© Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. Intelligent Engagement
Freelancing in America: 2015
Results Deck
October 1, 2015
© Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. Intelligent Engagement 2
•  An online survey of 7,107 U.S. adults who have done pai...
© Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. Intelligent Engagement 3
Audiences
NON-FREELANCERS
Definition:
-  Individuals who e...
© Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. Intelligent Engagement 4
Freelancers Union and Upwork commissioned Edelman Berland,...
© Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. Intelligent Engagement 5
1. Quantify the number of people freelancing in the U.S. f...
© Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. Intelligent Engagement 6
3. Consider the role of freelancers in the 2016 elections
...
© Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. Intelligent Engagement 7
Quantifying the Freelance
Workforce
© Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 8
•  Our survey of over 7,000 U.S. workforce members rigorously screened respondent...
© Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 9
Starting with the general U.S. workforce, each respondent ran through a series of...
© Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. Intelligent Engagement 10
The freelance workforce: 5 freelancer segments
36%
26%
25...
© Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. Intelligent Engagement 11
Why People are Freelancing: Going
Solo vs. Traditional Em...
© Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 12
The majority of freelancers are starting by choice
Choice
60%
Necessity
40%
Whic...
© Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 13
61%
54%
58%
65%
39%
46%
42%
35%
18-34 35-44 45-54 55+
Reason for Freelancing - b...
© Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 14
Flexibility and freedom are key drivers for freelancing
Q35b. Please indicate th...
© Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 15
Why do Americans freelance? In their own words…
Q35a: Other than to earn money, ...
© Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 16
Flexibility is a bigger driver for freelancers overall
than the type of work
Q35...
© Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. Intelligent Engagement 17
A third of freelancers say they have been able to
move th...
© Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 18
The majority of freelancers who left traditional employment
earn more now, with ...
© Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 19
Half of freelancers say they wouldn’t stop freelancing, no
matter how much money...
© Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 20
Freelancers find work many ways
Moonlighters
Diversified
Workers
Independent
Con...
© Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 21
Q60. Have you ever obtained a freelance project online? n = 2,429
Q61. How long ...
© Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 22
83%
69%
10%
20%
6%
8%
1% 3%
What percentage of your income comes from sharing ec...
© Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 23
Technology is making it easier to find freelance work
Q53_5. What do you think i...
© Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. Intelligent Engagement 24
Freelancers and the 2016 Election
© Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 25
Freelancers are an important political constituency:
The vast majority are likel...
© Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 26
Candidates who support freelancer interests are
more likely to win freelancer vo...
© Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 27
Generally, freelancers don’t see political leaders as
focused on their interests...
© Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 28
Freelancing is seen as a key to improving our
economy
Q78. Which is closer to yo...
© Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. Intelligent Engagement 29
The Outlook for Freelancing
© Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 30
Freelancers are optimistic: The overwhelming
majority think freelancing’s best d...
© Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 31
More than one-third of freelancers report demand for
their services increased in...
© Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 32
Nearly half of all freelancers expect their income
from freelancing to increase ...
© Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 33
Q57. How do you see the future of freelancing in general? n = 2,429
Q41. How lik...
© Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 34
Key freelancer concerns
Q75. Please indicate how concerning each of the followin...
© Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 35
More than 1 in 3 moonlighters have considered quitting
their primary employment ...
© Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 36
Most non-freelancers are open to freelancing
Yes
76%
No
24%
Would you be willing...
© Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. Intelligent Engagement 37
Who Freelancers Are
© Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 38
Men tend to freelance more than women
Q1: What gender do you more closely identi...
© Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 39
Freelancers tend to be young, with over half under
the age of 40 – but almost 20...
© Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 40
57%
69% 71% 71%
43%
31% 29% 29%
18-34 35-44 45-54 55+
Freelance Participation by...
© Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 41
Almost half of freelancers cite caregiving as a reason
they freelance
Q35b: Plea...
© Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 42
Freelancers come from a variety of educational
backgrounds
Q68: What is the high...
© Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 43
Freelancers live all over the country, in cities,
suburbs, and rural areas
Q70. ...
© Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 44
Freelancers are slightly more racially/ethnically
diverse than U.S. workers over...
© Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. Intelligent Engagement 45
Appendix
© Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 46
•  U.S. Workers Overall: U.S. adults 18+ who have earned income from work within...
© Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 47
Freelancers Union
Freelancers Union’s 272,000 members believe all workers should...
© Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc.
49
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Freelancing in America: 2015

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"Freelancing in America: 2015" is the most comprehensive measurement of the independent labor force in the U.S. How many Americans are freelancing? Why? And what is the outlook for freelancing in America? This study, conducted by an independent research firm and commissioned in partnership by Upwork and the Freelancers Union, surveyed over 7,000 U.S. workers to answer these questions and more. Results showed that approaching 54 million people did freelance work in the past year, driven first and foremost by the lure of a more flexible lifestyle.

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Freelancing in America: 2015

  1. 1. © Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. Intelligent Engagement Freelancing in America: 2015 Results Deck October 1, 2015
  2. 2. © Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. Intelligent Engagement 2 •  An online survey of 7,107 U.S. adults who have done paid work in the past 12 months •  Data collected July 30 - August 14, 2015 by independent research firm Edelman Berland o  2014 data referenced in this presentation is from Edelman Berland’s July 19 - July 31, 2014 survey •  Results are weighted to ensure demographic representation in line with the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics 2015 Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey and the American Community Survey •  Overall margin of error of ±1.16% at the 95% level of confidence Research methodology
  3. 3. © Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. Intelligent Engagement 3 Audiences NON-FREELANCERS Definition: -  Individuals who earned income through work but have not engaged in supplemental, temporary, project- or contract-based work, within the past 12 months. Sample n = 4,678 FREELANCERS Definition: -  Individuals who have engaged in supplemental, temporary, project- or contract-based work, within the past 12 months. Sample n = 2,429 U.S. WORKERS OVERALL Definition: -  U.S. adults 18+ who have earned income from work within the past 12 months, including both freelancers and non-freelancers. Sample n = 7,107
  4. 4. © Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. Intelligent Engagement 4 Freelancers Union and Upwork commissioned Edelman Berland, an independent research firm, to conduct a study of the freelance workforce within the U.S. with the following objectives: 1.  Quantify the number of people freelancing in the U.S. for the second year in a row 2.  Assess why people are freelancing 3.  Consider the role of freelancers in the 2016 election 4.  Gauge the outlook for freelancing, especially among millennials as they become the majority of our workforce This results deck is organized in sections to detail results on each of these objectives. Study objectives
  5. 5. © Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. Intelligent Engagement 5 1. Quantify the number of people freelancing in the U.S. for the second year in a row •  The percent of the U.S. workforce freelancing held steady at 34%. Based on the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ estimate of the civilian labor force at 157 million, that equates to an estimated 53.7 million people -- 700,000 more people who have done freelance work than last year.   2. Assess why people are freelancing •  More people are freelancing by choice -- 60% said they started more by choice (vs necessity), up 7 percentage points from last year – primarily driven by flexibility. •  The majority (60%) of freelancers who left traditional employment now earn more – 78% indicated they earned more within a year or less.  •  Technology is making it easier to find freelance work (73% of freelancers agree, compared to 69% in 2014). More than half (51%) of freelancers had obtained a project online, up from 42% last year. •  50% of freelancers say they would not quit freelancing and take a traditional job with an employer -- no matter how much it paid.    Key findings (by objective)
  6. 6. © Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. Intelligent Engagement 6 3. Consider the role of freelancers in the 2016 elections •  Approaching 9 in 10 freelancers (86%) say they’re likely to vote in the 2016 U.S. general election. •  Among freelancers, 63% say we need more discussion of how to empower the freelance segment of the workforce. •  Almost the same number of freelancers (62%) say they would be more likely to vote for a candidate if they supported their interests as a freelancer. 4. Gauge the outlook for freelancing •  83% of freelancers believe the best days are ahead for freelancing, up from 77% last year. •  Among all freelancers, more than 3 in 4 (78%) would recommend freelancing to their friends and family – with millennials even more favorable at 84%. Millennials are also the second most likely generation to start freelancing by choice, topped only by baby boomers. •  3 in 4 non-freelancers said they are open to doing additional work outside their primary jobs to earn more money, if it was available.    Key findings (by objective)
  7. 7. © Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. Intelligent Engagement 7 Quantifying the Freelance Workforce
  8. 8. © Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 8 •  Our survey of over 7,000 U.S. workforce members rigorously screened respondents to determine the percent who earned freelance income in the past year. Results showed that 34% of the U.S. workforce is doing freelance activity. •  Based on the Bureau of Labor Statistics July 2015 estimate of the civilian labor force at 157 million, we estimate that the U.S. workforce currently includes 53.7 million people doing freelance work. •  This is an increase of 700,000 freelancers since our 2014 survey due to increase in the size of the labor force. The percent of the U.S. workforce freelancing held steady at 34%. Almost 54M Americans are now freelancing "THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION - JULY 2015." Bureau of Labor Statistics - U.S. Department of Labor, 7 Aug. 2015, http://www.bls.gov/news.release/pdf/empsit.pdf.
  9. 9. © Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 9 Starting with the general U.S. workforce, each respondent ran through a series of questions that carefully qualified their employment status and income in order to detect freelancing that might otherwise go unrecorded. The following definitions and examples explain 5 segments of freelancers captured: 1.  Independent Contractors (36% of the independent workforce / 19.3 million professionals) – These “traditional” freelancers don't have an employer and instead do freelance, temporary, or supplemental work on a project-to-project basis. 2.  Moonlighters (25% / 13.2 million) – Professionals with a primary, traditional job who also moonlight doing freelance work. For example, a corporate-employed web developer who does projects for non-profits in the evening. 3.  Diversified Workers (26% / 14.1 million) – People with multiple sources of income from a mix of traditional employers and freelance work. For example, someone who works the front desk at a dentist’s office 20 hours a week and fills out the rest of his income driving for Uber and doing freelance writing. 4.  Temporary Workers (9% / 4.6 million) – Individuals with a single employer, client, job, or contract project where their employment status is temporary. For example, a data entry worker employed by a staffing agency and working on a three-month assignment. 5.  Freelance Business Owners (5% / 2.5 million) – These freelancers have one or more employees and consider themselves both a freelancer and a business owner. For example, a social marketing guru who hires a team of other social marketers to build a small agency, but still identifies as a freelancer. In order to qualify, freelancers had to have earned freelance income within the past 12 months. How did we quantify freelancers? Note: Due to rounding, percentages add up to more than 100%
  10. 10. © Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. Intelligent Engagement 10 The freelance workforce: 5 freelancer segments 36% 26% 25% 9% 5% 2.5M -2% from 2014 consistent with 2014 Moonlighters Diversified Workers Temporary Workers Freelance Business Owners Independent Contractors S102New: Behind the scenes-Freelancer Specific Classification-Tracking n = 2,429 4.6M 14.1M 19.3M 13.2M From 2014 to 2015, the number of Diversified Workers has increased from 9.3M (18% of the freelance workforce) to 14.1M professionals – largely due to increased participation in the sharing economy +8% from 2014 -4% from 2014 -1% from 2014 Note: Due to rounding, percentages add up to more than 100% *Sharing economy sites are sites such as Uber, Etsy, or others that allow people to share their goods or time with other people.
  11. 11. © Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. Intelligent Engagement 11 Why People are Freelancing: Going Solo vs. Traditional Employment
  12. 12. © Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 12 The majority of freelancers are starting by choice Choice 60% Necessity 40% Which is closer to the reason you originally started freelancing? Q48. Which is closer to the reason you originally started freelancing? n = 2,429 Q53. What do you think is different about the freelance job market today compared to 3 years ago? More people are choosing to work independently [Strongly + Somewhat Agree] n = 2,429 67%of freelancers agree that more people are choosing to work independently today compared to 3 years ago Up from 53% in 2014
  13. 13. © Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 13 61% 54% 58% 65% 39% 46% 42% 35% 18-34 35-44 45-54 55+ Reason for Freelancing - by Age [Freelancers] Choice Necessity The youngest and oldest generations are most likely to start freelancing by choice Q48. Which is closer to the reason you originally started freelancing? n = 2,429
  14. 14. © Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 14 Flexibility and freedom are key drivers for freelancing Q35b. Please indicate the degree to which each of the following is a reason why you freelance? (Top 2 Box) n = 2,429 75% 75% 73% 70% 69% 67% 67% 64% 68% 63% 59% 57% 59% 55% 53% 75% To have flexibility in my schedule (i.e. what days or times I work) To be my own boss To work from the location of my choosing To be able to pursue work I am passionate about or find meaningful To have a schedule that enables me to pursue my personal passions To be able to spend more time with friends, family, and my personal life To be in control of my own financial future To earn extra money Top Reasons for Freelancing Full-time freelancers Part-time freelancers
  15. 15. © Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 15 Why do Americans freelance? In their own words… Q35a: Other than to earn money, why do you freelance? [Open End] n = 2,429 “Allows me to pick and chose the projects that interest me, and the people I work with.” “Because it's a job on my terms, I can do it at all times of the day, on weekends. Some I can do from my mobile phone as well, so I am not bound by a single location.” “I find it more rewarding. I work when I want, I commute only if I choose to, and my earnings are dependent on how much I choose to work.” Other than money, why do you freelance? (Open-ended) “Because I want to...also, it allows for more creativity and personal interaction with clients/customers and no wasted time with important meetings” “Pursue the passions I love and prefer other than the standard norm of punching a clock.” “To challenge myself, to broaden my experiences, to make contacts in my field, to increase future job opportunities.” “To hopefully transition into full time freelance work / self-employment.” 1.  Freedom 2.  Pursue passion 3.  Build skills 4.  Flexibility 5.  Work Opportunities “It is an opportunity to stay at home with my child while I have the flexibility to work when I need to.” “It gives a great flexibility to my schedule. I can work as little or as much as I would like to.” “It is a good way to utilize my skills to earn more money, with flexible hours.” “I work project to project because that is how it is in the entertainment industry.” “I sell real estate and this is how the industry is structured.” “There aren't many full time jobs available doing what I do.”
  16. 16. © Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 16 Flexibility is a bigger driver for freelancers overall than the type of work Q35c. Which is a bigger reason why you freelance? n = 2,429 65% 35% The flexibility it provides (schedule flexibility, location flexibility, time with family, etc.) The work opportunities it provides (type of projects, interesting work, ability to work with multiple clients, etc.) Which is a bigger reason why you freelance? Flexibility is especially appealing to women (73%), caregivers (67%), and part-time freelancers (71%)
  17. 17. © Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. Intelligent Engagement 17 A third of freelancers say they have been able to move thanks to the flexibility their career provides Q50a. Please indicate your agreement with the following statements about freelancing. n = 2,429 67%of freelancers agree that freelancing provides the opportunity to work from anywhere 33%Of freelancers agree that in the past, they have been able to move to a different location because of the freedom freelancing gave them
  18. 18. © Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 18 The majority of freelancers who left traditional employment earn more now, with 3 in 4 earning more within the 1st year Q29b. As a freelancer now, do you earn more or less than when you had an employer? (freelancers who left a traditional job) n = 563 Q29c. After leaving your job with an employer, how long did it take you to earn more as a freelancer than you did with an employer? (freelancers earned more after leaving traditional job) n = 339 34% 23% 21% 10% 7% 5% Immediately Less than 6 months 6 months – 1 year 1- 2 years 3- 5 years 6 years or more After leaving your job with an employer, how long did it take you to earn more as a freelancer than you did with an employer? 78% Less 31% Same 9% More 60% As a freelancer now, do you earn more or less than when you had an employer?
  19. 19. © Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 19 Half of freelancers say they wouldn’t stop freelancing, no matter how much money they’re offered Q29a: In the past, did you quit or leave a job with an employer in order to freelance? n=2,429 Q50e. How much more would a traditional job with an employer need to pay in order for you to definitely take that traditional job and stop freelancing? n = 2,429 25% 2% 4% 8% 7% 4% 50% How much more would a traditional job with an employer need to pay in order for you to definitely take that traditional job and stop freelancing? $50,000- $99,999 $100K+ There is no amount of money where I would definitely take a traditional job. >$5,000 $5,000- $9,999 $10,000- $19,999 $20,000- $49,000 23%of freelancers have quit a job with an employer in order to freelance <$5,000
  20. 20. © Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 20 Freelancers find work many ways Moonlighters Diversified Workers Independent Contractors Q59: Where do you typically go to find freelance work? Please select all that apply. n = 624 11% 12% 15% 16% 17% 20% 25% 25% 29% 29% 35% 36% Sharing economy websites or apps Local newspaper Employment agency / staffing firm Specialized freelance websites Previous employer (full-time) Previous employer (freelance) Online ads/classifieds Online freelance marketplaces Online job boards Social media Professional contacts Friends and family Where do you typically go to find freelance work? [Full-time freelancers] Note: “Full-time freelancers” includes individuals who self-identify as full-time freelancers.
  21. 21. © Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 21 Q60. Have you ever obtained a freelance project online? n = 2,429 Q61. How long on average does it take you to find freelance projects that you look for online? (i.e. between looking for an opportunity and starting work of it) n = 1,232 Q59. Have you ever done a freelance project online – meaning work that you found and performed via the Internet? (2014) n = 1,720 An increasing number of freelancers are obtaining work online 21% 28% 24% 16% 5% 6% Less than 24 hours 1-3 days 4-6 days 1-2 weeks 3-4 weeks More than a month How long on average does it take you to find freelance projects that you look for online? No 49% Yes 51% Have you ever obtained a freelance project online? In 2014, 42% of freelancers had done a freelance project online 49% find projects in less than 3 days
  22. 22. © Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 22 83% 69% 10% 20% 6% 8% 1% 3% What percentage of your income comes from sharing economy platforms? [Freelancers] 91-100% 51-90% 10-50% Less than 10% The number of freelancers who earn 10% or more of their income through the sharing economy has nearly doubled in the past year 2014 2015 Q69. What percentage of your income comes from sharing economy platforms? (i.e. Uber, Etsy, Airbnb, etc.) 17% 31% 16.6Mfreelancers earn 10% or more of their income through the sharing economy compared to 9M in 2014
  23. 23. © Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 23 Technology is making it easier to find freelance work Q53_5. What do you think is different about the freelance job market today compared to 3 years ago? Please indicate your level of agreement with the following statements: Technology has made it easier to find freelance work. n = 2,429 73%Agree that technology has made it easier to find freelance work compared to 69% in 2014
  24. 24. © Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. Intelligent Engagement 24 Freelancers and the 2016 Election
  25. 25. © Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 25 Freelancers are an important political constituency: The vast majority are likely to vote in 2016 Q71_2: In November of 2016, there will be a general election for U.S. President, Congress, and other political offices. While it is a long way off, how likely are you to vote in this election? n = 2,429 Q72_2: If the election for US Congress were held today, for which party’s candidate would you prefer to vote? n = 2,429 39% 31% 30% If the election for US Congress were held today, for which party’s candidate would you prefer to vote? Democrat Republican Don't Know 86% of freelancers say they are likely to vote in the 2016 general election
  26. 26. © Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 26 Candidates who support freelancer interests are more likely to win freelancer votes Q74: If a candidate for political office supported your interests as a freelancer, how would that impact your vote? n = 2,429 62% 29% 9% How would a candidate for political office supporting your interests as a freelancer impact your likelihood to vote for that candidate? More Likely It would make no difference Less Likely Millennials (67%) are more likely to vote for a candidate who supports freelancers interests than non-millennials (58%)
  27. 27. © Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 27 Generally, freelancers don’t see political leaders as focused on their interests and want more discussion Q73. For each of the following groups or individuals, to the best of your knowledge, please indicate whether you think they support your interests as a freelancer, work against your interests as a freelancer, or neither support nor work against your interest as a freelancer. n=2,429 Q77. Which is closer to your view of the discussion in our country around freelancers? n = 2,429 63% 37% Which is closer to your view around the discussion in our country around freelancers? [Freelancers] We need MORE OPEN DISCUSSION of how to empower the freelance segment of our workforce We already talk about freelancers enough 32% 30% 29% 27% 28% 22% 26% 22% 25% 15% 20% 24% Congress Local government officials President Barack Obama Support for Freelancer Interests [Freelancers] Supports my interests as a freelancer Works against my interests as a freelancer Neither supports nor works against my interests Don’t know
  28. 28. © Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 28 Freelancing is seen as a key to improving our economy Q78. Which is closer to your view of the impact freelancers have on our economy? n = 2,429 82%of freelancers believe that increased opportunities for freelancers are a positive step for our economy
  29. 29. © Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. Intelligent Engagement 29 The Outlook for Freelancing
  30. 30. © Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 30 Freelancers are optimistic: The overwhelming majority think freelancing’s best days are yet to come Q57. How do you see the future of freelancing in general? (2015) n = 2,429 Q57. How do you see the future of the freelancing job market? (2014) n = 1,720 83% of freelancers believe the best days are ahead for freelancing compared to 77% in 2014
  31. 31. © Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 31 More than one-third of freelancers report demand for their services increased in the past year Q44. In the past year, have you seen the demand for your freelance services: Increase, Decrease, Stay the same. n = 2,429 34% 51% 15% In the past year, have you seen the demand for your freelance services change? Increased Demand No Change Decreased Demand +2% from 2014
  32. 32. © Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 32 Nearly half of all freelancers expect their income from freelancing to increase in the coming year Q42. In the coming year, do you expect your income from freelancing to: n = 2,429 48% 41% 11% Increase Stay the same Decrease In the coming year, how do you expect your income from freelancing to change? In particular, full-time freelancers (58%) expect their income from freelancing to increase in the coming year
  33. 33. © Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 33 Q57. How do you see the future of freelancing in general? n = 2,429 Q41. How likely are you to recommend freelancing to your family or friends? n = 2,429 Best days are behind 13% How do you see the future of freelancing in general? Best days are behind 20% Millennials are most optimistic about the future of the freelance job market Not Likely 16% How likely are you to recommend freelancing to your friends or family? Not Likely 26% Millennials Millennials Adults 35+ Adults 35+ 81% Best days are ahead 87% Best days are ahead 80% 84% likely 74% likely 83% of all freelancers see best days ahead 78% of all freelancers likely to recommend it
  34. 34. © Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 34 Key freelancer concerns Q75. Please indicate how concerning each of the following issues are to you as a freelancer: Very concerning, somewhat concerning, not very concerning, not at all concerning; n = 2,429 10% 8% 9% 9% 11% 13% 14% 16% 16% 18% 20% 22% 32% 39% 38% 34% 39% 32% 44% 37% 37% 39% 29% 33% Cost of health care Unpredictable income Saving for retirement High taxation rates Difficulty finding more clients or projects Non-payment or late payment by clients How concerning are each of the following issues to you as a freelancer? Not at all concerning Not very concerning Somewhat concerning Very concerning 76% 76% 74% 73% 68% 65%
  35. 35. © Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 35 More than 1 in 3 moonlighters have considered quitting their primary employment and going solo Q11: Do you have an employer (i.e. a company that employs you)? n = 7,107 Q12: Do you have more than one employer, job, or contract project? n = 5,162 Q13: Do you do any work outside of your primary position to supplement your income or earn additional money? n=4,156 Q37. Have you ever considered quitting your primary job in order to work completely independently? (Freelancers who have a primary job) n = 599 Yes 35% No 65% Have you considered quitting your job in order to work completely independently? 13.2 Million Moonlighters Workers with a primary employer who have done work outside of their main job to earn additional money within the past year If these Moonlighters quit their jobs, that would be 4.6MNew Independent Contractors
  36. 36. © Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 36 Most non-freelancers are open to freelancing Yes 76% No 24% Would you be willing to do additional work outside of your primary job if it was available and enabled you to make more money? [Non-Freelancers] Q21. Would you be willing to do additional work outside your primary job(s) if it was available and enabled you to make more money? N = 4,678 Millennials (83%) are more willing to do additional work outside of their primary job than any other age group
  37. 37. © Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. Intelligent Engagement 37 Who Freelancers Are
  38. 38. © Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 38 Men tend to freelance more than women Q1: What gender do you more closely identify with? n = 7,107 Q70: What state do you live in? [Recode into regions] n = 7,107 60% 40% 53% 47% Male Female What gender do you more closely identify with? Freelancers U.S. Workers Overall Note: “U.S. Workers Overall” includes all U.S. adults who have earned income from work within the past years, including freelancers and non-freelancers
  39. 39. © Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 39 Freelancers tend to be young, with over half under the age of 40 – but almost 20% are 55+ Q2: What is your current age? n = 7,107 16% 27% 10% 10% 9% 10% 7% 12%12% 22% 10% 11% 11% 12% 10% 13% 18-24 25-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60+ What is your current age? Freelancers U.S. Workers Overall Note: “U.S. Workers Overall” includes all U.S. adults who have earned income from work within the past years, including freelancers and non-freelancers
  40. 40. © Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 40 57% 69% 71% 71% 43% 31% 29% 29% 18-34 35-44 45-54 55+ Freelance Participation by Age Non-Freelancers Freelancers And more millennials freelance than any other age group Q2. What is your current age? n = 7,107
  41. 41. © Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 41 Almost half of freelancers cite caregiving as a reason they freelance Q35b: Please indicate the degree to which each of the following is a reason why you freelance? n = 753 46%of freelancers say they freelance to have a schedule that allows them to provide care for a family member “I homeschool my son so it helps me to stay close to home to help him with his needs.” “This career allows me more time with my child, to do more creative work with clients, less of a routine schedule.” “On my own with two children, I can work around their schedule and cancel work on very short notice if they are ill… it's a way to make money and still put my family first.” “I am staying home to take care of my daughter, so it allows me to stay active in my career until she is school age, when I may go back to work full-time.”
  42. 42. © Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 42 Freelancers come from a variety of educational backgrounds Q68: What is the highest level of school you have completed or the highest degree you have received? n = 7,107 32% 18% 14% 22% 14% 33% 19% 13% 23% 12% HS grad or less Some college but no degree Associate degree Bachelor's degree Post grad What is the highest level of school you have completed? Freelancers U.S. Workers Overall Note: “U.S. Workers Overall” includes all U.S. adults who have earned income from work within the past years, including freelancers and non-freelancers
  43. 43. © Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 43 Freelancers live all over the country, in cities, suburbs, and rural areas Q70. What state do you live in? n=7,107 Q71. What type of area do you currently live in? n=7,107 17% 22% 37% 23% 17% 23% 38% 22% Northeast Midwest South West What region do you live in? Freelancers U.S. Workers Overall 35% 47% 19% 32% 48% 20% Urban Suburban Rural What type of area do you currently live in? Freelancers U.S. Workers Overall Note: “U.S. Workers Overall” includes all U.S. adults who have earned income from work within the past years, including freelancers and non-freelancers
  44. 44. © Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 44 Freelancers are slightly more racially/ethnically diverse than U.S. workers overall Q3A. Which of the following best describes your ethnicity, racial background or heritage? n=7,107 63% 16% 12% 5% 4% 67% 14% 10% 5% 3% White Hispanic or Latino African or African descent Asian-American/ Asian All others Which of the following best describes your ethnicity, racial background or heritage? Freelancers U.S. Workers Overall % non-white Freelancers: 36% % non-white U.S. Workers Overall: 32% Note: “U.S. Workers Overall” includes all U.S. adults who have earned income from work within the past years, including freelancers and non-freelancers
  45. 45. © Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. Intelligent Engagement 45 Appendix
  46. 46. © Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 46 •  U.S. Workers Overall: U.S. adults 18+ who have earned income from work within the past 12 months, including both freelancers and non-freelancers. •  Freelancers: Individuals who have engaged in supplemental, temporary, project- or contract-based work, within the past 12 months. •  Full-Time Freelancers: Individuals that describe their current freelance work status as “full-time freelancer.” •  Part-Time Freelancers: Individuals that describe their current freelance work status as “part-time freelancer.” •  Non-Freelancers: Individuals who earned income through work but have not engaged in supplemental, temporary, project- or contract-based work, within the past 12 months. •  Non-Freelancers Employed Full-time: Individuals that describe their current work status as “employed full-time” and do not do any additional work outside of their primary job to supplement their income. Glossary
  47. 47. © Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 47 Freelancers Union Freelancers Union’s 272,000 members believe all workers should have the freedom to build meaningful, connected, and independent lives – backed by a system of mutual and public support. More than one in three working Americans is an independent worker. That's almost 54 million people. They are lawyers and nannies, graphic designers and temps. Freelancers Union serves the needs of this growing independent sector.  – Upwork Upwork is the world’s largest freelance talent marketplace. More than 4 million businesses and 10 million independent professionals tap into www.upwork.com to work together via the Internet. As our increasingly connected and independent workforce goes online, talent—like software, shopping and communications before it—is shifting to the cloud. This innovation is freeing professionals from set time and place work, while also making it faster and easier for businesses to hire. Upwork is headquartered in Mountain View, California, with offices in San Francisco, California and Oslo, Norway. This study commissioned by:
  48. 48. © Copyright 2015 Daniel J Edelman Inc. 49 For more details go to: ! Upwork! www.upwork.com/freelancinginamerica2015 ! Freelancers Union! www.freelancersunion.org/freelancinginamerica2015 OR

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