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Dr Amit Kumar
Assistant Professor
DGCN COVAS, Palampur
In order that changes in outline, position,
and opacity be appreciated, it is essential
that the radiologist be familiar w...
 Consequently, standard projections of each
part of the body are used. These usually
consist of two projections made at r...
 The committee recommended that
veterinary anatomic directional terms
should be those listed in the Nomina
Anatomica Vete...
The meanings to be ascribed to the different terms are
as follows:
 Dorsal: The upper aspect of the head, neck, trunk,
ta...
 Caudal: A directional term that describes parts of the head,
neck, and trunk positioned toward the tail from any given
p...
 The direction of the x-ray beam is described from its
point of entry into the body to its point of exit.
 For example, ...
 Standard projections are taken at right angles to one
another and usually are made in the routine
examination of a part ...
 Le Left
 Rt Right
 D Dorsal
 V Ventral
 LLR Left Lateral
Recumbent
 RLR Right Lateral
Recumbent
 M Medial
 L Late...
KVP: 60-64
MAS: 20-25 20 Kg
Dog
KVP: 60-64
MAS: 20-25
KVP: 60-64
MAS: 20-25
KVP: 50-55
MAS: 10-15
KVP: 50-55
MAS: 10-15
KVP: 50-55
MAS: 10-15
KVP: 55
MAS: 15-20
KVP: 55
MAS: 15-20
KVP: 55
MAS: 15-20
KVP: 55
MAS: 10-15
KVP: 65
MAS: 25-30
KVP: 70
MAS: 30
KVP: 65
MAS: 25-30
KVP: 70
MAS: 30
KVP: 65-70
MAS: 25-30
KVP: 70
MAS: 30
KVP: 70
MAS: 30
KVP: 70
MAS: 30
KVP: 50
MAS: 10
KVP: 65-70
MAS: 25-30
KVP: 65
MAS: 20
KVP: 55
MAS: 15-20
KVP: 55
MAS: 15-20
KVP: 55-58
MAS: 15-20
KVP: 55-58
MAS: 15-20
KVP: 55-58
MAS: 15-20
KVP: 55-58
MAS: 15-20
KVP: 55-58
MAS: 15-20
KVP: 55-58
MAS: 15-20
KVP: 55-58
MAS: 15-20
KVP: 50
MAS: 10-15
KVP: 60-65
MAS: 25-30
KVP: 60-65
MAS: 25-30
KVP: 70
MAS: 25-30
KVP: 58-62
MAS: 15
KVP: 58-62
MAS: 15
KVP: 58-62
MAS: 15
KVP: 55-60
MAS: 10-15
KVP: 55-60
MAS: 10-15
KVP: 55-60
MAS: 10-15
KVP: 55-60
MAS: 10-15
KVP: 55-60
MAS: 10-15
KVP: 55-60
MAS: 10-15
KVP: 55-60
MAS: 10-15
KVP: 55-55
MAS: 10-15
KVP: 55-60
MAS: 10-15
KVP: 60-65
MAS: 20-25
KVP: 65-70
MAS: 20-25
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
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Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog

  1. 1. Dr Amit Kumar Assistant Professor DGCN COVAS, Palampur
  2. 2. In order that changes in outline, position, and opacity be appreciated, it is essential that the radiologist be familiar with the radiologic appearance of normal structures that is, radiologic anatomy. If one is unfamiliar with the normal appearance, one cannot appreciate aberrations from it. Because almost any structure can be rotated through 360°, it would be virtually impossible to become familiar with all the possible projections that could be produced from any given organ.
  3. 3.  Consequently, standard projections of each part of the body are used. These usually consist of two projections made at right angles to one another so that a three dimensional impression is gained of the structure under study. Agreed terms are used to describe the standard projections.  The terminology used here is that suggested by the Nomenclature Committee of the American College of Veterinary Radiology.
  4. 4.  The committee recommended that veterinary anatomic directional terms should be those listed in the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria.  Radiographic projections are described by the direction in which the central ray of the primary beam penetrates the body part of interest-from the point of entrance to the point of exit.
  5. 5. The meanings to be ascribed to the different terms are as follows:  Dorsal: The upper aspect of the head, neck, trunk, tail, and cranial (anterior) aspects of the limbs from the antebrachiocarpal (radiocarpal) and tarsocrural articulations distally (downward). Dorsal also means toward the back or vertebrae.  Ventral: The lower aspect of the head, neck, trunk, and tail. Ventral also means toward the lower aspect of the animal.  Cranial: A directional term that describes parts of the neck, trunk, and tail positioned toward the head from any given point. Cranial also describes those aspects of the limb above the antebrachiocarpal and tarsocrural joints that face toward the head.  Rostral. Describes parts of the head positioned toward the nares from any given point on the head.
  6. 6.  Caudal: A directional term that describes parts of the head, neck, and trunk positioned toward the tail from any given point. Caudal also describes those aspects of the limbs above the antebrachiocarpal and tarsocrural articulations that face toward the tail.  Palmar: This term is used instead of caudal when describing the forelimb from the antebrachiocarpal articulation distally.  Plantar: This term is used instead of caudal when describing the hindlimb from the tarsocrural articulation distally.  Proximal: Describes nearness to the point of origin of a structure.  Distal: Describes remoteness (farther away) from the point of origin of a structure.  Superior and Inferior: These terms are used to describe the upper and lower dental arcades.  Recumbent: The animal is lying down when the radiograph is made. Most radiographs of the dog and cat are made with the animal in the recumbent position, and this position should be presumed unless the contrary is stated. The term decubitus is used when a horizontal beam is employed.
  7. 7.  The direction of the x-ray beam is described from its point of entry into the body to its point of exit.  For example, a right-left lateral recumbent projection means that the animal is lying on its left side, and the x-ray beam enters the body through the right side and exits through the left side.  A ventrodorsal (VD) projection means that the x-ray beam enters the body ventrally and exits dorsally to reach the film. A dorsoventral (DV) projection indicates the opposite.  Mediolateral means the x-ray beam enters a limb from the medial side and exits on the lateral side. Most so- called lateral radiographs of the limbs are taken in a mediolateral direction. In a lateromedial projection, the x-ray beam enters a limb from the lateral side and exits on the medial side.  Appropriate safety measures should be adopted irrespective of beam direction, and special care is needed when horizontal beams are in use.
  8. 8.  Standard projections are taken at right angles to one another and usually are made in the routine examination of a part of the body. The most common are the dorsoventral, ventrodorsal, lateral, mediolateral, craniocaudal, dorsopalmar, and dorsoplantar. An oblique projection is made at an angle, somewhere between the standard projections. In the case of oblique projections, in addition to stating the anatomic points of entry and exit of the x-ray beam, the angle of obliquity may be given. This information enables studies to be repeated with accuracy. Thus, L50D-RVO is read as left 50° dorsal- right ventral oblique. It means that an oblique study was made with the beam entering the body on the left side dorsally at an angle of 50° toward the back and exiting on the right side ventrally.  Lesion-orientated studies are sometimes employed using tangential (skyline) or nonstandard projections. A lesion-orientated oblique projection is one that profiles a lesion.
  9. 9.  Le Left  Rt Right  D Dorsal  V Ventral  LLR Left Lateral Recumbent  RLR Right Lateral Recumbent  M Medial  L Lateral  Cr Cranial  Cd Caudal  Pr Proximal  Di Distal  R Rostral  Pa Palmar  PI Plantar  0 Oblique
  10. 10. KVP: 60-64 MAS: 20-25 20 Kg Dog
  11. 11. KVP: 60-64 MAS: 20-25
  12. 12. KVP: 60-64 MAS: 20-25
  13. 13. KVP: 50-55 MAS: 10-15
  14. 14. KVP: 50-55 MAS: 10-15
  15. 15. KVP: 50-55 MAS: 10-15
  16. 16. KVP: 55 MAS: 15-20
  17. 17. KVP: 55 MAS: 15-20
  18. 18. KVP: 55 MAS: 15-20
  19. 19. KVP: 55 MAS: 10-15
  20. 20. KVP: 65 MAS: 25-30
  21. 21. KVP: 70 MAS: 30
  22. 22. KVP: 65 MAS: 25-30
  23. 23. KVP: 70 MAS: 30
  24. 24. KVP: 65-70 MAS: 25-30
  25. 25. KVP: 70 MAS: 30
  26. 26. KVP: 70 MAS: 30
  27. 27. KVP: 70 MAS: 30
  28. 28. KVP: 50 MAS: 10
  29. 29. KVP: 65-70 MAS: 25-30
  30. 30. KVP: 65 MAS: 20
  31. 31. KVP: 55 MAS: 15-20
  32. 32. KVP: 55 MAS: 15-20
  33. 33. KVP: 55-58 MAS: 15-20
  34. 34. KVP: 55-58 MAS: 15-20
  35. 35. KVP: 55-58 MAS: 15-20
  36. 36. KVP: 55-58 MAS: 15-20
  37. 37. KVP: 55-58 MAS: 15-20
  38. 38. KVP: 55-58 MAS: 15-20
  39. 39. KVP: 55-58 MAS: 15-20
  40. 40. KVP: 50 MAS: 10-15
  41. 41. KVP: 60-65 MAS: 25-30
  42. 42. KVP: 60-65 MAS: 25-30
  43. 43. KVP: 70 MAS: 25-30
  44. 44. KVP: 58-62 MAS: 15
  45. 45. KVP: 58-62 MAS: 15
  46. 46. KVP: 58-62 MAS: 15
  47. 47. KVP: 55-60 MAS: 10-15
  48. 48. KVP: 55-60 MAS: 10-15
  49. 49. KVP: 55-60 MAS: 10-15
  50. 50. KVP: 55-60 MAS: 10-15
  51. 51. KVP: 55-60 MAS: 10-15
  52. 52. KVP: 55-60 MAS: 10-15
  53. 53. KVP: 55-60 MAS: 10-15
  54. 54. KVP: 55-55 MAS: 10-15
  55. 55. KVP: 55-60 MAS: 10-15
  56. 56. KVP: 60-65 MAS: 20-25
  57. 57. KVP: 65-70 MAS: 20-25

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