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From institutions to governance, Part 1

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From institutions to governance, Part 1
Lecture: Victor Galaz

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From institutions to governance, Part 1

  1. 1. From Institutions to Governance
  2. 2. Why does this matter? Because governance is becoming increasingly complex, and provides more space for self-organization! Compare with Folke et al (2005)
  3. 3. Global changes in the political landscape Decentralization Public Private Partnerships Non-governmental organizations International agreements
  4. 4. Centralized decision-making Central policy-maker (e.g. environmental ministry) Regional or local state authorities Local natural resource users Decision-making Implementation and monitoring Behavioral response
  5. 5. Decision-making in complex governance systems Central policy-maker (e.g. environmental ministry) Regional or local state authorities Local natural resource users Decision-making, implementation, negotiations, partnerships Implementation, monitoring, negotiations, partnerships International norms, agreements Decentralization Non-state actors
  6. 6. Adaptive Management Adaptive Co-management Holling (1978): AM, iterated process in the face of uncertainty, experimentation, continuous evaluations Co-management! Adaptive, learning, sharing of decision-making btw stakeholders Fikret Berkes and colleagues
  7. 7. Adaptive Governance Extension of adaptive co-management: * not place bound * can include and explore, several place bound attempts of ACM at the same time * polycentric * higher levels of social organization, up to global * explorative framework!
  8. 8. Illustrations of adaptive governance no consensus!
  9. 9. Making Sense of Complexity in Governance All systems don’t look the same! Two approaches i) Governance typologies ii) Network typologies
  10. 10. Governance typology, example - Urban Governance Jon Pierre and Guy B. Peters Participants Objectives Instruments Outcomes .....
  11. 11. Urban Governance388 URBAN AFFAIRS REVIEW / January 1999 TABLE 1: Models of Urban Governance: Defining Characteristics Models of Urban Governance Defining Characteristics Managerial Corporatist Progrowth Welfare Policy objectives Efficiency Distribution Growth Redistribution Policy style Pragmatic Ideological Pragmatic Ideological Nature of political exchange Consensus Conflict Consensus Conflict Nature of public-private exchange Competitive Concerted Interactive Restrictive Local state-citizen relationship Exclusive Inclusive Exclusive Inclusive Primary contingency Professionals Civic leaders Business The state Key instruments Contracts Deliberations Partnerships Networks Pattern of subordination Positive Negative Positive Negative Key evaluative criterion Efficiency Participation Growth Equity From Pierre (1999), Urban Affairs Review
  12. 12. ii) Network typologies - polycentric systems Vincent Ostrom Polycentric systems - many centers of decision making that are formally independent of each other. “Many elements are capable of making mutual adjustments for ordering their relationships with one another within a general system of rules where each element acts with independence of other elements.”
  13. 13. ocean acidification climate change marine biodiversity
  14. 14. FAOICES World Bank IUCN UNEP WorldFish Centre UNESCO Global Forum on Oceans Coasts and Islands UN Ocean PacFaGPA-MarineICRI
  15. 15. FAO WB World Fish UNEP
  16. 16. Galaz et al. 2012, Ecological Economics
  17. 17. What do we want “adaptive governance” to achieve? “The Problem of Fit”