' "M 'l "t" L : can be drawn. In the case of nouns, %NI ffiā) % i: 72' i) i To f since there is a shape for a noun, you 'w ` ` x mųā L can draw a picture. What do you do {~l`:i L` ') 'C l, .t 7 fr., g with adjectives? /P_~_JV_ l _ _ __ _ ` * : Adjectives can also be expressed ifíëāíl] i) u- <`í 7? “Cš i To Wii 3 by shapes. For example, "big" You "MM l' M” 'M' / _ 'it __ can see this by drawing the outline ă wföàñ, j: š wlf; 72 fr H c; z!) b* 'l i 'il, 'ii lišlf* 5 for "big" ln China, they spread their _ '_"”_:< S arms to show size. When Some- (i š ã i., i â`o Wl;Ii`{-`:`ii W? é 5 thing is big, they express the size __ T 'f *r "*'1_ by spreading their arms. By look- išii/ct ă ā L i To %7)ii:fä?ñnii f ing at this outline, you can tell the w” _ , 'i' k i size. Spreading the arms wide %@k ă ã bibi? i) i To CE'. š < UA means that something is very big. M" Look at the kanji X. A person is iff. äfárääăbäjcččăábšàăo standing up. The-at the top is the r___ `_ M” 3 left and rívht arms spread Wide. The rkJ i' T < 7.2 ã Na FU t: Jñäšt 'J T r “ i bottom ofbäi is the outline of legs. ` __ ; and they are also spread Wide. In the Ta; r-*J TX à: ;âizâ š (EH T l« ` ::f Z case oi ji, a person stands with arms W; i” v` l ' ,- 3 and legs spread out Wide, When you To @3-7) rjíJa) i” p) x i) à* see that, you know the thing is "bigT w: M' *M The Iianji K means "big" certainly. (Tãifíw i To rjçJa)iā7/čliix Wi? 2: WE %k š Look at the kanji l_i(snlall). Think M' about the outline of the arms and (Ušifííšöíl/“í To Cüëāhlaší rääă “J legs. They are not spread out, are ~ : 7 c amhttpaet .t a ., äeoräcmíšíäiāt i?” ' they. ilriäišă LJ'C"9"o š?”””*%T<”ã“oñ%čñš”%%ä if < fíã no ;ëlfíciw :it/pigo 43
  44. 44. - 24 24 Rules for Kanji WA. l: li')%( CH?: meaning Oāfšlãiír?: Mnemonics wmdow second floor u Juu) 55 a m - n - "lñšfã entrance first floor ifášāãwrfzáwulit r/'z/J`Líí%_|a)äâêãnlíbü` Hnzā L kTBVJ 2. 75 l) ::to äUJEPEITJ7EiJWAE4ZJli` ãāiaml) ::wa an .`_'< SWVOA. U ?B 'Otto išfāmríăgéšfá' < Tfä U., Twrlílilili) Cl hi» l: Li: ?To Zlšäbötläël Zlšfšlzläk Uolífxêišböl) D" š'9"., rãjwëäii FfC7b`c`J-GTO Otlāä meaning .._.I...A 1 II! In] [EU inn:: With the adjective “highf you can tell the meaning by looking at a picture of a 'high building." ln old China, a 'high building" was the entrance of a palace. Look at the kanji E. The [J on the bottom is the entrance. There is also a second floor. Over the second floor is a splendid roof. E means "high" Oãālšiüf: Mnemonics 6 a 9 a -itlíš-> b Q Ycnlč the sun 0 9 .___ + ~ < à grass šëlltxhlí. Kiāñtttãíñ KliãúEtNāhlí` Wi?” thi? `P 51 m! «`JT'liz*ñUš'li/». %nh{ít:ăhçi "láPPUJTTo Xäu.ämšã#àüíT.%n#äãmLcwnd.š m uma -o riiV-NAJTT. ã?WF$Jê'ā.-C ( fíëUo FEJUXM ?To 'F0)r+JliH'C"š'o 44 El+ When it becomes morning, the sun rises. When the sun has risen high, that is not 'earlyf' The sun rises from a grassy plain in the east. When it is just coming up from the plain, that is "earlyf Look at the kanji 5. E is the sun. The + on the bottom is the grass. t . E. Y. l” v a
  45. 45. ...wapya- w - .-. “wa ». -Qs Hâëšāšälčäb i? (W. i: Adjectives Can Also Become Pictures Hhàă L i wanaith- reading ©9+9 (DJ: bg; *Tãšlãăfffc Mnemonics ' ' _: E.}~:<`:l)-*-> / T 'Q little bird 5 y . (ím k ` "` " feather la ă' y E; y /r;'=-:_--a)[' L r ,_` . With the adiective "weak," you 3353.? .th Jlix ;htxsmimäišëānizbn 5 c?” te., the meanmg bymkmg ata U äTo 8:) “ñ bmbtr k _ . picture of 'aweak thing." What H; rt L .I 'J ii Q Tāmiā E 'glad gfâhlnâ/IS weak?, Consider a A. ~ .o _ : ieir." k”bird l %%Z.T<f`ã`u`o V hu -, _ . 33 . Sôwãvssíav S» w; “t -Vhãlit U? 5 Míël V 3 together. The kanji šš IS a picture of two little birds. You can tell it means : r-*w r , n . .._ _. i i?” %ti-m %Na 2230),] %míñâT-ë.” 2 :H är* "weak" because there are two birds b`b umm: tifābfrl) :a: Wema'- ñ - 734573* l " W” i ;aswa y writing l meaning reading i + l i .st a v a) :i E. old (DJ. al.) Mnemonics © © © I, El - < *a _ ` A v mouth (to say) © ë ten f » . @ ~© © i i i i .m ?Dä>'C:._-.i.-X%Ei`íl7lí` čTbšñL/UTWR IEJLSI. š . au g Mu'. w; ; The first time you hear some news _ ~ _ i r g . _ š it's very new. If you hear the same l 2 ë 6 7 ngëcävnä .čníigš L 's ;à LUT-ë-O E] news again, it's a little "old." When - - _ {-;- ~ ~ :_ ___ g ten people say the same news, that L-l zäíloâmâh T1cí` fo) J' Zcič .(6 news is very "o|d." The kanjiäisten Izšö uJ-C-ë-c ;šgmräjăn l'+(|0)Jg)l'n (< ?oh-C 3 Hmouths (D). That news lS w. i: g . To %anta-anlam Ršxšavfčö',
  46. 46. ā$wăau - 24 24 Rules for Kanji WA, L' ll')%< i C mia» writing meaning III wi III “de Cäšlšiüf: na Mnemonics ` r- . :pm _._. roof ""- L* ' 05 V i wide FA :H: i ` Fučgx %TA 'Oil, i Ltc :š$0) I Ch` , “ ide" was expressed išLmíāT L; J FJ 'Māä r 32” bynA. lrlintatie ova/se of kanji, the out- r A. FA gygfáëãtxš to L. 0), (it U UJ 3 IineAis used. A means "wide" i %Hi J "h/ti W* J “ " 3 Look at the kaniifñ. Lx means , 'CT 5š$UDFIZJ%ET ( 753 Ua rbJlirUči LJT.?-o i “wide” What is 'wide'? F' is a roof i* " i» ' with one side_ open. "The space ;amuua uJToTjyo rrJli` Tāfräg L7`:ā1š'C'To under the roof |S wide. m: " : %mātñmšñrvô wTTo ' 'AE 'Q CH?: Cckāziirí: meaning reading Oâälãiirf: Mnemonics J j it - am; -+ female %iămírmjklziiãëäāwlít àiâëütvš Tb`b š Usuallv if vou ask a Woman to do J» oi MM- vt l« ft M v” W: 5 some work, you have to pay her, ;giv-cyo [āJUE*EO)T[:LötJ)A tgiāmlí` so it's expensive. If you ask the M» w: t i: U: O! g woman living under the same roof f:f:-!T.Tb"b c r afahamu :äāmriimrm s (wifex it's free. so it's Yerv . W» l! 3 ”cheap.' The 'D in the kaniifis a i; rāmJ Tag-o Tmrgz-JmrähäJ-çg-o ātâmjfç: u "roof.' Theätbelow is a 'womanf g ln the case of a woman under the č-ä-@Amgäâiäk Façaj-“Jfoffo _ 5 roof, things are 'cheapf i: m» 46
  47. 47. nggājgggigųg gç-g- i' `* Adjectives Can Also Become Pictures link 'D L i i ima i: :kam: ' `* ' ,,~ meaning reading } V ' l 'l' (3710) L U l _ _ ' ãâlãifrf: _ r L: _ Mnemonics t? a: -'_ fl E! - th: ”/ 1 y d 4 rum B / ( äx 85 L* 5 č 3 lZrTSUD L ._i'C"ä"íJ*o rB/c7b(( Jëiläzālü' When is it "pleasant"? When you _ s g listen to "music," that's "pleasant" (it rTZUD L UJTTO šš?0)r%_i<7) i /,7Q.`/TlZ ji ă 7:42 E Right in the middle of the kanji ä IS 33:' Z __ _ , a "drum." To theleft and right of the FT:L-J7'J`J) U 370 %0)7_Eč15lZr7'J*hJb*ã) l) ãTo g drum are "gongs" The drum and r _ č "'*"' *x 3 gongs are on top of a woodenülí) 73 L`~ J č FZTTQJ /)`r7l< (ă MWâOLhlCJ) l) ,if To 3 base. ă means "music" Music is m* 5* "pleasant" ršiêlliräkü< < JTTO %ä(i rfzā) l, Ufčíg I , k . *A DEF?: | lrlAāá y 313,737: f ;t-.čųgâi w, writing l meaning reading l "u 'R N } f ,i ` t: rš à CV @77 V } l * cold Q) à: 632 [ -_ _ , _ __ w _ &_?__*_M_ M N _ *W _ J ?älãibt , Mnemonics t , ' f? %J h l `TJ_-`f ` ' roof -l -` SEE . < ä M" ~ , A ' -rí -_- s e: A v: '-V.í v grass _ y N ` A U V A/ / - ;b ) au: person / ice r? i`š š%%ODr%J%%T< ffâb” :ācip/Jčãuăcç* rlä Lookatthe kaniišíhebonom IS U mt., %mšç: FA (U z ham s T., "à Lwirci tāoāggāsā:a1é,:g:,3;$ég$,;*gā,i; Wr B .hii r< s (++++)J aigize-c u x v, u *aii íígfgšgçíāíāgš?" shgovgr:: vílšl; A-tmr7Jli ;yawe : mššêšnçís c 'c a Fa i; t/:irsyçtfcšuifeathāäjāt šovuerí/açctoêlltäfāom “Ji *JTfJX J; (b/Tčfčb; 'L,
  48. 48. ' 24 24 Rules for Kanji :Vivi: Gi')%( A *' Verbs Can A|so Become Pictures :f "' "E-T 6 R* :5:-'- C 'J 9 @iliua 5172 L/ d» 9 i. aăvšb The Meaning of Verbs Is Expressed by Their Pictures i r umma: ā 4 xfu` 4 . l h l ,x s: wake; Less-.. T 1' - %šālāñšiêët ifšäăšlwiăâš. iâčfJW C. tia* m: l, I! tu linxă L “Căāčâl šflšālâliăâëi. ifábibhlít am« J. 85 L Wtā čfJVčš íñá, išgilš. rtOJ liëšô ?L at 5 m, %hii rtOJ @âêävčrliiít J: < bíPO íTo išlëfrliiiwš/VGL g 5 753 WMJJTGibbW) i-ü w: Ao rhlųfwšibffö šdš/wo "it'll @il-šii. "U tJhfwwT-*Lmo “Učlwiāiêëíšií, ;ase If J) u Mm? irš i L i 5 o %Wiêčáčhčsñ rt?: čųífáob* f) i?: aätaao) EL 725356 < 2L"ăwo šwxāúišiāfñá, 3-1., L' TA, M:: mauAImr~iu.%m%gcto:Aawm nwe.mcL;5#o$@Au.$@mesrw ;tl/v ?lu %ro-ISN Ulu J-< à* íTo Cwišiêli. %WFPEUVCTo z! m» sa: íillíšlfllătiTäfvi) 0 šTWë. ãúfāi ä-tčA/o SW3C<$< Lf' šmr~J&.āmaavr,$m2$wmne. - J-'Rb RA« tT0'( *illí-IHETTO %ôāoít "ili êāf<ff 'ëwo "íLJ @ãüăíii "fJOJ ?To FIJ @āičñā li. 'tc - fcfču ?Ta 48 Pictures can be drawn for both nouns and adjectives. In the case of verbs, if there is a shape for the verb, you can also draw a picture. What, for example, do you suppose is done with the verb "to stand"? You can tell this, if you draw a picture of "to stand." What should you draw? You can't tell the meaning from a picture of a dog. You can't tell from a picture of a cat, either. A person is better for a picture of “to stand." Imagine a person standing and draw a picture of it. If you look at that picture. you can tell it means “to stand." Look at the kanji H. The dot on top is a head. The -on the very bottom is the place the person is standing. What is the part in the middle? A Chinese person is wearing a Chinese gown. In this case, it's a Chinese man. Since a Chinese gown reaches all the way to the ground, you cannot see the feet. The upper - is the shoul- ders. The two vertical strokes in the middle are the Chinese gown. With this in mind, look at the kanji SI. EL means “to stand." The readings for H are tatsu and tateru. r_wws
  49. 49. 2 Verbs Can Also Become Pictures (imani 'T ckāitv?: meaning reading :bs @ht to turn round @äbá- 3291 t ëälšibf: Mnemonics +e~ u-ys<:bs{ to turn round in small circles D-$ã<šbö~> to turn round in large circles šilšão) Všbêi latt Fi %u ëāhlíbfrl) i?, ?C 551« ?Sii ãV ršč; čgêëU rščJ %fšbüšbiöo *gm ršöi lit íšíā) FIEñJ lUäCUäTg íš$m rlāli W/vl: LD`< eâT<EëvoxëuFmñJ#aUs?o%ngu :ham Free; *Mall ar, :mr rebel ?to [Jn With the verb "to turn round," you can tell the meaning by looking at circles. Put a big circle and a little "circle" together. The picture of a circle becomes a square in kanji. Look at the kanii IE. There lS a big square. lnside, it is a little square. This means 'to turn round." r**“ l =U35~ l: chai/ft " t meaning reading i l “ *f l * . l l i < b N' 5 G) t il to compare @< 645 änãālšíü`fc V P Mnemonics y, l .~ * T» “J , y ` l 4 'T- ' ?Eiãă CDA-w» l 5 l i A! t: 4 V person facing right xlàjltziábišôãhlít r< à~êu:tbi'čăäío 5360) "tbiluit lãüiiáfñzáãal) i?, *tmšfIäElI V< 6~öiTTo~á-outWum%TroANE%m Uk ut b! (r VC fčšëtybTvšTo :amifâlà ?Liābã .: n' To%wšumâ%#b#UšT#o lit If there are two things with the same outline, you can "compare" them. In the kanii th, there are two outlines with the same shape. This means "to compare." Each one IS a t. A person faces right, holding the arms and legs out. The two outlines are slightly different. Do you know what this difference means? 49
  50. 50. š$wăãü ' 24 g.. WA. U liăč< “n l l meaning 24 Rules for Kanji ' ?älšăht Mnemonics a? - L~ t' well <-Cl - :p: u enclosure *@$%u%ä@6mT?O%m*m#ām$E in' %umm 0933 U t üü* isi) šTo štFFlātkfDüišzFñT?früt äbl) l: "#2 kuwa ii L; ku 'ăflšU ii) *čhif 'VTZCJ ?To íš$0> FJ @b l! aacha) “ahh ti Ftxtų 'Wi, italia) VIII; i: Wr: tu 'on %in Fm @sasa %cm 'mi, Water is necessary for life. This water is in a well. Because the well is an Important place, an enclosure is built around it. This means "to surround." Theäá? in the middle of the kanii E is a well. The Claround it is an enclosure. Kanii ä means "to surround." i., g VUB Väöüt l meaning reading i r' : 3 Z» @a y l . t to be distressed (2): ä à l ,. , âslãiírf: k _ Mnemonics ' y _ ` 'í ni ?F ' ăw-~~ ~~t g 3 <--l:l ' ?TC U a i .fi/ ,5 . i i i i tree enclosure r w*- w í išíw 'J %ãTUEäUo šābüā) “Eli li "fr fr/vl.? l» :tu c?, āliíñyčb: Mr, :iam faim lah rai 'C' an, FsJ aamir: %au ifäUäT/fàt rai ušë<aa:t#?āseA.'ëiuF:seJTL .x ñ. %in Vai @sasa %sei 'mi, 50 Look at the kanji E. The E] on the outside is an "enclosuref What is inside? The 7l<on the inside is a "tree". Because there is an enclo- sure around the tree, the tree can- not get bigger. The tree is 'dis~ tressed.' The kanji means "to be distressed. ' ewe., , .
  51. 51. Iüñtëičüoä? 0 Verbs Can A|so Become Pictures 8 L R. ') Dua oaamt meaning reading @7 V @ăg-ã:àa Oêsišiírf: Mnemonics ra - i, Aí-*“-~> gate WE %ii "Jiău @BAU äTO %0)%ä' raãyü T* ră š Sounds enter through the ear. ”* m* E We can hearthe sound through our (J T. čhvčă ãío TññJ 0) FEJ (á r.7$.71~_, ears. The H in the kanji M IS the M” u 5 outline of an ear. The F? on the āñfíTTo Tiíñi míbUa) rFāJ Uk Fit/u; ?To l-TEJ outside of His a gate. On both 'n ` J , "ñ 3 sides are piilars. The E parts are ZJECEWWJ U š To FBJ 7313557? rč UBJ ?To %ii doors. Sounds enter through the W) *T m” gate of the ear. means "to hear." Eömüíràlí) šTo Fm agawa« re (J m: Chāz* Cckāáírf: meaning reading to help (DtTHš-iz? 5 Oêfâiāfiírf: Mnemonics ã'7'J`ãhš> <___,jj~157b15 to piie up strength Hi) F`57J`5J T' FTSTWčJ C. čüíTã šío %Wfãbâ We can help somebody by our _ ` _ ` _ : strength. In that case, we need lots L« T: < ë AU) ră/Tbj 7J`ülàāT7o 'är-im FHJJJ EL of strength. The kanji W) is made up r “O” M: U 3 of ãand 73. There are three E] in 5.1 čí rjh ?To FH; (Ziit FDJ 7523575) U 379.., E. Three signifies many. 73 IS the outline of an arm. Bi] means "to pale :GTIăUCčíTTO Wi; (i WUNTZTT.) "Hili 03% up strength." ' 5 'L' th?: His Wà'%#5i&Fwënêi:aTTo
  52. 52. %gemu - 24 'd 24 Rules for Kanji lšăč< l . a *ma " ' ` ` meaning i l l l l i l l 5 i i i« äãlšitNt r Mnemonics ' i i m* g f-'y i" l { , i :i à l l l -- D'<5`*““* Q M<-%'KU r lJ-.ITS-,l mouth bird w ` El ,à l' l' - l' ~ - z . . . t L) J U* < %J T f* < J " t 75 T ë 3 ?o E Birds can chirp with their mouths. r _. r _ Look at the kanji 11%. El is a mouth. a) ų-%J äüšaT < 713 “o D.] i: r< *DJ '(70 ;gm I-%J g The %on the right IS a bird. The l' . : r , _ E kanii 11% means “to chirp." ln t; t' UJ T?” %im QEJ māāzäkti* w* < J TTO E Chinese, it means "to produce a e; . ra: - , E g _ sound." ln Japanese it's also used čJTa-o rf; to mean 'to ring? l: bíšvš To ` 9. . * “il” v Jzāzizrí:: l 3 meaning reading l / Q i nqghVT N v l “ų la i i to raise a clamor O; àb (' rasimi: %x , Mnemonics i i :` T <-' 4' 1 * 'C `. - . h ` QJWZYW ' 'J š ~~~> am* . - i .if horse T: ._.__EE . t L A :X l' ųYsTTL, ., insect = v 'v w :H: o l' ` f~ o - : ; tšímăfāiTlit ') i; iišā aājíãT LLO š?m g ln old China, the horse was an r y. r r ~ _ _ 3 important animal. The ,ä on the left si” mšmãšâm %J t; 7 :J T?” šmãñçšfc part Aofhthe kanji E isha làorsš. On f' i' . r r . , r ~ g the rig t, theR isa an . isan wa l”, w: TJ T?” S?” c: i' LJ T?” 7 i J E insect. lt you hit a horse with your watu: r-CJ -čëhhtä rêbçJ ?L J; ;jo i-CLJ hand, it raisesaclamor. Ifan insect m g comes. you 'raise a clamor.' ffšičhlít 'PMU "äbCJ “Gbxöo 52
  53. 53. w« I1Wvv~w-~. ,-~v~ -. -..,..4..,-..... ., -w-w... A... fh./-wé_ ._, .... .... -.... . . ,'____.,,.,_._,,,_,__,,_ __ __ u. _ m, . 24 Rules for Kanji w» ___ . m . ` í , . llšéš Expressing Verbs with Signs *i =«+- :x=:$ šųtrzāëšgā/id» 7- 'J 'L' ä$WWK@,:om%%t9@n5gm#%a fxñ* 1.?: ) ?mk U g g/v h šT. rlliš'ílllč.'ilí'TčlJ êlšf<fj`ăuvo :Wii/l lí »à“%-a-ā-āJ#x%A(%$%%)?To ü` ` âlã/vàfátk ov;om%%##4y(@@%w)?Tt:;? li, #4' ycz/Jtxíä-xj: L; 50 ükñ #4>u,üäëšLš?o%m#4>W%n@, 85 L öêb %átcišihāāl'č*<ë'o lme:: FIk-*íšz-%šk-%QJ em na A <üëwogm%%mFxJN,Mmm#4>1ro .KK/v “šci 7fP"àF>11liX %mštāçcáānāayrvçko :©%â@“kJm%m,BųtVxJ??,PgJ bkā li 'XJ tlājtfràä, FXJ l: Wii a) FXJ ara-m 'CE %hliälāë-“J 'CWT, r/J li rlšföų ?To ?ft eñws0ito%m$m,%mm5ey#Láro xiAm%%%EhM,%m@ăā#b#0:1, 33134, J; äăñm$nu.%wámsá0i?o%wäă 5:' :w: ba, ?Mfíülit “Iăãwäh o) Wi; m: FXJ li @J !Lt ?ToFnJu:wL:(gëx,@1o bçtă Imagine the Actions Some kanji are split into two parts. Look at H? E, W, and TE. In these cases, iā. E, li', and E” are the stems (basic segments). The other parts are the signs (Supplementary segments). This time, let's think about the signs. Some stems are signs for a verb. When certain signs are present, it means that kanji is a verb. Look, for example, at H, ä, 51, and 351. The S? on the right is the sign for a verb. lf SI is present. it's a verb. llere, thv outline of SC is made up of / and I. 1 is the same as R. X is the same as the 2 in li and it is a hand (50. / is zi stick. There is 21 hand and a stick. The hand moves the stick. You can tell the action by looking at the stem. There are some evil actions, too. Examples of evil actions are 59 and iā. Both have 219, X is a handfli is a spear (ureapon). 53 t ` E: 1:” li `- ų .Yn l Yv- '5' "íxvbç m. _ I] wigi t 4 ,gu i x Au.. ' *m
  54. 54. seem - 24 ili] 37 #5. U R')«ê( 24 Rules for Kanji " meaning' Vàaüt reading * âälăfiíjbf: Mnemonics í l ,_ , I ha ; -&-äām#4> 5 à? l, verb sign ruler v {i$(:($E*ã%{šL i Tsāfãlā-fošiíëiflít r I (I)J L .ft un a* mi- , 0213289) :wa šâā) FIJ magu; “üãi ?To rIJci T: 1 #5 'f 1 š 'čiwšüfll biäk* i 742, Ti; iišfišălaāvr `/'C'To rlímfăüäii. T: v? Cštüt Ki'. 6136); ?To Everyone uses a ruler at work. li you place it vertically, it looks like "I (I). ” The kanji I means work. The I also means from here to there. The it is the sign for a verb. IS! means "to go straight ahead (to attackl.” g > .Liās V crew: p ' meaning reading Y ų l ` HE *a e r @w ' `i 'l ` to scatter @äá - 15 F: âãlšiiff: Mnemonics ` '_.'*_'._l ' _ it. < qr-y-šëlaāmüef/ , v-UI:I'_)"_:` . k* verb sign f), l 41.2/ ,.~. l i " L. grass l . F] - i: < -+ meat J äwàlšlT-ii. T< au xe Fi:<i %äaeüsizëti wa 'cs 2. ã lata r< äJ TK r-J FH.] (FWJ)J 'W'. r$ZJliāăāl0)“l71"/T'Tü*à, faim; F< au a: "CTJJ 75: räBTJ ?To 54 ln old China, people caotured animals by placing grass and meat here and there. ln the kanji ä, the H means grass and - is a stand. The ã is the same as meat (m). Since är is the sign for a verb, the a means 'to scatter' grass and meat.
  55. 55. ...r ..- . . .- ungwana'. .x4.i~__.i.. rr-n. ..mm-n . .~ #4 yčšlâlāëäbä? l: Expressing Verbs with Signs ôăb ,. . .. l) ;warns *Uāä taabiri: w.) d ` writing í meaning reading - 7 v. _ 5 *Fi 5 @#4 ` j- . l L to respect @i *Päíi L. *áälšibíc , A, y . y Mnemonics _, 4 r- . l -i -, - a -5zv šāimbw* a 'í-(l r ' , / . ?g l* / . > , -. ` .Hi < â 3 . ` , z., verb sign ~ i “= s . _ grass ' ~ ` 1 Cl-(To IU'BB)' 1. mouth l 'l' i COVBT ftmhfwçtt 'šbâttct/J* “ôvāāzzi 'ci, $n5tf< 7:., šâā) %SU Oäšmăíšâā) "ili CI "El (<15)J e “U (tstaöh 'CT, %ovāi-:i: “rt (< am Mu) í-Tb`b šāTzčbiTăä-ë/m šā) “ili lit 85 L @vc/TWO “au mšiāiālit Wi:: öi ?To In traditional China, keeping silent was an action of respect. The left part of the kanji äíl, Q means to wrap (7) the mouth (D). Since there's grass (H) on top, you can't speak. The right part it is a sign for a verb, ü means 'to respect." l _ g Q i hivy?: l Vtitiôlä V cham: l. v., 'gr ' I' ` ' meaning reading i . :" I l", l l' " «.;, l i* i' butwaa @ze l? 4 ' 'p to count @bVí-'iö - fr?” g F y. J' nemonics gl/f,... 4 h ._ r i: r., v. :ab/v *fr -2-š1ăiāāim+r+> ,g , h ,a ,X/*il rice Vefb sign `l 4 " l Y ,. ;A ' àlêšršc :H: .» ` s . ,-- . olātwcplāpclàh EEAOND balătgâíli* ga* â/íäm In old China the master's main àiñč< back. “mt, k work was to count rice and women T* ~ ~ "" - . 5 ~čbJ čx lšãâw "b/utu ë' r/Jfxču ~<`ZTC (servants) everyday Theleftpartof - : i-i r I - ` the kañjl à! IS àlé (rice) and H Lto %fm 531.] Wšwâlšálit r7l<(~5b)J t “ku” (women), x in the right side |S the 'Jwsto se Fm eaiāww aware @feat :saníāzsiši:,oiaiššmmāsāāiųāz l* r/J"`č"i%>i m: %āälm wwa ::mu san, kazu, namely 'numbers " m: L it - its/tt: -> female
  56. 56. reh iš$wāăü - 24 i; 24 RulesforKanii WA« l! llôê( 7rñ~ww i' * _ l ' *Mai V àíãâfrt . meaning reading E ,i l 4« l , i L.- _.. _ -__..4 i eäãlãăjft _ V g Mnemonics I/ffšx a J * fl 'l `. l l. ; 'a * l i' ` ; . x-Llíê *~ “'<-<í-%L~š}iă7í i i l v» na a: w: i _ i, _ l j g to fasten evil movement ` A '. ` i "X ' i:- i:: i v i - X X box E* JL rxJ i; r L' 5:79 :- č J 'Pia FEJ w: W; :J 1.70 The X means "to tie or fasten." l: "LlíU9i7tb0J %59-'3 'izizi iųnnizr. 'ríãebãšgaāãéáíăālefiäfšíššâílši _ , __ , 3 b IZ. Th lZ äíăš im Fizi wa rggäàišíiçseiši w Fizi i» @ii s šãší-Tšsusa unit, eTherigrhtsidšof _ L ` , 5 h k 2 ' h ' f 'l 7tãíàl-Tto ga) FQJ (Ix ëmšëăšmüi /'C'To tacetiorílhnTheIāāitmíšeasnānüooiāãaq 3:" ra.] mãäicäk ríāšäfëëfr < %Nā (a (i %h ?in : another person into little Dieces. T, _ _ l i :Uãä V :KJHN: `y" t meaning reading 7 ' »: `~ :at @üv z. g ' to kill @il 61 i., . ãblãiüf: Y Mnemonics . . , " '[1] 5/ U« . 't i ` %hii `”<-<i-%Lāfiă7í i bč 52.' k?: . ' :. ,_ i " ~ > to faste" evil movement i i i' 7l< ' ă tree šäíā) Fish @Emâlšāălit "x (Llíöh č r7l< (ăDJ The left part ofthe kanji šâis x (to W* l: w” “W” 5 fasten) and ?K (tree). So, it means ?Tra %hii "JKK L iíč I. čJ 'CTO šā) FQ _] IL "to fasten to a tree." The right side g p _ , i! is the sign for an evil action. The %Všb ă 75035' 'f VTT., ršiiwšläíiit A %XL L i?: 3 meaning of H IS to fasten a person to M *r M " '* v* ' a tree evilly. It means to. kill the oT.%-šwă75'ã-?ö:t'č'ë'.*thixftm/ërl person. ::na mt, ' 56
  57. 57. “Ufütíblāčäbäí 0 Expressing Verbs with Signs 85 L 1:61: Ouās Oëāáfrt meaning . reading l: I. .iz @à y to carry @li T. Cãblšíb`fc Mnemonics ..rj . @au ` v cover z~motUatU~»“ to go forward ä ' < %D š and backward _ wheeucar) 17 FEJ iā: r< 6 íJ ?To _l;0) “7J i; Ziwa) 'ji Thešisacar. The 'D meansthe 5* '5 V' 3 cover of a package. lf you Ioad the âSUJ 'ET, äiíãăzêühTg j-jàsuäăljnljc" *t packages in the car and cover ' m 9 ”' 3 them, it IS E. Theízis one of signs hi? rã; ?To rZJ Li EJšEWTVT VW-'DTTJZ, *t 3 for a verb. Since it is an animal, it _ 35 L U* E goes forward and backward. hii I-'TTOTZ USET: U Tëālíàl; TT., FEJ wšäšiāL Therefore, the kanji i! means "to " '9 “ 3 carry." šTiăiwë Niassa “GTO Dua agent meaning reading 3) *t .SI (Da. r? Cãšlāifr?: Mnemonics 77- ' 5173 ""“ A - U?: ` ;v ` g Z ' Uoti) ëfzU-* to go forward and backward %ATZ twazti Ta'. %hiii tamu wa, l' l' _ 4 . rz- r _ . , . %J (i QLJ măāčíT-ë-Q J l: AJ čELT The 75 is a picture of a flag. r- is ruč (äčüh ?To i-%J t: r: ab.] .ET H” g ähaesãmeasákāndaear;aperson. 0 g m yana u_. e meansa '=~ eee” >v>~v izi w» v a in rai ui is i ?ârngyeêâdsš isortzaoss:: ::sai ua ; - . _ t 'ii t 'l “i b* “Wa %ao <~ 'ita i: v ;ii š ?âfàârãlääi %ííāíblšiâ "añäãàíšš t, n g I - ' "to play.”
  58. 58. in? šâwăăü - 24 ,f .J ,i .i :mt: nia-H L g 'mígm' nu _ ,a F” 75 r” f““. - l` " *"' 1 '.` Aišbín LL' Chinese People Invented Kanji 24 Rules for Kanji $Ew$5?ñh#Dä? *moi :'< You Can Grasp the Chinese Situation l i > I v l v i z ` I! L. i ,» r " ' l All. l f! a .U J* n ' id f: v ,, à i 5 nr l` r .. , auf' g ,wg/ p; ! n* V i ün#ë$ë0<0iLt#D$@ANš?%0 but, l: Sn1:'( 'Jk <DiLto$@Au`$@@iôT%@Të$ ê0<0šLt.E#6.ä$%Ehd.$@m; ôiNb#0iTo 410) 'tu iillUFãWTTo Cübiíšë? “EL %ni C< L 10% 'KW 13 K:: 0 š Lfco ref-cz, iziãvbfāāāvilsczw) :in kwxô lzl, h! tatu lhüiiäšíā) W; ccëcn i Us, :üwôašiêë %mit 4155106? L ă7b>"b7ö> i) i?, EPV) "UIBJ ili: rău fr"zñ0šTo %ñ LT. %HIV "UtJ úiišbš/“Clníio "Ein VD`1`53F37T" FWJ 61 une. WA. I 720 i Li., “Hili, VăUIUJ č: FTVDJ @âzāä âbttfäü. C. ") bäölšíêãhií. 'Püšlmãšâúf hiyo í-š-o Fzăfm c: %msingi m: %in a: Fšnwācëi ?in :neat @govt isi) Lôvxffáao u#mswöu5m@W50äT.:ôwôë$ čāhii. Fl“|ã0)J:ô'ā'fJ*bà*') i?: M” Fnn'h`.'( 58 ' T 1 ` 1 í ' l" ' 2254.* 1 "iā-Tons l 1 i *- .J ia?? .ä i' 1 v~vím r' L.. .rl Do you know who ínvented kanji? Chinese people invented kanji. Observing their situation, Chinese people made the characters. So, if you look at the kanji, you can grasp the Chinese situation. In China, "paddy" is in the shape of squares. In kanji, this became E. In China, the sun sets in the mountains to the West. This became 9. If you look at these kanji, you can grasp the scenery of China. In China's village. there are trees. And, there are people working. The kanji meaning village was FJ. This is a combination of ?F (tree) and Ti (hand). If you look at these kanji, you can grasp the lifestyle of Chinese people. Red is the color of brick. Blue is a beautiful color. These are the ways Chinese people think. Aren't these interesting? Besides these, there are many other different examples. If you look at this kind of kanji, you can grasp the Chinese situation. o-anųvt. .--< '- ~
  59. 59. m vtY-IEHViDF1UIHWON w... :usawa/Y , 4.. r on e oų-tpawvvuw "çPQVhíhq-3@ -. .yt étčšëë? < D äč bi:: l. a A« 'F' .a fm1..( Chinese People Invented Kanji atta; 'WJQJEJTTC meaning reading li 6 @91 `/ spring @(15 Pãšlãifrf: A, ` _ Mnemonics (AAA) three people , / ' B - m* l ' sun :A B *Na Kiwete a r %Hekima %aāätirddábi ãti- fm7f< úiiāfšbnlatä %frv “tamu ::au :are rliāšų (Ztxn ::ft %fzízínwxjçišeä biääeío rg, %ā-a Ytnšä 1* fíëvo jili %iā (Eih Tan, ;ya rz/i winga? ãklč/v ?WWW “EM l: 'f:< ë/emuti mara-gd, In China, winter is very cold. After the cold winter is over, warm spring begins. When it's spring, a warm sun rises. Look at the kanji ä (spring). The bottom isthe B (sun). The top is a combination of three people. Three people means many people. r ~ Lz7>* r sam: , i , meaning reading y: ~r ? " i?? 25 es (Dam f 7/ i autumn @öă * 'äsiãšutvfc 4 * _ r Mnemonics l i? f i __l ;viti '. /' 3' f' i h J; t* i ' líë ã a m K ' U t ,f ` I I v ` '/ ear of rice ,jjãlTlix Egi: “wai aweze?: %au izun lãt “mbi a> rlšäăJ l:f1<ë/.0) rum awe a The "co %abi %ngumu %nne riāëei %içíëkăebt FUPLJ ubia Fm ii, F:: ëă (5E)J <`: "U (KM @äEüâbüTTo In China, they plant rice in the field. When it becomes autumn. since ears have turned into rice. they cut them down. Then, they burn the ear and it becomes ferti- lizer. The kanji %X IS a combination of ili (ear) and W (fIrel.
  60. 60. 0 24 24 Rules for Kanji #1» I: li'){'( i ' LWä meaning ësišiírt , r _ Mnemonics ; ___i` _ 'J' ' 'C --> i ` i ._.. . “ e - l " hand 1 T l hand " " i' : -A * * i : r-'- 3 When Chinese people meet their räālâc* t ötäJLíxci` ) g ?o 52%?:- S friends, they shake hands. Look at r .o r . r the kanji 241. 1' is the hand of a a) jíJ äpāT < L à U” T", mãāmâmšăcêhc R', 3 person on the left. 1 is the hand of . : .--. r - ~ ~ _ E a person on the right. The kanji 7í CIEUDAUD$TTQ :š-í-U) äJ (It x- ') L7;90)ã5 ā cowbmatlionk Ofäheāe “tvšo _ .A . : H. r g an s. you oo atte anii , măgāašbtí?” 'šānm z", %āncäí EPEIAG) rt 5 you can grasp the situation of 51515” 03; 2) -g-btb” i) i -g-o friends among Chinese people. ~ wa i .kant meaning reading uuãh »@#4~+aü elder brother @au __i mei.. 1 i wi) E! IV fFíiãlTiäít āfbíifāäTTg %0)%0)?Tli. răiZJ _ ” " `__ ` _____ __ In China, boys are great. Among h<JZTTo rãJt-J (is L`7DL`7D ā V i ?o r~në Li: 5 boys, the elder brother is greater. __ ` ; The elder brother says many things. ë&U'-n&LTHmw2ë%ų š?WrRJ%%T g pmmrDmwmmm"mmm Uëāu. .hii F:: (< tont. :igi: U» (UččiLM Lhfnkêíji.?áemaāiäiheiše2751133 _ ; is lb (legs). The elder brother is a ?To räăkJ i1~ rQEWWâJ ?To person with oniya mouth. 60
  61. 61. ..-sggrppųųçgųpų i ..,.,..~.a,..- .v . .ver-r ~.~Nu .am ..t ,.,-..n-..1 A.;.q...»..,<.«-- vvwcčTăfçv-pçqu* . - «. .. - v šeo<oäbt UA. Dk :m Chinese People Invented Kanji v-;'“Li7:i 'i 3135757: meaning reading .Sífz G) l* `/ pig @Sit “L .ãšlãăüfc 4 Mnemonics 'i i" íši i iā-i:<o>2h~r:šU-.4"”«/ wai-Aziz hunk of meat , pig ;ššm “ei ci F: in @teraz %in Täi (is mk L' rö šJ míñâTTo rBšJ ëāfc<ffäk`o šUD ršJ (It "35734 míâTTo EU) rñJ (i. Wi] (i: < )_i zāuvr,e@Aermtp<J#eãTv,ä$m AMS<UL 1' Tlāãi (it F.s=f:i:<J míiâTT, The kanji íã is the picture of a bird. The kanji ñ is the picture of a horse. Look at the kanji ñ, The right part is the picture of a pig. The left part ã is the same as W (meat). Chinese people like pork. The kanji K is the picture of pork. F-.. l ` ' *Wä vekawyr: J i* *'- , meaning i reading l 'i w« . S,.. _ _ ___ l! z' " A* 4 _ ä ,f i` l, 7 5 ' à- i IT' house @v ` L Z. - *P * Blãiüfc l/[jš: r ` Mnemonics . -' * ' --' roof / : : izgg/Mg/ti: h» People lived here íš$0 räi *ãrã'č<fíëu,, 31-20) “ii ii “etu fr/CU J; ?to 3:03 “zi i; Kwa Ta., ãmfgāTtix %m LtJ i: 'Xštti am: Lfzo “Vbrërôài i: TUčJ n< viuno Vuai ii. ;gu wat:: Ršzm izwi 2 L f:o Rsttiiñšă < fmizft %müszrzyââ/sã Lt., Look at the kanji 'āf (house). The top 'D is the roof. The bottom part ā IS the pig. In old China, pigs lived under the floor. People lived on the floor The people gave the leftovers to the pigs. When the pigs got bigger, the people ate them.
  62. 62. meaning w i i i i i i i ãälšăjft ñ Mnemonics ..à j: . tray” š 4 accessory `/ - iš 5 'li' ã ”*" : :- jewel / čöuô tā/J* FJLVCãZčJ 'GLJ Wa» *ET 5oäí< m "íEh”f:b*6ba>r<-Lr:o %nasema F: iăă-%ă TbãvTãltų -CL/jto %in 'ëi %arms @AU b Uaähü#0%â#ãET1oLmFiJtTmF+J 3 a: w: ::Ecāfáñ ilio) 'trang -c-a-o th?: e; ų üë'U accessory i [ja meaning i?? When |S the happiest time? In China, Jewelry was the most pre- cious thing. lf they received some, it was the happiest time. Look at the kanji i. The center part of the kanji IS the jewelry. The top :t and bottom :F are the same shape. This is the accessory of jewelry. k! äāiãiirf: Mnemonics ____ J” _ ,Th V* stream (fiood) v . , i , .`_o čôbötăb* FhöUTãZčJ 'GLJô/ro *iā snt< 'cut %mawe/r FčTbbëLVGăZčJ 'c-Lt., Căfh b' I: š?m FWJ %āT < ffãVo ili "J" Urbh čiāllš a: :ar: 'We :Eti 'w (UM -c-r. %ni iiäëáUUätUâTo rUJ tiwšizfxíiä-çų 62 v” ..xkg ` ;N ,w %a II I J: When is the worst time? |n China, flood and big fires were the worst times. Look at the kanji W. The top part is the same as ill (river). The bottom means W (fire). The river can turn into a flood. The fire can turn into a big fire.

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