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My BU New Media Fall 2015 Class Slides - 1st Half

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Slide deck for the first half of my #bunewmedia class, focusing on 7 social media frameworks of study.

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My BU New Media Fall 2015 Class Slides - 1st Half

  1. 1. CM443 B1 Fall 2015 New Media and Public Relations Explores the effects of new media on the fundamental theories, models, and practices of public relations. Studies how websites, blogs, citizen journalism, social media, direct-to-consumer communication, podcasting, viral marketing, and other technology-enabled changes are affecting interpersonal, small group, and mass media relationships. Also covers and uses the interactive tools that are re-defining the practice of public relations. The course combines lecture, discussion, guest speakers, case study, and research to help students uncover and appreciate the power and potential of interactive media.
  2. 2. Who am I? Who are you? It was either this, crisis communications, or
  3. 3. “To be honest” Used under Creative Commons licensing. http://www.flickr.com/photos/phoenixreguy/4809292076/ Pet Peeve #1
  4. 4. “Who gives a ____ about an Oxford comma?” Pet Peeve #2
  5. 5. Writing Feedback 1. You are writing for business, not academic! AP Stylebook is our textbook. 2. Proof it! Read it aloud before you print and submit it. 3. Prove it! Back up any bold claims with data or citations. "People say?" Which people? 4. Structure your work! Use section headers and typographic techniques to organize your thoughts. 5. Remember the Rule of Three: 1. Tell 'em what you're gonna tell 'em 2. Tell 'em 3. Tell 'em what you told 'em 6. Less is more (to a certain point)! "I would have written a shorter letter, but I did not have the time." – Attributed to Blaise Pascal (and many others) I delete a lot of uses of "to be" and "to have" -- is and has are weak words, and often (though not always) passive. 7. That said, beware of pronouns. What is it? Who are they? If there's any chance of confusion, use the noun, not the pronoun. 8. Agreement is imperative: 1. Tenses 2. Plurality 3. Subject/object/pronoun 4. Parallel construction of sentences and vertical lists 5. Grammatical person / narrative mode 9. Periods vs commas vs semicolons vs dashes 10. Companies are singular 11. Data and media are plural Pet Peeve #3: Crappy Writing
  6. 6. COURSE OVERVIEW CM443 B1 Fall 2015 – Week 1 Pet Peeve #4: Tweet, take notes – that’s fine. But pay attention. Your time, your dime… http://www.gocomics.com/frogapplause/2012/01/16/
  7. 7. Grades Component Points Participation 15 Homework 20 Project 25 Midterm Exam 20 Final Exam 20 Score Grade 93-100 A 90-92 A- 87-89 B+ 83-86 B 80-82 B- 77-79 C+ 73-76 C 70-72 C- 67-69 D+ 63-66 D 60-62 D- Below 60 F
  8. 8. First Steps • Be on Blackboard • Have or create a public Twitter account and share that account with the class • Have a Klout account and a Klout score and connect that to your public Twitter account: http://klout.com/ • Sign up for an RSS reader/aggregator. With Google Reader now gone, I recommend Feedly: http://cloud.feedly.com/ • Subscribe to the BU New Media RSS Feed one of the two following ways (I recommend both, just to hedge your bets): – Real-time RSS feed: http://feeds.feedburner.com/bunewmedia – Daily email alert: http://bit.ly/bunewmediasubscribe • Get comfortable in WordPress: – http://codex.wordpress.org/Introduction_to_Blogging – http://bit.ly/10zbBnh • Learn a little about Google Analytics: http://www.google.com/analytics/iq.html
  9. 9. Participation & Homework • Participation (15 points) – 7: Knowledge of readings and participation in class – 8: Interaction online via #bunewmedia hashtag (curved) averaged with the change in your Klout score (kurved) • Homework – 5 or 6 Homework assignments will be given out, each worth 20 points – Can be re-submitted for up to two additional points (not to exceed 20) – Will be averaged and rounded to generate point score – Grading is explained in each assignment
  10. 10. #bunewmedia • Read articles sent around, especially those by me and Professor Quigley, but also by classmates • Suggest your own readings / listenings • Reply to or retweet thoughts that resonate or otherwise impact you (from both classes)
  11. 11. Required Reading • Required: Subscribe to and read daily alerts: – RSS: http://feeds.feedburner.com/bunewmedia – Email: http://bit.ly/bunewmediasubscribe • Required: Read the “Reading Assignment” emails/board and be prepared to speak in class! • Required: Share links, content and thoughts using the #bunewmedia hashtag • No textbooks, but… • AP Stylebook highly recommended – your writing will be judged against it • Social Media Marketing by Dave Evans is also top on the recommended reading list
  12. 12. Course Schedule
  13. 13. Course Schedule
  14. 14. Course Project • Create an “online presence” • Preliminary Project plan due 9/16 • Mid-Semester Check in due 10/21 • Final project due 12/9
  15. 15. FRAMEWORK DISCUSSION CM443 B1 Fall 2015 – Week 1
  16. 16. Homework #1 In Week 2 of our class, we will begin exploring in depth ways of understanding new media from a number of different perspectives, or frameworks. Those frameworks include: • Historical: How new media has evolved from old media • Organizational: How companies traditionally organize communication efforts • Philosophical: The founding principles of social media • Procedural: The process of how organizations can become social • Technological: The kinds and categories of social media tools • Functional: The key tactics and functions of new media • Analytical: Ways to justify your existence and measure your effectiveness
  17. 17. Homework #1 • Select from among the list above your top three choices for frameworks you would like to research further. Send an email to vanhoose@bu.edu or a tweet to @vanhoosear by the end of day on Thursday, September 3rd, with your rank- ordered list of top-three preferred framework topics. For example: – Technological – Analytical – Functional
  18. 18. Homework #1 • I will review your preferences in light of other students and choose for you one topic. I will post the list of framework assignments by Noon on Friday, September 4th. I’ll do my best to give you your first preference, but if everybody avoids a particular topic I’ll have to assign it to someone. It’s not personal…
  19. 19. WORDPRESS 101 CM443 B1 Fall 2015 – Week 1
  20. 20. TWITTER 101 CM443 B1 Fall 2015 – Week 1
  21. 21. HISTORICAL FRAMEWORK CM443 B1 Spring 2015 – Week 2
  22. 22. Todd’s 6 Eras of Communication 1. Illustration* 1. Spoken Word 2. Written Word 3. Printed Word 4. Mass Media 5. Social Media http://www.flickr.com/photos/37644376@N00/34021850 / http://www.flickr.com/photos/darwinbell/155183682/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/burwash_calligrapher/647 8042809/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/queen_of_subtle/4462520 710/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/videocrab/116136642/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/aslanmedia_official/6292 167103/ Used under Creative Commons licensing. * Added by Kylie Keegan
  23. 23. Tomi Ahonen’s Seven* Mass Media 1. Print 2. Recordings 3. Film 4. Radio 5. Television 6. Internet 7. Mobile* http://www.tomiahonen.com/ * Recently he’s talked about an eighth form of mass media: augmented reality. http://www.flickr.com/photos/tncountryfan/6176358339/
  24. 24. History of Marketing A History of Advertising by Henry Sampson • Greece: Politics, with a little commerce: Town crier, known to announce sales • Rome: • Wine, with a little commerce • Already jaded: “Vino vendibili suspensa hedera non opus est” – “Good wine needs no bush” • Acta Diurna (Rome, c151BC) – Daily Roman Gazette (Stone / Metal) • Libelli: Bills announcing estate sales, baths, lost & found, etc. • London: The rise of the “billsticker” and the “bellman”
  25. 25. History of Marketing http://blog.hubspot.com/blog/tabid/6307/bid/31278/The-History-of-Marketing-An-Exhaustive-Timeline-INFOGRAPHIC.aspx A History of Advertising by Henry Sampson • The First Newspapers: • Kaiyuan Za Bao (Beijing, 713-734) – Handwritten Tang Dynasty “Bulletin of the Court” • Notizie Scritte (Venice, 1556) – Cost one gazetta, leading to the name • Strasbourg Relation (Germany, 1605) – First modern newspaper • The First Advertisement: The honor probably goes to France’s Journal Général d’Affiches, or Petites Affiches, first published in 1612
  26. 26. History of Marketing http://blog.hubspot.com/blog/tabid/6307/bid/31278/The-History-of-Marketing-An-Exhaustive-Timeline-INFOGRAPHIC.aspx
  27. 27. History of Marketing http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mail_order http://www.chiefmarketer.com/direct-marketing/introduction-myths-of-direct-marketing-history-01102008 http://wayback.archive.org/web/20081211102142/http://directmag.com/history/birth-telemarketing/ • 1744: Benjamin Franklin sells scientific and academic books by mail, offers first guarantee • 1872: Montgomery Ward launches first catalog • 1893: T.B. Russell writes article in Printer’s Ink magazine titled “With English Advertisers” with perhaps the first mention of “direct mail” • 1903: Preview of telemarketing when the Multi-Mailing Co. of New York used telephone directories as a source for (postal) mailing lists • 1905: Homer Buckley builds first direct mail advertising business
  28. 28. History of Marketing http://wayback.archive.org/web/20090108145433/http://directmag.com/history/1121-direct-mail-ww1/ http://www.prwatch.org/prwissues/1996Q4/ewen.html http://www.economist.com/node/17722733 • Early 20th Century: L.L. Bean & Sears take off • 1906: Ivy Lee issues the first press release • WWI: Big transition from door-to-door to direct mail • 1916-1935: Eddie Bernays writes Propaganda, The Engineering of Consent and Crystallizing Public Opinion (later used by Goebbels in Nazi Germany)
  29. 29. Ivy Lee’s “Blindingly Obvious” Idea • Public opinion can be a very dangerous thing, but Lee realized early on that it can be manipulated as well • Started as a reporter, then a publicist before opening his own shop and taking on a long- boiling anthracite coal strike • Lee hit upon an idea: Send news desks a (daily) stream of statements and facts about the strike • While well received at first, some members of the press complained that they were just well- disguised (and free) ads • As a result, he issued his “Declaration of Principles” http://pr.wikia.com/wiki/Ivy_Lee
  30. 30. Ivy Lee’s “Declaration of Principles” • This is not a secret press bureau. All our work is done in the open. We aim to supply news. • This is not an advertising agency; if you think any of our matter ought properly to go to your business office, do not use it. • Our matter is accurate. Further details on any subject treated will be supplied promptly, and any editor will be assisted most cheerfully in verifying directly any statement of fact. • Upon inquiry, full information will be given to any editor concerning those on whose behalf an article is sent out. • In brief, our plan is, frankly and openly, on behalf of business concerns and public institutions, to supply to the press and public of the United States prompt and accurate information concerning subjects which it is of value and interest to the public to know about. • Corporations and public institutions give out much information in which the news point is lost to view. Nevertheless, it is quite as important to the public to have this news as it is to the establishments themselves to give it currency. • I send out only matter every detail of which I am willing to assist any editor in verifying for himself. • I am always at your service for the purpose of enabling you to obtain more complete information concerning any of the subjects brought forward in my copy. Bullets are mine. Compare these with the Cluetrain Manifesto, written 93 years later. How modern is this thinking?
  31. 31. The First Press Release: 1906 • Just a month after issuing his declaration, there was a terrible rail accident that killed 53 people • Lee was retained to get the word out on behalf of his client, the Pennsylvania Railroad Company • He issued a “press release” • His words made it into The New York Times verbatim! • His next big client was John D. Rockefeller! http://www.economist.com/node/17722733
  32. 32. From Principled to “Poison Ivy” • Lee’s support of Rockefeller led him to be criticized by many on the left, including “Mother” Jones, the liberal magazine’s namesake • By 1915, despite attempts to remain behind the curtains, Lee was outed as a highly-paid consultant ($1,000/mo in 1914!) • By 1919, Upton Sinclair, author of The Jungle, had him in his sights and had labeled him “Poison Ivy.” In 1914, Lee made $1,000 less a year than my very first job offer in 1992! http://www.motherjones.com/about/what-mother-jones/our-history http://lamar.colostate.edu/~pr/ivylee.pdf
  33. 33. Enter Eddie Bernays • Nephew of Sigmund Freud, who shaped his world view: Humans are easily swayed by irrational thought and “herd mentality,” making mani- pulation a necessary tool • Served on WWI Committee on Public Information • Saw value of controlling info • Wrote Propaganda, The Engineering of Consent and Crystallizing Public Opinion (later used by Goebbels in Nazi Germany) http://www.prwatch.org/prwissues/1996Q4/ewen.html http://www.economist.com/node/17722733
  34. 34. PR’s Flawed Roots • Dig deep into the technology, culture and mindset of this dangerous combination: – Freudian psychology – The influence of mass media and the one-to-many broadcast model that prevailed for most of the 20th Century. • PR is deeply flawed because of this… • But we’ll wait to the “Organization Framework” to talk about it… http://www.flickr.com/photos/makasu/397792717/
  35. 35. Moving On: Radio, Phones, TV http://blog.hubspot.com/blog/tabid/6307/bid/31278/The-History-of-Marketing-An-Exhaustive-Timeline-INFOGRAPHIC.aspx
  36. 36. The Rise of TV http://blog.hubspot.com/blog/tabid/6307/bid/31278/The-History-of-Marketing-An-Exhaustive-Timeline-INFOGRAPHIC.aspx
  37. 37. Sputnik and Social Media There was a sudden crisis of confidence in American technology, values, politics, and the military. Science, technology, and engineering were totally reworked and massively funded in the shadow of Sputnik. The Russian satellite essentially forced the United States to place a new national priority on research science, which led to the development of microelectronics—the technology used in today's laptop, personal, and handheld computers. Many essential technologies of modern life, including the Internet, owe their early development to the accelerated pace of applied research triggered by Sputnik. “ ”http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/space/sputnik-impact-on-america.html
  38. 38. History of the Internet http://www.internetsociety.org/internet/what-internet/history-internet/brief-history-internet http://blog.ibefound.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/timeline-history-of-the-internet.png
  39. 39. The Rise of PCs, Dawn of Mobile http://blog.hubspot.com/blog/tabid/6307/bid/31278/The-History-of-Marketing-An-Exhaustive-Timeline-INFOGRAPHIC.aspx
  40. 40. History of Marketing http://blog.hubspot.com/blog/tabid/6307/bid/31278/The-History-of-Marketing-An-Exhaustive-Timeline-INFOGRAPHIC.aspx
  41. 41. History of Marketing http://blog.hubspot.com/blog/tabid/6307/bid/31278/The-History-of-Marketing-An-Exhaustive-Timeline-INFOGRAPHIC.aspx
  42. 42. History of Marketing http://blog.hubspot.com/blog/tabid/6307/bid/31278/The-History-of-Marketing-An-Exhaustive-Timeline-INFOGRAPHIC.aspx
  43. 43. History of Marketing http://blog.hubspot.com/blog/tabid/6307/bid/31278/The-History-of-Marketing-An-Exhaustive-Timeline-INFOGRAPHIC.aspx
  44. 44. History of Marketing http://blog.hubspot.com/blog/tabid/6307/bid/31278/The-History-of-Marketing-An-Exhaustive-Timeline-INFOGRAPHIC.aspx
  45. 45. History of Marketing http://blog.hubspot.com/blog/tabid/6307/bid/31278/The-History-of-Marketing-An-Exhaustive-Timeline-INFOGRAPHIC.aspx
  46. 46. History of Marketing http://blog.hubspot.com/blog/tabid/6307/bid/31278/The-History-of-Marketing-An-Exhaustive-Timeline-INFOGRAPHIC.aspx
  47. 47. History of Marketing http://blog.hubspot.com/blog/tabid/6307/bid/31278/The-History-of-Marketing-An-Exhaustive-Timeline-INFOGRAPHIC.aspx
  48. 48. History of Marketing http://blog.hubspot.com/blog/tabid/6307/bid/31278/The-History-of-Marketing-An-Exhaustive-Timeline-INFOGRAPHIC.aspx
  49. 49. Steve Case’s History of the Internet 1. Research (1970s) 2. Pioneering (80s to Early 90s) 3. Growth (Mid-90s) 4. Hype (Late 90s) 5. Despair (Early 2000s) 6. Recovery (Mid-2000s) 7. Boom (Late 2000s – Early 2010s) 8. Rinse, Repeat http://articles.businessinsider.com/2011-01-14/tech/30099341_1_market-value-interactive-services-phase
  50. 50. Class Project: Preliminary Plan Due September 16th, comprised of the following: • Theme and/or Title • Desired URL: (e.g., bunewmedia.net/mygreatblog) • Primary Objective, for instance: – Get a job (this choice is harder than it looks) – Share my passion – Raise awareness about an issue – Sell a product or piece of content (real products only please) – Capture information from individuals for networking or other future use • Key Performance Indicators (2-3 measurements of success), e.g. – Traffic – Comments – Downloads – Sales – Share of Voice • Target Community – Who are you trying to connect with and why? • Search Strategy – How will you make the site search optimized? A good resource to help feed this section: http://www.searchengineguide.com/stoney- degeyter/seo-101-everything-you-need-to- know-abou.php • “Voice” – Describe the writing or content style you anticipate using. What is the intended tone or of your presence? How will the look and “style” of your presence support your voice? Be specific and detailed.
  51. 51. THE ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK CM443 B1 Fall 2015 – Weeks 2-3
  52. 52. The Three Os of Measurement 1. Outputs – Results of publicity efforts 2. Outtakes – How people think as a result of these outputs 3. Outcomes – How their behavior changes as a result of these outtakes Katie Paine, via “Secrets of Social Media Marketing” Chapter 15
  53. 53. What’s Missing? • Katie Paine’s Three Os describe most, but not all, of the metrics we should be tracking • They represent the part of the marketing / PR process over which you have the most control
  54. 54. The Two Is • Missing are the two important factors that you have the least control over – Inputs are the “raw materials,” resources and tools that you have been given to accomplish your task – Impact is the positive economic or life change brought about as a result of the outcomes
  55. 55. Inputs
  56. 56. Outputs
  57. 57. Ad Value Equivalency • The calculation of space or time used for earned media (publicity or news content) by comparing it to the cost of that same space or time if purchased as advertising http://www.crttbuzzbin.com/2013/01/09/pr-strategists-need-to-kill-ad-value-equivalency-ave-and-get-serious-about-bottom-line-results/
  58. 58. The Problems with AVE 1. AVEs do not measure outcomes 2. AVEs reduce public relations to media relations 3. AVEs treat advertising and PR as cost alternatives, flying in the face of integrated measurement 4. AVEs provide no diagnostic value – they don’t tell you what’s working 5. AVEs do not take into consideration credibility, and ignore social media 6. AVEs are commonly used in conjunction with multipliers (i.e., “this article is worth 2x its AVE because it has editorial credibility”), but no research supports this http://metricsman.wordpress.com/2011/04/16/aves-are-a-disease-%E2%80%93-here%E2%80%99s-a-little-vaccine/ http://www.instituteforpr.org/wp-content/uploads/Dispelling_Myth_of_PR_Multiplier.pdf
  59. 59. Alternatives to AVE 1. gAVE (Google AVE = CPC x search volume) 2. Reach/OTS/Frequen cy 3. ROE: Return on Engagement? 4. AMEC’s response: A grid of alternatives http://www.prweek.com/uk/news/903837/AVE-debate-Measuring-value-PR/ http://www.catherinelane.com/ave-is-a-dying-breed-but-what%E2%80%99s-the-alternative/ http://www.slideshare.net/garydpreston/g-ave-slide-share http://www.chalkablog.com/2014/07/10-top- tools-for-measuring-pr.html
  60. 60. Alternatives to AVE: AMEC http://amecorg.com/downloads/resource/ValidMetricsFramework7June2011PrintVersion.pdf
  61. 61. The NEW Barcelona Principles1. Goal setting and measurement are fundamental to communication and public relations 2. Measuring communication outputs is great, but also measuring outcomes is even more important 3. The effect of communication efforts on organizational performance can and should be measured 4. Measurement and evaluation require both qualitative and quantitative methods 5. AVEs are not the value of communications 6. Social media can and should be measured consistently with other media channels 7. Measurement and evaluation should be transparent, consistent and valid http://amecorg.com/how-the-barcelona-principles-have-been-updated/
  62. 62. Outtakes
  63. 63. Net Promoter Score http://www.netpromoter.com/np/calculate.jsp http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Net_Promoter
  64. 64. Outcomes
  65. 65. Impact • ROI is just 1 metric • It may not even be the most important metric! • It’s the best measurement of impact we have though
  66. 66. What Does ROI Measure?
  67. 67. Remember, Nothing is …
  68. 68. The Tangibles of ROI (Gain from Investment – Cost of Investment) Cost of Investment ROI (%) =  Gain: Total revenue generated that can be attributed to the program / campaign (If the program or campaign is not aimed at revenue generation, you can substitute “cost savings”)  Cost: Total cost of program / campaign, including:  Staff time, calculated by FTE %age of salary or hourly rates  Hard costs
  69. 69. The Intangibles of ROI • Attribution can be difficult to determine http://gillin.com/blog/2010/06/how-to-calculate-social-marketing-roi/
  70. 70. Calculating Value – Not Just $$ http://gillin.com/blog/2010/06/how-to-calculate-social-marketing-roi/
  71. 71. Seven Steps of Building a Measurement Program 1. Identify the community – Who do you have relationships with? – Who do you want relationships with? – Who are you reaching with this program 2. Define objectives for each community – At a high level, what are you trying to achieve? 3. Define measurement criteria – Create specific goals, or “conversion goals”, measured by real performance numbers, percentage growth, share of revenue/voice, etc. – You must be able to tie these to your high-level objectives 4. Define your benchmark – Where are you starting from? Baseline metrics are critical! 5. Select a measurement tool – Both traditional and new media 6. Analyze, create action items & recommendations – Focus on what you can change 7. Make changes and measure again “Secrets of Social Media Marketing” Chapter 15
  72. 72. Examples of High-Level Objectives • Learn something about customers we’ve never known before • Tell our story to customers and have them share it • Have more comments than posts • Get our customers to help each other • Create a new revenue channel • Improve our reputation online Jeremiah Owyang, via “Secrets of Social Media Marketing” Chapter 15
  73. 73. Sample Basic Metrics • Get on page one of SERPs for key industry term • Grow RSS or email subscriptions by 100% • Have an average of 3 comments per post • Increase the number of Facebook users “talking about” our page by 75 • Grow inbound links by 50 • Have at least two blog and media mentions per week • Grow our Alexa ranking by 500 places by n date • Improve the sentiment so there are more positive mentions than negative ones • Grow web traffic by 200% • Grow downloads or sales by 50% over next four months “Secrets of Social Media Marketing” Chapter 15
  74. 74. Where Measurement Starts pecific easurable ttainable esults-Oriented ime Bound Slide courtesy of Kami Huyse of Zoetica (@kamichat)
  75. 75. What is a Conversion? • A conversion is a measurable event that indicates movement through the sales and marketing process (funnel) • Possible examples of conversions: – Follow / friend / fan a social profile – Like / +1 / favorite a post – Share / re-tweet content – Sign up for mailing list – Open email – Click-through to website – Ask for more information on offering – Purchase – Repurchase – Advocacy / evangelism http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conversion_rate
  76. 76. The Best Social Media Metrics* 1. Conversation Index – Ratio of posts to comments or replies 2. Amplification Rate – How many people share each post/update/tweet/etc. 3. Applause Rate – How many people “like,” “+1” or “favorite” each piece of content 4. Economic Value – Sum of short- and long- term revenue and cost savings http://www.kaushik.net/avinash/best-social-media-metrics-conversation-amplification-applause-economic-value/
  77. 77. Paul’s Favorite Metrics • Page Views – Simple but easy, as long as you understand difference between views (or visits) and visitors • Returning Visitors – How sticky is your site? Over time this becomes more important • Pages Per Visit – Keep it trending upward; it’s another measurement of stickiness • RSS Subscriptions – How many people read your blog on a regular basis (in theory) • Referring Sites – Who’s sending you the most traffic, to where, and why? • SERP – Where do you rank? • Search Terms – Use these to optimize your site content
  78. 78. Example Report
  79. 79. Example Report (Continued)
  80. 80. Homework Assignment #2 • Find and subscribe to at least 6 blogs relevant to new media, PR and, when possible, your own interests • Write up a description of 3 of them (10 pts.) • Choose one new media platform, tool, technology or network closest to your own interests and summarize it (10 pts.) • Due next Tuesday!
  81. 81. ORGANIZATIONAL FRAMEWORK CM443 B1 Fall 2015 – Week 3
  82. 82. Kinds of Organizations • Government – Steve Goldsmith’s Three Problems 1. Responsiveness 2. Efficacy 3. Opacity • Non-Profit – Most potential for real impact, growth – Four key roles 1. Spokespeople 2. Social media team 3. Media relations team 4. Media advocacy (public affairs) team • Private – Biggest budgets for real impact, growth – Not just the marketing / corp comms team, please! http://significa.edelman.dev.auctollo.net/government-and-new-media-2/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/36498826@N02/4324885147
  83. 83. Organizational Infrastructure • Management • Internal Communications & HR • Sales, Marketing and Corporate Comm. • Customer Support • Product Development and Engineering Shared by Chris Cheong http://www.flickr.com/photos/30975003@N06/3837106588
  84. 84. The Anti-Social Organization Fresh Ground, Inc. The old model, or one reason why PR is flawed Megaphone Flickr image uploaded by thivierr Shared under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic License The Earth Taken 7 December, 1972 Apollo 17 mission Courtesy: NASA
  85. 85. The Risk of Over-Organization We’ll tackle how to overcome these silos in the Procedural Framework discussion
  86. 86. The Risk of Silos TALKING HEAD SYNDROME Social media practitioners fall victim to three key ailments. This is one of them… • If your public presence is disconnected from your business and unable to satisfy the demands of your community, you’re probably suffering from…
  87. 87. Fresh Ground, Inc. The Reality The Social Organization
  88. 88. Fresh Ground, Inc. The Social Organization The Reality Fresh Ground, Inc.
  89. 89. Fresh Ground, Inc. The Social Organization The Reality Fresh Ground, Inc.
  90. 90. Fresh Ground, Inc. The Social Organization The Reality Fresh Ground, Inc.
  91. 91. Fresh Ground, Inc. The Social Organization The Reality Fresh Ground, Inc.
  92. 92. Fresh Ground, Inc. The Social Organization The Reality
  93. 93. Fresh Ground, Inc. The Social Organization The Reality Fresh Ground, Inc.
  94. 94. Fresh Ground, Inc. The Social Organization The Reality Fresh Ground, Inc.
  95. 95. Fresh Ground, Inc. The Social Organization The Reality Fresh Ground, Inc.
  96. 96. The Social Organization Fresh Ground, Inc. A New Model Ideate Flickr image uploaded by Caveman (Kickin' 66 with Pete Zarria) Shared under Creative Commons Attribution-No Derivative Works 2.0 Generic License Share Flickr image uploaded by Ed Yourdon Shared under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic License Listen Flickr image uploaded by andronicusmax Shared under Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic License Change Flickr image uploaded by adam*b Shared under Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic License
  97. 97. Social Business Organization Models: Organic http://www.web-strategist.com/blog/2010/04/15/framework-and- matrix-the-five-ways-companies-organize-for-social-business/
  98. 98. Social Business Organization Models: Coordinated
  99. 99. Social Business Organization Models: Centralized
  100. 100. Social Business Organization Models: Dandelion Hub & Spoke
  101. 101. Social Business Organization Models: Honeycomb
  102. 102. So …
  103. 103. Challenges to Social Adoption • Giving up the “Command and Control” mentality and ceding control – REAL control – to your customers • Building bridges to other departments • Managing short-term performance expectations in a long-term game • Getting a handle on all the technology • Allocating a budget for tools, metrics and follow-through Source: Social Media Marketing, Chapter 3
  104. 104. SELLING YOUR MARKETING PROGRAM CM443 B1 Fall 2015 – Week 4
  105. 105. Some Basic Social Media Facts Courtesy Moz.com http://moz.com/beginners-guide-to-social-media PDF: http://d2eeipcrcdle6.cloudfront.net/guides/beginners_guide_to _social_media.pdf
  106. 106. How to Sell Your Ideas Internally • Seed (identify a suitable first user group) • Prioritize (identify key players) • Experiment • Create evangelists • Turn evangelists into trainers • Don’t forget everything we learned in the Analytics Framework
  107. 107. Who Uses Social Media / What’s New In Social Media? • Social media is more popular than ever • “Social media” may just finally be “media?” • The lines between paid and unpaid media continue to blur • More participants and more content means better filters are needed • Perfect opportunity for curation • More importantly, content marketers need to make better content to break through the better filters
  108. 108. Should We Break Up With Social Media? Courtesy of Digiday, Eat24.
  109. 109. How People Use Social Media • Are Gallup’s numbers right? Probably not. • But we can still learn from these data http://www.gallup.com/poll/171785/americans-say-social-media-little- effect-buying-decisions.aspx
  110. 110. Homework Assignment #3 • Convince your boss that you need a social media presence • Write a two-page memorandum that will be incorporated into the larger plan that the VP of marketing is assembling, containing: 1. One primary S.M.A.R.T.* goal for the business’s social media efforts 2. A definition of your community (a.k.a., “target audience”) in terms of 1- 3 “buyer personas” (more on buyer personas here: http://bit.ly/BuyerPersonas ) 3. The Content and Channel 4. The Message 5. The KPIs (for a little more on KPIs, visit http://www.refresher.com/alrpmkpi2011.html ) • Each section is worth 4 points • Due next Wednesday!
  111. 111. THE PHILOSOPHICAL FRAMEWORK CM443 B1 Fall 2015 – Week 4
  112. 112. What is Social Media? • Social media is a set of channels, tools and philosophies for creating content, building community, joining (and shaping) the conversation, and ultimately “converting” • Social media is not just a new way to communicate: it’s a new way to do business • Ultimately, social media, and more specifically social marketing, is about turning your customers and influencers into salespeople. 112
  113. 113. “Ultimately social media is not about the tools, technology and whiz-bang things. It’s about culture and culture change.” - @ScottMonty
  114. 114. We Just • Talked About Old School vs New School
  115. 115. The Cluetrain Manifesto http://www.cluetrain.com/book/95-theses.html
  116. 116. The New Clues http://newclues.cluetrain.com/
  117. 117. The Four Ts Organizations need to understand and respect these four fundamental social media philosophical tenets: • Technology • Time • Transparency • Trust Flickr photo used with permission under Creative Commons license: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ilmatte/1891092762/
  118. 118. Trust is Critical
  119. 119. In PR we Trust? • No, say journalists… http://www.adweek.com/prnewser/pr-wins-the-digital-content-game-but-struggles-with-trust-and-disclosure-issues/114176
  120. 120. Ethics and PR “The practice of public relations is all about earning credibility. Credibility, in turn, begins with telling the truth. Public relations, then, must be based on ‘doing the right thing’ – in other words, acting ethically.” (Seitel, 2007, p. 108) http://www.slideshare.net/oreshetn/ethics-in-pr-11310284
  121. 121. Ethics and PR • So, are we conveyors of the truth, or • Are we manipulators of the public mind? • What would Eddie Bernays say? – “The instruments by which public opinion is organized and focused may be misused. But such organization and focusing are necessary to orderly life.” – Propaganda – “The only way to combat … unethical methods, is for ethical members of the industry to use the weapon of propaganda in order to bring out the basic truths of the situation.” – Propaganda • Where is the PR ethics battle being fought today…? – Traditional PR – New media
  122. 122. Edelman & the Environment • 4 AUG 14: 10 global PR firms say they will not represent clients that deny man-made climate change or that seek to block emission-reducing regulations. Edelman not among them, says they “take on clients on a case-by-case basis.” • 18 NOV 14: Edelman called out for supporting creation of “front groups” to support Canadian pipeline project. • 7 JULY 15: Edelman loses 4 execs who led its corporate- responsibility practice, and 2 clients due to the “company’s unwillingness to take a strong stand on climate change.” • 15 SEP 15: Edelman ends work with coal producers and climate change deniers, criticizes past practices of “greenwashing” and “fake front groups.” http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/sep/15/edelman-ends-work-with-coal-and-climate-change-deniers http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/aug/04/worlds-top-pr-companies-rule-out-working-with-climate-deniers http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/nov/18/revealed-keystone-companys-pr-blitz-to-safeguard-its-backup-plan http://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/2015/jul/07/pr-edelman-climate-change-lost-executives-clients
  123. 123. Wikipedia From the Wikipedia “Paid editing (essay)” page: • Paid editing is not currently prohibited on Wikipedia. • The community has, to date, attempted twice to ban the practice, with the outcome twice being no consensus. • It has, however, been made by consensus that editors who are paid represent a clear conflict-of-interest and are strongly encouraged to state this on the Conflict of Interest Noticeboard what articles they are being paid to edit and declare whom they are working for before doing so. • Failure to do so may result in disputes with established editors and the Wikipedia community. • Depending on the situation's severity, an editor's privilege to edit Wikipedia may be subject to sanctions for both the editor and their client. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Paid_editing_(essay) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Conflict_of_interest/Noticeboard
  124. 124. Editing Wikipedia Side #1: Ban PR People • Jimmy Wales Side #2: Be Responsible The Wikipedia Terms of Use “prohibit engaging in deceptive activities, including mis-representation of affiliation, impersonation, and fraud. As part of these obligations, you must disclose your employer, client, and affiliation with respect to any contribution for which you receive, or expect to receive, compensation. You must make that disclosure in at least one of the following ways: • a statement on your user page, • a statement on the talk page accompanying any paid contributions, or • a statement in the edit summary accompanying any paid contributions. https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Terms_of_Use http://www.examiner.com/article/ wikipedia-s-ketel-of-conflict-of-interest
  125. 125. A Framework for Ethical Decision Making Recognize an Ethical Issue • Could this decision or situation be damaging to someone or to some group? Does this decision involve a choice between a good and bad alternative, or perhaps between two "goods" or between two "bads"? • Is this issue about more than what is legal or what is most efficient? If so, how? Get the Facts • What are the relevant facts of the case? What facts are not known? Can I learn more about the situation? Do I know enough to make a decision? • What individuals and groups have an important stake in the outcome? Are some concerns more important? Why? • What are the options for acting? Have all the relevant persons and groups been consulted? Have I identified creative options? Evaluate Alternative Actions • Evaluate the options by asking the following questions: • Which option will produce the most good and do the least harm? (The Utilitarian Approach) • Which option best respects the rights of all who have a stake? (The Rights Approach) • Which option treats people equally or proportionately? (The Justice Approach) • Which option best serves the community as a whole, not just some members? (The Common Good Approach) • Which option leads me to act as the sort of person I want to be? (The Virtue Approach) Make a Decision and Test It • Considering all these approaches, which option best addresses the situation? • If I told someone I respect-or told a television audience- which option I have chosen, what would they say? Act and Reflect on the Outcome • How can my decision be implemented with the greatest care and attention to the concerns of all stakeholders? • How did my decision turn out and what have I learned from this specific situation? http://www.scu.edu/ethics/practicing/decision/framework.html#sthash.x62cpk8g.dpuf http://www.huffingtonpost.com/jeremy-harris-lipschultz/the-ethics-of-social-media_b_7489280.html This framework for thinking ethically is the product of dialogue and debate at the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics at Santa Clara University. Primary contributors include Manuel Velasquez, Dennis Moberg, Michael J. Meyer, Thomas Shanks, Margaret R. McLean, David DeCosse, Claire André, and Kirk O. Hanson. It was last revised in May 2009.
  126. 126. Code of Ethics (Now an App!) http://www.prsa.org/AboutPRSA/Ethics/CodeEnglish/
  127. 127. Our Code of Ethics The PR code of ethics is as high-minded and detailed as any I’ve seen for the journalism world, but its idealism cannot mask the deep conflicts inherent in the profession. For example: • We serve the public interest by acting as responsible advocates for those we represent. • We adhere to the highest standards of accuracy and truth in advancing the interests of those we represent and in communicating with the public. • We are faithful to those we represent, while honoring our obligation to serve the public interest. But what happens when the interests of a client are in conflict with the interest of the public? “ http://www.poynter.org/uncategorized/89208/the-mcclellan-case-when-loyalty-and-public-interest-collide/ http://www.prsa.org/AboutPRSA/Ethics/CodeEnglish/
  128. 128. Where’s Your Loyalty? • To your client? • To your agency? • To yourself? • To the media? • To your community? • To the general public?
  129. 129. 5 Deadly Sins of Social Media 1. Unreported endorsements 2. Improper anonymity 3. Compromising consumer privacy 4. Overly enthusiastic employees 5. Using online community to get free work http://www.forbes.com/sites/davidvinjamuri/2011/11/03/ethics-and-the-5-deadly-sins-of-social-media/
  130. 130. PR, Social Media & the Law • Your social media policy is critical – Clearly define what can and cannot be said • Understand the Big 4 1. The SEC, which governs publicly traded companies, has RegFD, which describes the rules of “fair disclosure” to democratize information dissemination and prevent insider trading • Predisclosed social media channels can be considered fair disclosure • Additional requirements imposed on financial services firms and advisors 2. The FTC, which regulates all businesses in the US, has updated its Dot Com Disclosures governing ads and sponsored content • If you got paid to post it, you must disclose that fact in the post itself 3. The FCC, which governs telecommunications in the US, has its Net Neutrality rules as well, mostly regulating content dissemination and prioritization 4. The NLRB, which enforces the National Labor Relations Act, monitors employers’ responses to employee actions online. It watches out for organizations’ social media policies and policy enforcement, particularly when the policy or enforcement could be viewed as directly or indirectly chilling employees’ free speech rights to discuss wages, working conditions, etc.http://www.wsandco.com/about-us/news-and-events/blogs/do-blog/regulation-fd-social http://marketingland.com/ftc-puts-social-media-marketers-on-notice-with-updated-disclosure-guidelines-132017 http://www.socialmediatoday.com/technology-data/sarah-snow/2015-06-12/new-fcc-net-neutrality-rules-go-effect-today-despite-lawsuits http://www.poynter.org/news/media-innovation/217139/how-to-create-effective-social-media-guidelines/
  131. 131. PR, Social Media & the Law • A good social media policy isn’t enough! • Get your legal team on board early to scope out content areas that 1. Don’t need review 2. Will require managerial review 3. Will require legal review 4. Cannot be addressed via social channels • Build a library before beginning • Have a decision tree / response protocol in place before beginning
  132. 132. THE FUNCTIONAL PERSPECTIVE CM443 B1 Fall 2015 – Week 4
  133. 133. The Five Functions of Social Marketing 1. Listen 2. Analyze 3. Engage 4. Influence 5. Measure http://www.rackspace.com/blog/social-marketing-strategy/
  134. 134. McKinsey’s Four Functions • Monitor social channels for trends, insights – Brand monitoring • Respond to consumers’ comments – Crisis management – Customer service • Amplify current positive activity/tone – Referrals and recommendations – Fostering communities – Brand advocacy • Lead changes in sentiment or behavior – Brand content awareness – Product launches – Targeted deals, offers – Customer input http://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/Demystifying_social_media_2958 We’ll come back to these and drop them in a matrix for a deeper discussion of the process of social media.
  135. 135. The Groundswell Ladder The Psychographic / Personal Side of Social Media: (How People Use Social Media) 2011 http://forrester.typepad.com/groundswell/2012/01/the-global-social-takeover.html
  136. 136. THE PROCEDURAL FRAMEWORK CM443 B1 Fall 2015 – Week 5
  137. 137. The Basic Questions How do we start? http://www.flickr.com/photos/npobre/2601582256/
  138. 138. The Basic Questions Where are we going? http://www.flickr.com/photos/tunruh/233316674/
  139. 139. The Basic Questions How do we know when we get there? http://www.flickr.com/photos/chokola/1229450683/
  140. 140. More Fundamental Questions IS THIS TRIP REALLY NECESSARY? or, WHY SHOULD I CARE ABOUT NEW MEDIA AT ALL? or, HOW DO I SELL SOCIAL MEDIA TO MY BOSS?We’ll revisit these questions later…
  141. 141. Diffusion of Innovations Theory (or, the New Media Adoption Process)
  142. 142. Five Stages of Tech Adoption
  143. 143. The Marketer’s Arrow Awareness Knowledge Interest Intent Action Repeat
  144. 144. The Sales Funnel
  145. 145. The Integrated Approach http://www.slideshare.net/HubSpot/optimize-your-sales-marketing-funnel
  146. 146. The “New Marketing” Funnel
  147. 147. Content Marketing Maturity Model 1. Stasis 2. Production 3. Utility 4. Storytelling 5. Monetization http://www.toprankblog.com/2014/02/content-marketing-maturity-model/
  148. 148. The McKinsey Matrix Social media enables targeted marketing responses at individual touch points along the consumer decision journey. http://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/Demystifying_social_media_2958
  149. 149. A Framework for Your Social Strategy
  150. 150. INPUT • Organizational factors: Conditions of the external environment/climate and leadership style. • Human factors: Skills, knowledge and character of who works for the organization. • Social factors: Values, inspiration, behaviors of the groups of people that work for the organization. PERFORMANCE • Organizational structure: This is about how the different activities, tasks and responsibilities are distributed within the organization. • Process: The brain and heart of our strategic planning & execution. Here we set the objectives, the strategies, the tactics, we verify the results and determine the necessary corrective actions. • Financial structure: It defines how the financial resources are allocated according to the defined objectives. OUTPUT • Management efficiency: Quality of the management. Is the management capable of achieving a good and tangible output? • Motivation: This is what drives a person to perform a certain action or to pursue a certain objective. • Morale: Do people feel under pressure when they work or do they feel satisfied? You can think it as the “organizational climate” and it has to do with how the work environment is perceived, directly or indirectly, by the employees. A Framework for Your Social Strategy
  151. 151. A Process http://www.briansolis.com/2013/09/the-adaptive-digital-strategy-framework/
  152. 152. A Process • Integration: The focus is on how the organization is structured around social efforts and on how social technologies are integrated with communication channels across the organization. • Planning: Goals are impossible to achieve without a plan. Whether you are working on a PR or a marketing initiative, a good plan is meant to serve as a roadmap. It’s essential for aligning the resources and prioritizing the actions of the organization as it strives to achieve its goals. • Execution: Execution is what actually brings the strategic plan to fruition. This is the result of the planning decisions made by the organization and its team. • Evaluation: The overall process, the financial and the human resources must be evaluated to ensure that the communications function is successful. Accurate measurement is vital for the deployment, maintenance and refinement of ongoing and future projects.
  153. 153. THE TECHNOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK CM443 B1 Fall 2015 – Week 5
  154. 154. http://www.flickr.com/photos/squirmelia/5968201800/ * Did You ?
  155. 155. Tools Didn’t Come First…
  156. 156. Needs Come First
  157. 157. My Favorite Tech Model http://techcrunch.com/2015/04/07/modeling-mediums-of-communication/
  158. 158. The Risk of Embracing Tech Social media practitioners fall victim to three key ailments. This is the third of them… • If you are quick to adopt and embrace new tools, technologies and networks, you’re being smart, but, make sure you can explain why, or you might suffer from… SHINY OBJECT SYNDROME
  159. 159. How the Web Works (The OSI Model) http://krystalchisholm.wordpress.com/2010/10/08/chapter-12/
  160. 160. How the Web Works (Client/ Server Model)http://sleeplessgeek.blogspot.com/2 010/08/visualizing-our-example- setup.html
  161. 161. HTTP, HTML & CSS • HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is how HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) pages are transmitted from the server to the browser • HTML has evolved from a descriptive model to a semantic model – e.g., instead of <B> for bold, preference now is to use <STRONG>, reflecting the need for a strong emphasis, rather than assuming that bold is the best way to do that • CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) allow the designer to customize how content looks based on how it’s marked up semantically with HTML.
  162. 162. Twitter
  163. 163. Facebook
  164. 164. LinkedIn
  165. 165. Homework #4 • Uncle Theo’s in trouble. He has a crisis on his hands. • Start with the basics, and work from there: – What does Uncle Theo need to do before he starts thinking about PR? – Can PR fix all of Uncle Theo’s problems? – What does Uncle Theo need to do online to minimize his exposure? – What can Uncle Theo do proactively to get out a more positive portrayal of his business? – Are there any specific tools or services he might consider using to help him with his social media needs?
  166. 166. CONTENT MARKETING 101 CM443 B1 Fall 2015 – Weeks 5-6
  167. 167. What is Content Marketing? • Content marketing was a response to the evolution of search engine technology • Since content marketing’s rapid rise to popularity, search engine technology has evolved • Content marketing techniques must evolve with it
  168. 168. Content Marketing is Hot Source: ExactTarget, Jeff Bullas • 98% of marketers surveyed plan to increase or maintain their digital marketing budgets for 2014; only 2% plan to decrease their budgets. • The five top areas where marketers plan to increase digital spend in 2014 are data and analytics (61% plan to increase), marketing automation (61%), email marketing (58%), social media marketing (57%), and content management (57%). • $135 billion will be spent on new digital marketing collateral (content) in 2014.
  169. 169. Content Marketing is Hot
  170. 170. Content Marketing is Big. BUT… http://www.flickr.com/photos/22711505@N05/5766880112/ If you build it…
  171. 171. Content Marketing http://www.flickr.com/photos/jewe/2905913332/ Will they come?
  172. 172. Content Marketing = Search + Social + Media … Only If You Can Be Found It’s a search game. And a social game. And a media game. All in one.
  173. 173. Content Marketing ≠ Inbound MarketingA good content marketing program used to be able thrive on one web presence (a website or blog with dynamic content) surrounded by a good social media Program. This “inbound” model does Not work as effectively now As it used to. Why? http://www.flickr.com/photos/jameskm03/5990507429/
  174. 174. The Content Marketing Mix
  175. 175. But is Content Marketing Working for You? • Are you creating content? • If so, what kind, how often & what channels? • How are you promoting it? • Is it being applauded or amplified? • What kind of engagement are you getting? • Is it working? (i.e., is it converting?) (and if it is, would you know it??)
  176. 176. Reminder: What is a Conversion? • A conversion is a measurable event that indicates movement through the sales and marketing process (funnel) • Possible examples of conversions: – Follow / friend / fan a social profile – Like / +1 / favorite a post – Share / re-tweet content – Sign up for mailing list – Open email – Click-through to website – Ask for more information on offering – Purchase – Repurchase – Advocacy / evangelism http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conversion_rate
  177. 177. A Day in the Life of a Content Marketer • 6am: Check Twitter • 6:15am: Check Twitter again. Anything new? • 6:30am: Check Twitter. Did someone just tweet at me? • 6:45am: Check Twitter yet again. Why hasn’t anybody tweeted me? • 7:00am: Drive to work. How am I supposed to check Twitter? • 7:30am: This Twitter withdrawal is going to kill me! • 8:00am: Finally, I can check Twitter again. • … etc., ad infinitum
  178. 178. My Secret Sauce 1. I subscribe to my favorite blogs via – Feedly (for reading on my mobile phone) – Email subscriptions 2. I aggregate my favorite blog content into a single email using Yahoo! Pipes, IFTTT and Feedburner so I get one or two emails a day with headlines and links 3. If I find an article I want to curate and share, I use two browser plugins…
  179. 179. Buffer
  180. 180. Hootsuite
  181. 181. A Real Day in the Life of a Content Marketer • 6am: Check Twitter • 6:15am: Check email quickly • 6:30am: Get ready for work • 7:00am: Head into office • 8:00am: Read my digests and blogs and curate • 8:30am: Get on with the real work… (Oh yeah, and check Twitter)
  182. 182. The Four Cs • The Four Cs – Content creation (inform) – Community building – Conversation engagement – Conversion (changing behavior)
  183. 183. (Some) Content Rules • Start with the why • Reuse • Define success • Speak human (but read tech) • Reimagine (but don’t recycle) • Share, solve, but don’t shill • Listen and learn http://www.contentrulesbook.com/ I do some pretty egregious paraphrasing here – the book is better
  184. 184. The Best Content Advice I Have
  185. 185. The Blogging Tenets Succinct Transparent Responsive Accepting Insightful Genuine Humorous Timely Secrets Chapter 5
  186. 186. Curation, Not Just Creation • Content curation, or the reuse/repackaging of other people’s content, is becoming hugely popular • You must be able to add value to that content: commentary, insight or more news
  187. 187. • At the peak of the era of mass communication, an elite few controlled the news and content agenda in print, radio and television – e.g., The Boston Globe’s editorial staff • As digital media evolved the capacity to support multiple channels, segmentation began – At first, left- vs right-leaning media – Then much more fragmentation • Today, with so many channels across so many media, content consumption choices are much more difficult Evolution of Content Consumption
  188. 188. Information Overload • Definition: When the volume of potentially useful and relevant information available exceeds processing capacity and becomes a hindrance rather than a help • 90% of all the data in the world has been generated over the last two years • Information consumption in the US is in the order of 3.6 zettabytes (3.6 million million gigabytes) • The average American consumes 34 gigabytes / 12 hours of information per day – outside of work • “Between the dawn of civilization through 2003 about 5 exabytes of information was created. Now, that much information created every 2 days” (Eric Schmidt – former Google CEO) • In the US, people who text send or receive an average of 35 texts per day • 28% of office workers time is spent dealing with emails • The typical Internet user is exposed to 1,707 banner ads per month • The human brain has a theoretical memory storage capacity of 2.5 petabytes • The maximum number of pieces of information a human brain can handle concurrently is 7 (Miller’s Law) • Information (over)load is linked to greater stress, and poorer health • Overuse of social media can lead to short-term memory loss http://digitalintelligencetoday.com/fast-facts-information-overload-2013/
  189. 189. The Rise of Filters “It’s not information overload. It’s filter failure.” - Professor Clay Shirky
  190. 190. Breaking Through the Filters • We’ll talk more about the science of influence later, but for now, recognize that one of your biggest challenges as a marketer is breaking through the background noise levels of online media
  191. 191. Breaking Through the Filters http://www.socialbakers.com/blog/1304-understanding-increasing-facebook-edgerank http://searchenginewatch.com/article/2291146/EdgeRank-is-Dead-Long-Live-Facebooks-EdgeRank-Algorithm
  192. 192. The Risk of EdgeRank Social media practitioners fall victim to three key ailments. This is the third of them… • If you or your company put news gathering completely in the hands of your social graph and algorithms, you’re likely suffering from… FISHBOWL SYNDROME
  193. 193. The Risk of EdgeRank Fishbowl Syndrome is dangerous for individuals and companies! • Eli Pariser describes the risks perfectly in his TED talk, website and book on “The Filter Bubble.” • Jonathan Stray found five ways to break out of your filter bubbles. http://www.niemanlab.org/2012/07/are-we-stuck-in-filter-bubbles-here-are-five-potential-paths-out/ http://www.thefilterbubble.com/
  194. 194. Podcasting Tips 1. You already have the equipment – You can start with free software and built-in hardware, then work your way up 2. Export your audio from videos – Whenever possible, capture content in video, then work backward 3. Listen before you record – Not just to your own test recording, but other real podcasts and radio programs 4. Keep length in mind – Under your community’s average commute time Content Rules Chapter 17
  195. 195. Podcasting Tips (Part 2) 5. Publishing is easy-ish – Pick up a copy of Podcasting For Dummies to tackle all the issues 6. Submit to iTunes – Plenty of other places too, but start here 7. Plan before hitting “Record” – Write out your intros and outros and have an outline of topics at least 8. Use music wisely – NOT from your CD collection, but music you have rights to use 9. Editing is your friend – And you’ll hate it, but you need to do it Content Rules Chapter 17
  196. 196. Video Rules 1. Audio quality is significantly more important than video quality – use an external mic 2. Get a copy of Get Seen by Steve Garfield 3. Viral video “rules” get broken all the time, but in general: – Shorter is better – Don’t bury the lead (the call to action) 4. Video isn’t searchable yet (nor is audio), so be very descriptive in title, description and tags 5. Include a dragon – a problem you’re trying to solve