2. Meaning of wildlife conservation
• According to the Wildlife Protection Act of 1972,
wildlife includes any animal, bees, butterfly, crustacean,
fish and moth; and aquatic or land vegetation, which
form part of any habitat.
Example: lion, deer, crocodiles, whales, trees and
shrubs in dense forests etc.
Therefore, wildlife refers to living organisms (flora and fauna) in
their natural habitats.
But cultivated plants and domesticated animals are not
included in wildlife!
3. Benefits of Wildlife
• Wildlife is an essential component of various
food chains, food webs, biogeochemical cycles
and energy flow through various trophic
• Preserves vitality and health of environment
and provides stability to various ecosystems
4. Did you know??
Wildlife is a symbol of national pride and cultural heritage.
Over 100 years ago, there were over 1 lakh tigers across Asia
whereas today this number is below 5000 worldwide.
Wildlife is renewable source of a large variety of commercial
products like food, leathers, honey, herbal medicines, timber
Scientists and medical researchers use wildlife animals as
research materials on which trial experiments are performed
before there actual application to human beings ( Eg.
Project Tiger and Gir Lion Project have been launched by the
government of India to protect the tiger and lion population in
5. Threats to wildlife
1. Habitat loss :
Population growth, fast industrialisation , urbanisation and
modernisation have all contributed to a large-scale destruction of
natural habitat of plants and animals.
Air, water, soil and noise pollution of the magnitude and toxicity never
seen before is the major factor.
Natural habitats have been destroyed or damaged by activities such
as the indiscriminate use of synthetic materials, release of radiations
and oil spills in the sea, generation of effluents and wastes of various
kinds and toxicity, and their unscientific disposal.
Wildlife everywhere on the earth is under threat of
extinction and struggling hard for survival.
3. Indiscriminate hunting:
Indiscriminate killing and poaching of wild animals for food, horn, fur,
tusk etc. has resulted in reduction and even extinction of many wild
6. 4. Introduction of exotic species:
Many native species have known to disappear and their existence is
under threat because of the introduction of exotic and alien species.
7. National parks
• A national park is protected area of land in which a
typical ecosystem with all its wild plants and animals
are protected and preserved in natural surroundings.
As of April 2012, there were 102 national parks.
Jim Corbett National Park in Uttarakhand, established in
1936, was the first national park in India.
All national park lands then encompassed a total
39,919 km2, comprising 1.21% of India's total surface area
A total of 166 national parks have been authorized.
Over 17 national parks and sanctuaries have been selected
for Project Tiger to protect and increase tiger population in
8. NAME STATE IN WHICH LOCATED ANIMAL(S) PROTECTED
Jim Corbett National Park Uttarakhand Tiger (EN)
Kaziranga National Park Assam Rhinoceros (CR)
Hazaribagh National Park Jharkhand Tiger (EN)
Kanha National Park MP Tiger (EN)
Sundarbans Tiger Reserve West Bengal Bengal Tiger (EN)
Gir National Park Gujarat Asiatic lion (EN)
Bandipur National Park Karnataka Elephant (VU)
Desert National Park Rajasthan Great Indian Bustard (CR)
Black buck (NT)
EX = Extinct
EW = extinct in the wild
CR = critically endangered
EN = endangered
VU = vulnerable
NT = near threatened
LC = least concern
IMPORTANT NATIONAL PARKS OF INDIA
9. Wildlife Sanctuary
• A sanctuary is a protected are of land, wetland
or sea reserved for the conservation of wild
animals, birds and plants.
India has over 492 wildlife sanctuaries.
These cover over 3% of India’s total
Hunting of any kind is prohibited in
Private ownership rights over sanctuaries and
limited human activities may be granted
provided they do not interfere with the normal
activities(feeding, nesting, breeding of wildlife
10. NAME STATE IN WHICH LOCATED ANIMAL/BIRD PROTECTED
Keoladeo Ghana Bird
Siberian crane, famous for
Chilika Lake Bird Sanctuary Odisha Water fowls
Manas Wildlife Sanctuary Assam Panther
Dachigam Sanctuary J&K Kashmiri stag
Musk snow leopard
Nagarjunasagar Sanctuary AP Tiger
Periyar Sanctuary Kerala Elephant
Balmiki Nagar Tiger Reserve Bihar Tiger
Important national sanctuaries of India
11. • Biosphere reserves are a specific category of protected
area of land and/or coastal area wherein tribal people
native to the area are an integral part of the system.
• The concept of Biosphere Reserve was conceived by the
UN and was launched in 1975 as a part of UNESCO’s
“Man and Biosphere” Programme.
• In bioreserves various uses of land are permitted by
dividing it into 3 distinct zones viz, Core Zone, Buffer
Zone and Transition Zone.
• The government of India has established 18 biosphere
There are approximately 610 biosphere reserves located in 117
countries of the world.
There are 18 biosphere reserves zones in India.
Nine of the Eighteen biosphere reserves are a part of the World
Network of Biosphere Reserves, based on the UNESCO Man and
the Biosphere (MAB) Programme list
12. NAME STATE IN WHICH LOCATED ANIMAL(S) PROTECTED
Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve Tamil Nadu
Gulf of Mannar Biosphere
Tamil Nadu Dugong
Sundarbans National Park West Bengal Royal Bengal Tiger
Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve Uttarakhand
Nokrek Biosphere Reserve Meghalaya Red Panda
Madhya Pradesh Giant Squirrel
Simlipal Biosphere Reserve Odisha Royal Bengal Tiger
Wide range of flora and fauna
Nicobar Islands Andaman & Nicobar Islands Saltwater Crocodile
9 of the 18 Biosphere Reserves which are part of the
World Network of Biosphere Reserves
13. Conservation measures
The conservation strategies should include the
following programmes and policies:
Protection of threatened/useful plants and animals species
living in natural habitats, zoological and botanical
gardens, seed gene, tissue culture and DNA banks.
Preservation of critical habitats of animal and plant
species plus the management of life supporting systems in
the surrounding habitats.
Hunting and international trade in wild animals and plants
products should be regulated and a strict vigil should be
maintained upon these actions.
Role of government and NGOs in spreading awareness
programmes among common people about values of
wildlife and it’s conservation.
14. IUCN(International Union for
Conservation of Nature and Natural
• The International Union for Conservation of
Nature (IUCN, Union internationale pour la conservation de la
nature [UICN], in French) is an international
organisation dedicated to finding "pragmatic solutions to our
most pressing environment and development challenges".
• The organization publishes the IUCN Red List of Threatened
Species, which assesses the conservation status of species.
• It works for the enlistment and preservation of endangered
species of plants and animals.
Now known as the World Conservation Union, it aims to impart
information about the distribution and status of threatened
species, develop awareness about the importance of threatened
biodiversity and guide their conservation programmes and
15. “ Protected areas and threatened species could most effectively be
safeguarded if local people considered it in their own interest to do
Working with rather than against local people became a major
working principle for IUCN. ”
The IUCN programme
“ IUCN's stated vision is "a just world
that values and conserves nature". Its
mission is to "influence, encourage and
assist societies throughout the world to
conserve nature and to ensure that any
use of natural resources is equitable and
ecologically sustainable ”
16. The union has identified and documented
endangered species of plants and animals and has
placed them into eight “Red list” categories. The red
list categories can be regrouped into four main
categories as follows:
• EXTINCT SPECIES
• ENDANGERD SPECIES
• VULNERNABLE SPECIES
• RARE SPECIES
17. Other measures taken for
Breeding programmes for endangered
Prevention of poaching, hunting and
18. Enforcement of legal provisions
Some important legal provisions related to
wildlife protection and conservation:
Forest conservation act, 1980
National forest policy, 1988
Wildlife protection act, 1972
( amended 1991, 2002 )
19. Forest conservation act, 1980
• India is one among a few countries in the world
which has a Forest Act since 1927.
• The act was reformulated in 1980 and later
amended in 1988.
The Act empowered the government and the forest
oTo create and manage reserved forests, protected forests
and village forests.
oTo protect non-governmental forests and forest land.
oTo control movement of forest produce.
oTo control and regulate cattle grazing.
20. • In the year 1952, India formulated her first forest
policy which laid more emphasis on revenue
generation than on sustainability of forests and
their natural functions.
• The new forest policy emphasises conservation of
forests as a natural heritage and ensures
environmental stability and maintenance of
ecological balance including atmospheric
equilibrium which is so vital for life and growth
of all life forms including wildlife.
National forest policy, 1988
21. Wildlife protection act, 1972(Amended 1991, 2002)
The act was passed by the Parliament of India to protect India’s wildlife.
Before 1972,India only had five designated national parks. Among other
reforms, the Act established schedules of protected plant and animal
species; hunting or harvesting these species was largely outlawed.
The main objective of the Act are as follows:
Prohibition on hunting of specified plants and/or animals.
Setting up and management of national parks and wildlife
Control of trade and commerce in wildlife, and wildlife products.
Setting up of wildlife advisory board from state level to block and
panchayat levels and empowering zoo authorities with control and
management of zoos and for captive breeding.
The amendment to this Act in 2002 brought in the concept of
Community Reserves and made the provision of the Act more
22. International rules and laws
Many nations have reached bilateral/multilateral
agreements and have framed rules and regulations for
protection and conservation of wildlife.
Some of these are: