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Critical thinking

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Critical thinking is a intellectually disciplined process of actively and skilfully conceptualising, applying, synthesising and evaluating information gathered by observation, experience, reasoning or communication as a guide to belief and action.

Veröffentlicht in: Business
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Critical thinking

  1. 1. CRITICAL THINKING GREGOR HORVAT
  2. 2. agenda Introduction Belief preservation Argumentation Socratic questioning Thinking hats Wrap up GREGOR HORVAT CRITICAL THINKING
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION
  4. 4. EVALUATION SYNTHESIS ANALYSIS APPLICATION UNDERSTANDING KNOWLEDGE Bloom’s taxonomy of learning levels GREGOR HORVAT CRITICAL THINKING
  5. 5. introduction Critical thinking is a type of reflective thinking that is aimed at deciding what to believe or what to do What is critical thinking? Why should I practice it? Where can I use critical thinking? Who is a critical thinker? GREGOR HORVAT CRITICAL THINKING
  6. 6. Critical thinking is a complex activity built up out of other skills which are simpler and easier to acquire.
  7. 7. Critical thinking is thinking that aims at well-founded judgement and utilises appropriate standards in the attempt to determine the true worth of something Critical thinking is not negative, destructive or criticising thinking and it is not opposed to creative thinking The ability to think critically involves three things: An attitude of being disposed to consider in a thoughtful way the problems and subjects Knowledge of the methods of logical inquiry and reasoning Some skills in applying those methods GREGOR HORVAT CRITICAL THINKING Critical thinking is the ability to think clearly and rationally
  8. 8. overview
  9. 9. Memorise the solution to a problem and you will master that particular problem. Improve your critical thinking and you will give yourself tools to create solutions to multitude of problems.
  10. 10. Why should I practice critical thinking Critical thinking is very important in the new knowledge economy We can minimise influence of culture and upbringing, and be guided by knowledge and evidence that fits with reality Good thinking skills are essential for making appropriate decisions about what to believe and what to do Critical thinking promotes creativity and presentation skills. It is crucial for self-reflection and represent the foundations of democratic society GREGOR HORVAT CRITICAL THINKING
  11. 11. Critical thinker raises vital questions and problems, and formulates them clearly and precisely Critical thinker gathers and assesses relevant information and uses abstract ideas to interpret it effectively Critical thinker comes to well-reasoned conclusions and solutions Critical thinker thinks open-mindedly within alternative systems of thought Critical thinker communicates effectively with other GREGOR HORVAT CRITICAL THINKING Who is a critical thinker
  12. 12. The mind has tendencies to illusion, distortion and error Much of our thinking is biased, distorted, partial and uninformed The problem with critical thinking GREGOR HORVAT CRITICAL THINKING
  13. 13. Belief preservation Arguments Socratic questioning Thinking hats Techniques for improving critical thinking GREGOR HORVAT CRITICAL THINKING
  14. 14. BELIEF PRESERVATION
  15. 15. When we strongly believe something then we tend to do the following We seek out evidence which supports what we believe, and avoid or ignore evidence that goes against it We rate evidence as good or bad, depending whether it supports our belief or not We stick with our belief even in the face of overwhelming contrary evidence Critical thinker need to be aware of cognitive biases and blind spots Belief preservation GREGOR HORVAT CRITICAL THINKING
  16. 16. Critical thinker must try to avoid blind spots You need to be aware of the preservation phenomenon Counter belief preservation by exploring the evidence against your belief GREGOR HORVAT CRITICAL THINKING
  17. 17. ARGUMENTATION
  18. 18. What is an argument GREGOR HORVAT CRITICAL THINKING A core part of critical thinking is dealing with arguments An argument is a connected series of statements intended to establish a definite conclusion Arguments express a body of evidence in relation to some conclusion Elements of arguments The conclusion is the claim you try to establish The premises are offered as reasons or evidence in support of the conclusion There needs to be a logical connection between them
  19. 19. The scientists determined that the waves could not be coming from natural forces because those would follow a schedule of the tides. Instead, it must be human activity. It's something we're doing because it's following our schedule. Example of a argument GREGOR HORVAT CRITICAL THINKING
  20. 20. The scientists determined that the waves could not be coming from natural forces because those would follow a schedule of the tides. Instead, it must be human activity, said Dr. Michael S. Bruno. "It's something we're doing because it's following our schedule.” The waves are caused by human activity The waves are caused by natural forces or by human activity The waves could not be caused by natural forces The waves follow a human schedule Waves caused by natural forces would follow a schedule of the tides Example of a argument
  21. 21. SOCRATIC QUESTIONING Socratic Questioning provides unique opportunities for critical thinking and reflection
  22. 22. Questions define tasks, express problems and delineate issues Deep questions drive our thought underneath the surface of things, force us to deal with complexity The art of Socratic questioning is important for the critical thinker because the art of questioning is important to excellence of thought Thinking is driven by questions GREGOR HORVAT CRITICAL THINKING
  23. 23. Clarification Why do you say that? How does this relate to our discussion? Assumptions What could we assume instead? How can you verify or disapprove that assumption? Reasons and evidence What would be an example? Viewpoints and perspectives What would be an alternative? What is another way to look at it? What are the strengths and weaknesses? Implications and consequences What generalisations can you make? What are the consequences of that assumption? What are you implying? Question What was the point of this question? Why do you think I asked this question?
  24. 24. SIX THINKING HATS
  25. 25. Six thinking hats is a simple, effective thinking process that helps people be more productive, focused, and mindfully involved You can learn how to separate thinking into six clear functions and roles. Each thinking role is identified with a coloured symbolic thinking hat Part of critical thinking is to understand that there are different ways of thinking Edward de Bono GREGOR HORVAT CRITICAL THINKING
  26. 26. The white hat Only information and facts The white hat calls for known or needed Neutral and objective The red hat Feelings and intuition, you can express emotions and share fears, likes and dislikes The black hat Logic and judgement Spot the difficulties and danger, where things may go wrong The yellow hat Symbolises brightness and optimism Under this hat you explore the positives The green hat Focus on creativity, possibilities, alternatives and new ideas What are the consequences of that assumption? The blue hat It is used to manage the thinking process
  27. 27. CRITICAL THINKING SUMMARY
  28. 28. Critical thinking is the ability to think clearly and rationally It helps you figure out whether you should believe to a claim and how strongly you should believe it GREGOR HORVAT CRITICAL THINKING
  29. 29. Belief preservation Arguments Socratic questioning Thinking hats Techniques for improving critical thinking GREGOR HORVAT CRITICAL THINKING

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