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  1. 1. Table of Content A). Topper’s Talk B). Policy and Governance 1. What is PM-AASHA ? 7 2. Atal Bimit Vyakti Kalyan Yojana. 8 3. BCCI is now covered under the RTI Act 9 4. Concerns around Corporate governance 10 5. Electricity Amendment Bill. 11 6. Food Security Scheme of Odisha. 12 7. Google to help the Election Commission in 2019 13 8. Section 377 14 9. 27 Crore people out of poverty in India in the last 10 years 16 10. Oxfam World Inequality Index. 17 11. Choice Based Approach in PDS. 18 12. The Criminalization of Politics Supreme Court Verdict 19 13. Status of Poverty in India according to latest report 20 14. Sabarimala Temple Verdict by Supreme Court 21 15. SC/ST Promotion Supreme Court Verdict 23 16. Status of Swachh Bharat Abhiyaan or SBA in Rajasthan 25 C). International Relations 1. 7 Rohingya deported to Myanmar 26 2. AGARTALA-AKHAURA Rlwy Project 27 3. U.S Sanctions on Chinese Military 28 4. INDO-BANGLA Pipeline Project 29 5. India-Russia New Defence Deal 30 6. VLADIMIR PUTIN Visit In India 31 7. Why China Heavily Investing In Africa? 32 8. World's Longest Sea Bridge 34 9. India and China to Sign Internal Security 35 Cooperation Agreement 10. US Federal Reserve Hikes Interest Rate 36 11. Why Is Iran Important To India 37 12. India-Japan First Ever Joint Military 38 13. Maldives Election Good News for India 39 14. CHAGOS ARCHIPELAGO Controversy 40 15. NAFTA-USMCA 42 16. RCEP 43 17. India Wins Election to UNHRC with Highest Votes 44 18. Why is Uzbekistan Important for India 45 D). Economy 1. Revival of Air India by GOI 46 2. Bank Merger of Bank of Baroda, Dena Bank and Vijaya Bank 47 3. Banning Import of Pet Coke 49 4. India China Bullet Train Plan- BCIM 50 Economic Corridor 5. Constitutional Validity of compensation law under GST 51 6. Increase in customs duty and Impact 52 7. Internationalization of Indian Rupee 53 8. What Are Unicorn Start-Ups 54 9. World's Bank's "a glass half full report” 55 10.Sikkim Becomes World's First Organic 56 State 11.Problem with Mudra Loans, Rising NPA 58 12.Challenges In Metro Rail Planning 59 13.Mariculture Policy (Draft) of India: 60 14.Infusing liquidity through OMOS 61 E). Environment 1. IPCC Report On Global Warming 62 2. Construction and Demolition Waste 63 Management 3. Arunachal Mega Dam Controversy 64 4. Windmill Pose Threat to Wildlife 65 F). Science and Technology 1. 1st Ethics Code On A.I. 66 2. China To Launch Own Moon 67 3. Digi Yatra initiative 68 4. H1NI Virus 69 5. ISRO Launched Two British Satellites 70 6. Electric Vehicles: Jharkhand Modl 71 7. India's First Missile Tracking Ship 72 8. Mission to Mercury 73 9. Discovery Of Two New Planets 74 10. India's First Anti-Nuclear Medical Kt 75 11. ISRO Mystery Case 76 G). Disasters 79 H). Miscellaneous 83 I). UPSC Prelims Capsule 87 J). Practice UPSC Mains Writing 96
  2. 2. Page 2 of 111 For Free Download visit www.upsciq.com A. Topper’s Talk How to conquer GS in UPSC Mains, Explained: By Anudeep Durishetty – RANK 1 ,UPSC CSE 2017 With 1000 marks spanning across four papers in Mains, GS feels like one giant, insurmountable mountain. The point of this article is to convince you that those fears are unfounded. I’ve written this post assuming someone who had already read the foundational books for GS Prelims. If you haven’t read them as yet, you should first read my post on GS Prelims. At the end of this article, I embedded download links to my complete GS notes and answer copies. There I had marked two particular answer booklets that accurately represent my writing style in Mains. I hope aspirants who are struggling with answer writing find them useful. I had also written previously about my UPSC journey here and on how to prepare for the Essay in this post. Marksheet As you start reading the books I mention here for GS mains, please keep the following points in mind: 1. Along with these books, get a printout of the syllabus and read it carefully. Your final aim must be: for each topic mentioned in the syllabus, you should have enough content to write a 250-word answer. 2. Go through the past five years’ question papers to understand the breadth and depth of questions UPSC usually asks. It’ll give you a good perspective of what’s important and what’s not. 3. Use the internet extensively, especially for topics like Science and Tech. Your target must be to gain knowledge, be it through books or through the internet. 4. For all subjects, you have to superimpose current affairs over it, especially for GS-2 and GS-3. For both these papers, current affairs form the nucleus. You will inevitably do a lot of reading on the internet, so use Evernote to organize and highlight content like this. 5. Give adequate time for revision. Without it, you will not be able to recollect whatever you may have read. So please dedicate enough time to it, whether you are giving a mock test or the actual exam. 6. Many aspirants commit one fundamental mistake: they read and revise, over and over, but never practiced. Remember that the examiner checking your copy will have no idea about the number of books you’ve read or the number of hours you’ve slogged. Your answers are all that he has to judge you. So it makes sense to learn it, practice it and perfect it. 7. Mains exam demands not only our memory and intelligence, but also endurance. If you lack prior practice, writing relentlessly for 6 hours a day and do this for 5 days will cause both mental and physical fatigue. The only way to overcome it is to practice enough before the final exam. 8. General Studies demand only a peripheral understanding of an expansive set of topics. So it’s important that you try to gain minimum sufficient knowledge over a diverse set of subjects rather than obsessively focussing on one topic. For instance, it doesn’t make sense to read World History for three months at the expense of all other subjects. Always maintain that fine balance between all the topics and don’t get imprisoned in one. 9. In GS, there will be very few questions where you will have absolutely no clue. Even if you only have a vague idea, write those generic points. For instance, in last year’s GS-1 paper, for the question on the Malay peninsula, I knew no specific fact, except a vague idea that Singapore had a partial story similar to India. So I just wrote a generic answer comprising of problems such as ethnic strife, insurgency, and economic collapse. The examiner checking my copy might have given 2-3 marks for it, which I am sure any aspirant would gladly take. 10. You must develop the skill to speed read a committee or an organisation’s report on your computer (reading online saves you a lot of time) and highlight important lines as you read along. In the second reading, this highlighted portion is what you need to revise. It should look something like this. 11. In GS papers, map of India is your most effective tool for illustration. For example, I drew India maps and labelled relevant parts for questions on river linkage (GS-3), North-East insurgency (GS-3), Inland navigation (GS-1), India’s 18th-century fragmented polity (GS-1) etc. Practise it enough so that you are able to draw and label it under 60 seconds. 12. If you are taking a test series, please give those tests with all the seriousness of the final UPSC exam. In the mock test, if you take 10-15 additional minutes to finish the paper, you are cheating no one except yourself. Observe strict time limits. 13. You will never feel content with your Mains preparation and there is always a nagging tendency to just keep reading and procrastinate writing answers or skip an upcoming test. You have to overcome this reluctance through conscious effort. Suppose before a mock test if you were unable to finish the syllabus, you can postpone your test by a day or two, but don’t skip it altogether. 14. Perfectionism is your enemy. If you keep referring to countless sources to make that “perfect notes”, if you keep postponing your mock tests in order to write “perfect tests”, this mentality will bring you to ruin. Getting a good score in Mains is about attempting all questions to which some answers are excellent, some good and many above average. So instead of waiting
  3. 3. Page 3 of 111 For Free Download visit www.upsciq.com for that elusive perfection, start imperfect and then keep improving. 15. When you are buying coaching material, always ask yourself: “what's new is this material, adding to my preparation?” If you can’t answer that question convincingly, then the material probably isn’t really useful. 16. Just because I am AIR-1, it does not mean that my notes are the best or that this book list is the last word. If you have been studying some other material, that’s fine, too. To succeed in this exam, the source of material is not important. What’s important is you to understand the concepts, memorize the facts well and have a firm grip over the entire syllabus. Stiffer the climb, better the view. The list of books for GS Mains: GS 1 Indian Art and Culture 1. An Introduction to Indian Art – Class XI NCERT 2. Chapters related to culture in Ancient and Medieval India NCERTs 3. Centre for Cultural Resource and Training (CCRT) material 4. Heritage Crafts: Living Craft Traditions of India - NCERT ▪ For someone who is starting just now, this topic can overwhelm them. So I suggest beginners read this section after they get acquainted with other GS topics. ▪ In Art and Culture, questions asked by UPSC in recent years are more analytical— which requires both the factual content and good analysis to answer the why and how. You can answer such questions well only when you understand the historical background in which such art was produced. This is why it’s important that you read NCERT XI Ancient India for it gives you that historical context. ▪ For instance, don’t just memorise features of say, Sangam literature or Chola architecture, but understand the social, political, religious and economic context in which such grand art was produced. They will form the analysis part and will help you write great answers. ▪ Make good use of the internet to watch both visual and performing arts to understand how they actually look in real life. You will be able to recollect such visuals more easily. They will help you write a decent answer for questions which you only have a vague idea about. ▪ Wherever relevant, draw diagrams to illustrate your answers. For instance, you can draw a rough sketch to show the features of a Stupa, Dravida, and Nagara style architecture, Paleolithic art, Folk arts such as Warli, Harappan pottery, etc. You don’t need to be a Michelangelo for this, but you must ensure that the fundamentals are correct. For example, in Warli art, human bodies are represented by triangles, heads by circles and hands by simple lines. Just get these basics right. Link to download diagrams is given at the end of the article. ▪ Art and Culture requires a ton of memorization and there’s really no shortcut to mastering it except through multiple revisions. Modern Indian History 1. A Brief History of Modern India- Spectrum Publications. 2. India’s Struggle for Independence – Bipan Chandra (Read selectively for topics not covered in the Spectrum book) ▪ Questions on Indian history are something that every serious aspirant will answer well, so you really cannot afford to let go of these questions. If you had done your prelims preparation for this topic well, that is good enough. You just need to practise answer writing. India’s Post Independence History 1. India Since Independence by Bipan Chandra 2. For certain topics, I made notes from this book. Download link is given at the end. World History I prepared entirely for this topic from this outstanding book: Download ▪ Since revising this big book before the exam was difficult, I prepared concise notes from it. I also practised maps to demonstrate major world historical events. ▪ Link to download my notes and maps is given at the end of the article. Geography ▪ The study plan is the same as for prelims, which I’ve explained here. Indian Society ▪ This is a generic, nebulous topic with no style or structure. Questions are sometimes vague, philosophical and the challenge we face is not so much in lack of content as in presenting it concisely in 200 odd words. To understand the basics, read NCERT Sociology Std XI and XII. Make concise notes on each topic that includes: a crisp definition, latest statistics, govt schemes, criticism of these schemes; causes of issues such as communalism and regionalism, historical and current examples, their impact on our society, and your suggestions as the way ahead. (You can get these suggestions from the internet or ARC 2 or some committee report). In case if you find good coaching material for these topics, that’ll do as well. ▪ For this topic, a generic answer with proper structure and subheadings that cover multiple dimensions is good enough to fetch you marks. You can find my notes at the end of the article. GS 2 Polity, Governance and Social Justice Static Portion: 1. Laxmikanth 2. Polity Notes (this will provide analytical content. Download link is given at the end of the article)
  4. 4. Page 4 of 111 For Free Download visit www.upsciq.com 3. ARC 2 (One of the best reports ever written for the government. It’s been more than ten years since the reports were published, but the content is still priceless. Read complete reports, memorise only recommendations) Current Affairs: 1. The Hindu 2. The Big Picture on RSTV 3. CivilsDaily current affairs material 4. I also referred to Insights/ForumIAS current affairs material for topics not covered well by CivilsDaily 5. PRS India for latest legislation 6. All India Radio – Spotlight (used to listen during my commute to the office) ▪ Open your answers with Constitutional articles. Question on Governor? Art 153 must be there in the first line. Question on Civil Services? Art 312 is where you begin. If there’s a technical term like ‘Parliamentary Sovereignty’, ‘Political democracy’ or ‘Social Audit’ — define them in your introduction telling the examiner what you understand by those terms. ▪ Supreme Court judgements are very important. Make a list of important judgements (both historical and current) and quote them to substantiate your answer. For example, when you are answering a question on Free speech, quoting SC judgement in Shreya Singhal vs Union of India case will add tremendous value to your answers. ▪ For a debatable topic, always write both sides of the issue even if not explicitly asked in the question. Example: A question might ask: Do you agree that Civil Services is in need of drastic reforms? For this, explain under a subheading why drastic reforms are needed. And in the next paragraph, counter by saying why drastic reforms are harmful. In the end, you can add the view of ARC 2/Hota/Surendranath committee to convey your view and end on a balanced note. ▪ For miscellaneous topics like the comparison of Constitutions, RPA Act, SHG, e-Governance etc. refer to any good coaching material to have 200-word worth content. Source latest examples and issues from newspapers and quote them in your answers. ▪ Prepare thoroughly on Govt policies and bills. PRS India is an excellent resource for all the latest legislation in the offing and The Hindu for policy criticism. But the newspaper is patently leftist and they publish articles incessantly and nauseatingly ranting on policies they don’t like (Eg: Aadhar). But as someone aspiring to be a civil servant, you need to be more dispassionate. This is why you must actively pursue articles with a contrarian and balanced opinions like this and this. ▪ Cram latest statistics pertaining to health, employment, women, education, poverty etc. Also apart from committees, you may quote authentic reports from reputed organisations such as Lancet, Transparency International, UNICEF, FAO etc to substantiate your point. I made notes on important statistics that can be used for all papers of GS and essay. Download link is given at the end of the article. ▪ Conclusion: Wherever possible, end with a committee/ commission recommendation or observation. For instance, a question on Centre-State relations should invariably end with Punchhi Commission, a question on death penalty with Law Commission and a question on Indian Constitution with NCRWC. Referring to Sustainable Development Goals, Preamble, DPSP is also another good way to end your answers. International Relations ▪ Any good book that adequately covers the historical aspect of India’s bilateral relations. ▪ Current affairs: The Hindu, India’s World on RSTV, CivilsDaily or Insights or ForumIAS depending upon the topic. ▪ Questions on IR will be almost, always be about the current happenings in the world. But before you run after the Hindu or some other latest magazine for this section, it’s important that you understand the historical background of India’s relationship with other countries. This is indispensable because every bilateral issue that you see in the news can be traced back to history. Once you understand this historical context, this topic becomes uncomplicated. ▪ For example, let’s take India China relations. Don’t merely focus on Doklam crisis and troop positioning, but understand the larger context of our border dispute with China, the agreements we had signed starting with the Simla Accord of 1914. For India-Sri Lanka, don’t just concentrate that India voted for or against Sri Lanka at the UN, but understand how India always championed peace between the Tamils and the Sinhalese, the 1987 accord, its fallout, Sri Lankan civil war and what India did during these times. When you have that bigger picture in mind, each part of the puzzle becomes easier to fit in. ▪ For miscellaneous topics like diaspora and international institutions, refer to any good coaching material. ▪ Draw map wherever relevant. Example: for India-Iran relations, you can draw a rough map to show how the Chabahar port helps us to bypass Pakistan and reach Afghanistan. Act East policy can be demonstrated with arrows pointing from India and showing our specific relationship with Vietnam, Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Australia and ASEAN, MGC, BIMSTEC etc., ▪ Each bilateral relationship or a global grouping is multi-faceted. To make your answers comprehensive, always write a multidimensional perspective that includes: the strategic dimension, defence co- operation, technology, education, culture, diaspora, trade and investment, co-operation in global fora etc. GS 3 Economy Static part: 1. Standard resources I already mentioned in my prelims post 2. Budget (any coaching material compilation) 3. Economic Survey (gist) 4. Niti 3-year Action Plan report (a good resource for policy recommendations that come in handy while you write conclusion) Current Affairs: 1. The Hindu 2. CivilsDaily 3. I referred to Insights/ForumIAS current affairs material for topics not covered well by CivilsDaily Indian Agriculture, Land reforms, PDS, Food Processing, LPG, Infrastructure 1. Mrunal.org 2. Vision IAS
  5. 5. Page 5 of 111 For Free Download visit www.upsciq.com 3. The Hindu and CivilsDaily for current affairs ▪ You need to remember that for GS-3, questions revolve around current affairs and there is no dearth of material. It may sound counter-intuitive, but the trick is to restrict yourself to material that’s good enough for you to write a 250-word answer for all topics. It’s very important that you don’t get sunk under the heap of current affairs and coaching material. ▪ So for each topic mentioned in the syllabus, make concise notes from the resources mentioned above. I also found Niti Aayog’s 3-year Action Plan report really helpful for this paper. And just as I had mentioned for GS-2, statistics and committee reports are very important. Security ▪ Vajiram and Vision IAS material ▪ The Hindu and CivilsDaily for current affairs ▪ Prepare crisp and clear definitions of technical terms such as cybersecurity, terrorism, organised crime, money laundering, left-wing extremism etc. ▪ For questions on border security, draw India map to illustrate. Disaster Management ▪ Fundamental reading: CBSE book ▪ Prepare concise notes on NDMA (structure, functions, rules etc), international agreements such as Sendai Framework, latest current affairs from newspapers, internet and coaching material. ▪ Draw diagrams to illustrate concepts like river embankment, land zoning, watershed management etc. Environment and Ecology ▪ Shankar IAS book ▪ The Hindu and CivilsDaily for current affairs ▪ My handwritten notes (Download link given at the end) Science & Tech 1. The Hindu 2. Vision IAS Mains 365 3. YouTube ▪ This topic terrifies many aspirants, and for good reason. There’s no single book or resource to help one navigate this section and it all feels like one big haze. But there’s good news: the questions asked in S&T are mostly from current affairs and you are expected to have only a general understanding of the topics. ▪ During my preparation, I used to note down in my book whatever scientific term or technology that’s frequently talked about in news. For instance, these days we repeatedly encounter terms such as Artificial General Intelligence, Blockchain, Machine Learning, Cryptocurrency, CRISPR-CAS9 in news and on the internet. ▪ Note down all such scientific concepts that are in news and then scour the internet (especially Youtube) to understand them. There are many explainer videos on Youtube that explain the concept so well that even a school student can understand it. For instance, take this excellent video on blockchain technology. Once you see it, it’s impossible for you to miss a question on blockchain and its practical applications. ▪ Apart from the above, you need to learn fundamental terms and technologies used in Space (PSLV, GSLV, Cryo Engine etc), Nanotech, Nuclear Research (Fast breeder reactor, Uranium enrichment, Nuclear fission and fusion etc.), Defence (Cruise missile, Ballistic missile, Stealth Bomber etc), Biotech (Gene editing, Stem Cells, GM food etc), Communication (LIDAR, RADAR, LiFi, 5G etc). Any comprehensive material of a coaching institute will be sufficient for this (I referred to Vajiram printed notes). ▪ Whatever S&T topic you are learning, always focus on the concept, why is it in news, practical applications, potential threats, benefits far into the future etc. Just do this and you will easily handle this topic in the final exam. GS 4 ▪ 2nd ARC reports: Ethics in Governance, Promoting E-gov, RTI, Citizen-centric Administration, Personnel Administration. Read all ARC reports completely, memorise only recommendations. ▪ For moral thinkers, Google them to read about their major contributions and for misc topics such as corporate governance, I referred to Vajiram printed material. I also prepared some notes for certain topics (download link at the end of the article) ▪ I went through the syllabus and tried to define each term in clear words and simple sentences. I found this exercise very useful because these definitions inevitably formed the introduction to most of my answers. For all of ethics paper, the essence can be distilled as just this: a clear and simple definition of the term and a real-life example to illustrate the concept. You can draw flowcharts and schematics wherever apt. ▪ It’s important to understand that each question is an opportunity to display your ethics. This will be best demonstrated by the actions you did or some other personalised/ real-life examples you quote. Reflect on your childhood, school life, college time, professional career etc and glean examples that are simple, unpretentious and at the same time bring out your ethical values clearly. For some questions, you can also quote historical examples from the lives of great leaders. ▪ For case studies, my aim was not so much in writing ingenious, extraordinary solutions, but to write something that’s realistic and practicable and finish the paper no matter what. ▪ I always started with Q1 and not with case studies because I could not see how one mark in Section B (case studies) is superior to one mark in Section A. I gave equal importance and dedicated equal time to both the sections. ▪ Rest of the GS papers have 20 questions each, Ethics has only 14. But don’t let that number 14 fool you. I’ve always found GS-4 to be the lengthiest paper of all. Every question in Section A has many subparts that drain an inordinate amount of your time. In fact, if we go by the absolute numbers, we write more words in GS-4 than in other papers. So to manage your time well: Abide by the rule that you must complete at least 80 marks worth of questions in each hour, irrespective of whether you start with Section A or Section B. ▪ Just before GS-4, you would have had written three stressful GS papers that would put your body condition under severe mental and physical strain. But it’s important to stay mentally tough during this crucial period and push your endurance limits so as to survive another 3 hours of relentless writing. Remember that it’s all in the mind— it can be your biggest enemy or your greatest strength.
  6. 6. Page 6 of 111 For Free Download visit www.upsciq.com GS may look insurmountable at first, but remember that it’s always the small steps towards the summit that count. Through effective planning and adequate practice, anyone can conquer it. My best wishes. Until next time, Anudeep. Read More : https://anudeepdurishetty.in
  7. 7. Page 7 of 111 For Free Download visit www.upsciq.com B. Policy and Governance (Click on the image above to watch the video) Will it help our Farmers?? Giving a major boost to the pro-farmer initiatives of the government, the Union Cabinet chaired by Prime Minister Narendra Modi, approved a new Umbrella Scheme ‘Pradhan Mantri Annadata Aay Sanrakshan Abhiyan’ (PM-AASHA) on September 12, 2018. Umbrella Scheme big scheme under which many other small schemes are present. BASICS The government has already increased the MSP (minimum support price) of kharif crops by following the principle of 1.5 times the cost of production. NOTES According to a survey conducted by the National Sample Survey Office (NSSO) in the 70th round in 2013, only 6% of farmers are able to sell their produce at MSP. According to a 2016 NITI Ayog evaluation report 79% farmers responded with ‘no’ when asked if they were satisfied with the MSP regime. Reasons for their dissatisfaction were delay in payments, lack of infrastructure at procurement centres, distance to procurement centres and delayed announcement of MSP rates. PROBLEMS WITH MSP MSP is presently (September 2018) is declared for 23 crops. Shanta Kumar report on FCI- restructuring, Buffer stock, PDS & Food security & Direct Benefit Transfer. THE NEW SCHEME The scheme is aimed at ensuring lucrative price to the farmers for their produce as announced in the Union Budget 2018. The new Umbrella Scheme – 3 components Price Support Scheme (PSS) – Under the scheme, the physical procurement of pulses, oilseeds, and ‘copra’ (kernel of coconut) will be done by Central Nodal Agencies with the proactive role of the state governments. Further, in addition to NAFED, the Food Cooperation of India (FCI) will take up PSS operations in states and districts. The procurement expenditure and losses due to procurement will be borne by the Union Government as per norms. NAFED It stands for National Agriculture Cooperative Marketing Federation of India. It is an apex organization of the marketing cooperatives for agriculture production. It comes under the Ministry of Agriculture and It was founded in October 1958 with its Head Quarter in New Delhi. It has four regional offices at Delhi , Mumbai , Chennai and Kolkata with 28 zonal offices in different states. FCI It stands for Food Corporation of India. It was set up on 14th Jan,1965. Its HQ is now in New Delhi ,but previously it was at Chennai. Price Deficiency Payment Scheme (PDPS) or Bhavantar Bhugtan Yojana PDPS is proposed to cover all oilseeds for which minimum support price (MSP) is notified. In this, direct payment of the difference between the MSP and the selling/modal price will be made to pre- registered farmers selling their produce in the notified market yard through a transparent auction process. All payments will be done directly into the registered bank account of the farmer. PILOT OF PRIVATE PROCUREMENT &STOCKIST SCHEME (PPPS) The cabinet also decided that the participation of private sector in procurement operation needs to be piloted on the basis of the learnings the ambit of private participation in procurement operations. EXPENSES CONCERNING THE SCHEME The cabinet has decided to give additional government guarantee of Rs..16,550 crore, making it Rs.45,550 crore in total. CONCLUSION The NITI Ayog recommended that steps be taken to improve “facilities at procurement centres, such as drying yards, weighing bridges, etc. should be provided to the farmers. More Storage should be set up and maintained properly for better storage and reduction of wastage. The procurement centres should be in the village itself to avoid transportation costs. However, the government’s announcements to ensure that farmers get the benefit of the MSP have done little to reinforce the procurement infrastructure which was a key recommendation of the Centre’s NITI Aayog. (Scan the QR code to watch video.)
  8. 8. Page 8 of 111 For Free Download visit www.upsciq.com Tribute to former PM Mr. Atal Bihari Vajpayee . A new scheme named ‘Atal Bimit Vyakti Kalyan Yojna’ for Insured Persons (IP) covered under the Employees’ State Insurance Act, 1948 has been approved by the ESIC. ESIC (Employees’ State Insurance Corporation) The person who is insured under ESIC can avail Atal Bimit Vyakti Kalyan Yojana. Its aims are to the financial aid people who lost jobs because of the changing employment patterns. Insured persons covered under the Employees’ State Insurance Act, 1948 for the period of two years continuously. Details of the scheme: The benefit of the scheme will be payable in cash directly to the bank account of insured persons in case of unemployment. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ONGOING SCHEME The ongoing Rajiv Gandhi Shramik Kalyan Yojana(RGSKY) benefits formal sector workers registered with the ESIC. RGSKY introduced in 2005. Difference between RGSKY and Atal Bimit Vyakti Kalyan Yojana is that RGSKY will help when the industry is stopped working while in Atal Bimit Vyakti Kalyan Yojana it will help a person's when it's contract is terminated from the industry and the person is unemployed again. The money will be paid from their own contribution towards ESI scheme, in cash through bank account transfer. The scheme will be applicable to all factories and establishments employing at least 10 workers. Workers will be able to draw 47% of their total contributions towards ESIC after remaining unemployed for at least three months from the date of leaving their previous jobs. About Employee State Insurance (ESI) It is a self-financing social security and health insurance scheme for Indian workers. It is managed by Employees’ State Insurance Corporation (ESIC) according to rules and regulations stipulated there in the ESI Act 1948. It is a statutory autonomous corporation under the Ministry of Labour and Employment. (Scan the QR code to watch the video) NOTES :
  9. 9. Page 9 of 111 For Free Download visit www.upsciq.com ( Click on the image above to watch the video) The Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) is now covered under the RTI Act and answerable to the people of the country under its mechanism, the Central Information Commission ruled recently. This decision is taken by the Central Information Commission (CIC) CENTRAL INFORMATION COMMISSION (CIC) •The Central Information Commission has been constituted with effect from 12-10-2005 under the Right to Information Act, 2005. POWERS OF CENTRAL INFORMATION COMMISSION (CIC) • The Commission has certain powers and functions mentioned in sections 18, 19, 20 and 25 of the RTI Act, 2005. • These broadly relate to adjudication in the second appeal for giving information, direction for record keeping, suo motu disclosures receiving enquiring into a complaint on the inability to file RTI etc; imposition of penalties and Monitoring and Reporting including preparation of an Annual Report. • The decisions of the Commission are final and binding. BCCI IS NOT HAPPY •The BCCI has always held the opposite view: that it did not come under the ambit of RTI. •Lodha Committee (for BCCI) Recommended that BCCI should come under RTI. SOME FACTS YOU SHOULD KNOW • The Government of India does not administer the Indian cricket team.BCCI develops it. • BCCI does not depend on the Government of India for its finances. • BCCI had avoided taxes on its income, claiming exemption as a charitable organization. • Although the Income Tax Department withdrew this exemption in 2007-08, BCCI only paid tax amounting to ₹41.9 crore (US$5.8 million) against its tax liability of ₹413 crore (US$58 million) in the 2009-10 financial year. On 12 September 2006 BCCI, announced that it will spend ₹ 1,600 crores over the subsequent one year to upgrade the cricket stadiums around the country. HOW did IT happen? •The commission, the top appellate body in RTI matters, went through the law, orders of the Supreme Court, the Law Commission of India report, submissions of the Central Public Information Officer in the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports to conclude that the status, nature and functional characteristics of the BCCI fulfill the required conditions of Section 2(h) of the RTI Act. INFORMATION COMMISSIONER SRIDHAR ACHARYULU • The matter came before him as the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports did not give a satisfactory response to an RTI applicant, Geeta Rani, who had sought to know the provisions and guidelines under which the BCCI has been representing India and selecting players for the country. • Acharyulu directed the BCCI to put in place, within 15 days, online and offline mechanisms to receive applications for information under the RTI Act. THE VERDICT • “The BCCI should be listed as an NSF(National Sports Federation) covered under the RTI Act. •The RTI Act should be made applicable to the BCCI along with its entire constituent member cricketing associations, provided they fulfill the criteria applicable to the BCCI, as discussed in the Law Commission’s report,” he said. Note : We can't expect much from BCCI on the RTI Act. This is a brave decision by CIC and it should be appreciated. (Scan the QR code to watch video.) NOTES:
  10. 10. Page 10 of 111 For Free Download visit www.upsciq.com (Click on the image above to watch the video) Concerns around the corporate governance- Refers to a set of rules y which a firm is controlled or governed. The frim will benefit out of it. If not, the govt will loose What is the issue- ● Growing concerns around companies of private and public sectors- ● Calls for a greater examination of the roles of directors and audit firms. Some incidents to show the challenges ● ICICI bank- the manager and CEO requested for an early retirement, was based on allegations against her regarding the conflict of interest between Videocon group. ● ILNFS- a subsidiary has incurred a large loss, the audit report did not mention the name, disclosure was not made ● Corporate governance is weak ● Status of the firm Concerns- Turmoil in private sector banks- top banks of private sectors are facing problems, weaker bank boards, they derive rules for the banks, when it is weak corporate governance will be weak Bad loan crisis in PSBs- mounted with NPAs, serious bank loan crisis, chronic capitalism and weak governance. Overstating and understating in books- profit and loss account and bank sheets, it is here that the company’s profile is accessed, reflects the financial position of the banks, overstating means in case of profit, books will show more than the actual amount; understating happens with bad loans, grown 5-10 times but not reflected in the book of accounts. Major challenges to the governance Audit reports- must picture original reflection, ILNFS was an issue of cash-flow but reports showed improper audits Uday Kotak Committee- Separation of roles: listed companies on stock exchange with more than 40% shareholding, there should be separate roles of MD and CEO. Roles and responsibilities should be properly defined, no duplication should be there. Part of the promoter cannot be adopted as director. Mandatory disclosure- consolidated quality results should be disclosed Augmenting board strength and diversity- board of Directors, top 2000 listed companies have to mandatorily have a six-director board, 1000 companies should have a woman director in six. Number of directorships- maximum is 8 listed companies. Way Ahead- Rating of audit firms: it is because of improper auditing that the over or under statement happens, audit firms should be rated which will result in list of preferences. Low performing firms can perform better Audit reports- provided value added reports, financial positions, performance of the company will be known Independent Audit committees: help in overcoming the corporate shocks, preparing for shocks professionally Missing talent in critical positions- this issue needs to be addressed, filled by talented and skilled managers to better govern the firm. Tenure of top management- long tenures of top management can be damaging, top posts should be re-examined, proper mechanisms should be found out (Scan the QR code to watch video) NOTES:
  11. 11. Page 11 of 111 For Free Download visit www.upsciq.com (Click on the image above to watch the video) Electricity Amendment Bill- Expected to come up in the Winter session Union cabinet has already prepared the draft bill Aim is to revive the power sector There are shortcomings in the sector This bill will amend the 2003 Electricity Act About the Bill- Changes to the Act of 2003- some provisions would be changed, Increase reliability- Reduce risk- Failing of PPAs- Power Purchase Agreements, address these issues as well, PPA is a contract between the generator and purchaser, price of the purchase, time and term of the contract are important things. Distribution company The agreement is broken by the distribution company, sometimes. When the agreement is broken, sufferers will be generators. Power producing will be at loss. Investment become NPAs- loans for which the due is more than 90 days. Mounting of NPAs will create bank crisis. Key changes made in the bill- Penalties for failure to honor PPAs- PPA will be broken, in such cases penalties will be awarded to companies, penalty can be up to 10 million bucks per day Phasing out of cross subsidization- because of subsidy there will be some losses arising. Second group will be highly charged, industrial purchases of power are highly charged, some loses will arise out of households. This is an issue for the industrial sectors. Government is planning to phase out the subsidization for the households. This is highly apolitical call. The houses will end up paying high bills. Fairer pricing system will be one advantage. More output generation Sustainable power sector will be generated Impact Increase in tariffs to households and the farmers (Scan the QR code to watch video) NOTES:
  12. 12. Page 12 of 111 For Free Download visit www.upsciq.com ( Click on the image above to watch the video) What is the news- Odisha govt. launched its own food security scheme on Gandhi Jayanti, 2018- not a part of NFSA. Targets to benefit 25 lakh people who were left out at the NFSA – only 78% is benefitted out from the NFSA. Details- Background: 2008- 1kg of rice for INR 2/month 2013- Price of rice reduced to INR 1. 2014- NFSA implemented but many people were denied the right Present state government in 2014 election campaign had promised to introduce the state’s own food security scheme Highlights of the scheme- Beneficiaries will get 5 kg of rice per person per month at 1 rupees/kg- same provision like the NFSA in 2013 Distribution is carried out through e-POS device- designated fare price shop 25 lakh beneficiaries under SSFS 443.5 crore per year government spending Significance of the scheme- Universal coverage- provide food security to the left out category Food and nutrition security Criticism- vote bank politics because election is due next year. Odisha govt. should have better scheme to include those 25 lakh in NFSA. Concerns regarding SFSS- Fiscal consolidation- to bring down the expenditure of state or central govt. here it is state govt. of Odisha. Narrow the fiscal deficit, such a scheme will add on to the concern. Centre is providing subsidy. Expenses on cost of procurement, on distribution, on storage, on administration, etc. all the expenses will come to the state as well. Identification of beneficiary- the 25% has to be covered. The identification is difficult. Might lead to duplication.Widening of fiscal deficit for the state govt. Leakages- PDF has its own leakages. The food scheme of Odisha might also incur loss. The intention will get diluted. (Scan the QR code to watch video) NOTES:
  13. 13. Page 13 of 111 For Free Download visit www.upsciq.com (Click on the image above to watch the video) Google to help the Election Commission in 2019 This is an important topic for Mains General Studies Paper 2 under the topic : Salient features of the Representation of People's Act. WHAT JUST HAPPENED? Our current Chief Commissioner O.P.Rawat recently said "How Google can help election commission" Google Representatives met a committee which is under election commision of India. Under the act of Section 126 (election silence) Section 126 (election silence) is part of Representation of the People Act, 1951. BASICS : The Election Commission (EC) has set up a 14-member committee to suggest changes in Section 126 of the Representation of the people(RP) Act, which prohibits poll campaign in the last 48 hours leading to voting, in the wake of media expansion. The committee chaired by Deputy Election Commissioner Umesh Sinha. Name of committee: Umesh Sinha Committee. The INTERNET has a very big role to play in our daily life and Election Commission (EC) of India has said that any kind of new campaign or advertisement should not take place before 48 hours. It is quite possible to stop the campaign offline but doing this online is a difficult task . Umesh Sinha Committee took help from Google . Google said it will help election commission. Notes The candidate has to declare to the Election Commision about how much money he/she is going to spend on the campaign.(Online /Offline both) Candidate should give detail about the there advertisements to EC's Media Certification and Monitoring Committee.EC's Media Certification and Monitoring Committee will certify the political advertisements whether it should run or not. It is said that advertisements certified or not certified both should not run before 48 hours of the election. Apart From the Google, the Election Commission committee"Umesh Sharma" talked to Them. They are supporting the Election Commission and will remove all kinds of political advertisements. Online Advertising Market Share (Worldwide data) Google 44.1% Facebook 3.1% Yahoo/Microsoft 12.3% Aol. 1.5% Others 39% India's Online Advertising Market Share data is not yet released but it is said that Google has a 60% sharein Indian Advertisement. Google will bring great transparency to political Advertisements. Google assurance was very much required as it covers a very large part of Online Advertising Market Share in India. (Scan the QR code to watch video) NOTES:
  14. 14. Page 14 of 111 For Free Download visit www.upsciq.com ( Click on the image above to watch the video) SECTION 377 Very important for Mains Paper 2 and for Prelim. Governance - mechanisms, laws, institutions & Bodies constituted for the protectio& betterment of these vulnerable sections. 6 SEPTEMBER 2018 has been a historic date for our country. HISTORIC DECISION BY SC India joins 125 nations where homosexuality is legal as SC decriminalizes gay sex. The Supreme Court decriminalized consensual intercourse between persons of the same sex and read down Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code, thus providing a huge boost to the LGBTQ community of India. Important for prelims. In this case Navtej Singh Johar(petitioner) v. Union of India homosexuality is legal. 72 countries and territories worldwide still continue to criminalize same-sex relationships LGBTQ?? Lesbian – Refers to a homosexual woman or a woman who is sexually attracted to other women. Gay – Refers to a homosexual man or a man who is sexually attracted to other men. Bisexual – A person who experiences sexual attraction to both men and women. Transgender - a person who is assigned to the male sex but identifies as a woman may be a transgender person. Conversely, a person who has been assigned the female sex at birth and who identifies as a man instead is also a transgender person ISN’T ‘HIJRA’ JUST THE INDIAN TERM FOR TRANSGENDER? The Indian Hijra community itself is over 4,000 years old. Although many of them have biological and sexual identities same as the above-mentioned globally recognized LGBT identities. Cultural and behavioral differences make it imperative for their recognition as an the identity of their own. WHAT DOES ‘QUEER’ MEAN AND HOW IS IT DIFFERENT FROM LGBT IDENTITIES? Now, when the bracket is extended, you arrive at ‘Q’ or Questioning/Queer/Genderqueer. People who identify as queer feel their gender and/or sexual identities falls outside the categories of man or woman. They would either consider themselves as falling between the two or wholly different from them. OBSERVATIONS (Imp For Mains Exam) The court recognized sexual orientation as a “natural and inherent” biological phenomena, and not a matter of choice. (Imp) As per Section 377 , it was a punishable act to have intercourse with any man, woman or animals against the order of nature, meaning homosexuality and bisexuality were both outlawed. Section 377 The rule was first enacted in 1861 under the British rule, previous to that there was no law governing sexual intercourse in India. What the verdict means is that the LGBT community would be able to indulge in consensual sex freely. There is an exception though, the supreme court has rightfully protected animals under against attempts by humans who have intercourse with them, that shall still remain under the purview of crime. WHAT THE JUDGES SAID : Writing for himself and Justice Khanwilkar, the Chief Justice has raised the individual’s identity to the pedestal of divinity— sans identity, the name is only a denotative term and the sustenance of identity is the filament of life. Means an identity of the individual should not be crushed. The destruction of individual identity would tantamount to the crushing of dignity, which encapsulates privacy, choice,freedom of speech and other expressions. Attitudes and mentalities have to change to accept distinct identities of individuals, who must be respected for who they are, and not compelled to become who they are not. NOTES The sexual orientation of each individual in the society must be protected on an even platform, for the right to privacy and the protection of sexual orientation lies at the core of the fundamental rights guaranteed by Articles 14, 15 and 21 of the Constitution. Judgment The Court found that the criminalization of sexual acts between consenting adults violated the Right to Equality guaranteed by the Constitution of India.
  15. 15. Page 15 of 111 For Free Download visit www.upsciq.com While reading the judgment, Chief Justice Misra pronounced that the Court found that "criminalizing carnal intercourse" to be"irrational, arbitrary and manifestly unconstitutional.“ The court ruled that LGBTs in India are entitled to all constitutional rights, including the liberties protected by the Constitution of India. INDIAN EQUAL RIGHTS ACTIVISTS HAVE UNDERTAKEN A LONG AND ARDUOUS JOURNEY TO DECRIMINALISE SAME-SEX RELATIONSHIPS. They had tasted their first victory when the Delhi High Court in July 2009 decriminalized homosexuality among consenting adults. However, in December 2012 the Supreme Court, quashing the High Court order, held that the order was legally unsustainable. In 2015, the Lok Sabha voted against the introduction of a private member's Bill to decriminalize homosexuality, proposed by Congress MP Shashi Tharoor, indicating that the BJP led NDA Government was not in a hurry to legalize homosexuality. NOTES Soon after a group of well known LGBT rights activists, N S Jauhar, journalist Sunil Mehra, chef Ritu Dalmia, hotelier Aman Nath and business executive Ayesha Kapur approached the SC which agreed to reconsider the issue. The petition claimed their rights to sexuality, sexual autonomy, choice of sexual partner, life, privacy, dignity, and equality, the other fundamental rights guaranteed under Part- III of Constitution, are violated by Section 377. (Scan the QR code to watch video)) NOTES:
  16. 16. Page 16 of 111 For Free Download visit www.upsciq.com (Click on the image above to watch the video) THE 2018 MPI (Multi-Dimensional Poverty Index) Paints a picture of multidimensional poverty across 104 developing countries, covering 74 per cent of the global population. ABOUT MPI Jointly developed by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) at the University of Oxford, the 2018 global MPI casts light on who is multidimensionally poor, where do they live and how they are deprived. A new report shows the percentage of Indians living in poverty is half what it was a decade ago. But child poverty around the world is still rife, affecting nearly two-thirds of those under 18 in sub-Saharan Africa. MULTIDIMENSIONAL POVERTY INDEX 2018 In the decade between 2005-06 and 2015-16, India has halved its Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) from 54.7 per cent to 27.5 per cent. According to MPI 2018 released by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative, there are 271 million fewer poor people in India in this period. FINDINGS OF THE REPORT 364 million Indians continue to experience acute deprivations in health, nutrition, schooling and sanitation About 196 million MPI poor people in India, accounting for more than half of all multidimensionally poor in India, live in the four states of Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. Just over one in four multidimensionally poor people in India are under ten years of age. Traditionally disadvantaged groups, in terms of castes, religions etc, continue to be the poorest though they have experienced the biggest decadal reduction in MPI About the world report Maximum to minnimum poor people in different regions : Sub Saharan Africa (41.6%) South Asia 40.6% Arab states 10% East Asia and the Pacific 8.8% Latin America and the Caribbean 3.9% Europe and Central Asia 0.3% MULTIDIMENSIONAL POVERTY INDEX How It Is Made! Health Child Mortality Nutrition Education Years of schooling School attendance Living Standards Cooking fuel Toilet Water Electricity Floor Assets Govt have initiated many programmes to help poor like Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, Pradhan Mantri UJJWALA Yojana . (Scan the QR code to watch video) NOTES:
  17. 17. Page 17 of 111 For Free Download visit www.upsciq.com (click on the image above to watch the video) Oxfam World Inequality Index What is the news India has been ranked among the bottom 10 countries in the latest report- UK has released the report 147/157- current rank of India, among bottom most 10 countries, inequality index is very high What is the Oxfam World Inequality Index-? UK based charity organization Commitment to reducing inequality index Based on three indicators- government’s social spending, tax and labor rights Critical in reducing inequality Highlights about India- Ranked 147/157 countries analyzed Less commitment to reduce inequality If inequality reduced by a one-third, more than 170 million will move out of poverty Government spending on health, education and social protection is low Relatively higher subsidies are provided to the private sector Giving more focus on development than growth, aimed at increasing the well-being and improvement Tax structure of India- Looks reasonably progressive on paper- tax rate would increase with taxable amount increase Under collection- due to tax evasion, taxes are a major form of revenue, government can make more expenditure, inequalities will come down Govt can spend more on education, health and well-being. Social sector can be improved Labor Rights- poor performance of labor rights and respect for women is very less in workplace, firms prefer to employ male, gender disparity Women are engaged in agricultural and informal activities Lacks union organization Lack of enforcement of human rights Enabling working environments, proper payments for work done, due to informalization Contract-based works are highly informal Lesser social spending than the average- in health, education, well-being, more inequality, bring vulnerable into the mainstream Global picture- Topped by Denmark- high and progressive taxation Japan- top-ranking Asian country South Korea- 56 Progressive countries- S.Korea, Namibia, Uruguay, Ethipoia, Chile and Indonesia Recommendations- All countries should develop national inequality action plans to achieve the UN’s SDGs on reducing inequality. (Click on the image above to watch the video) NOTES:
  18. 18. Page 18 of 111 For Free Download visit www.upsciq.com (Click on the image above to watch the video) What is PDS- Flagship food security program- govt. will procure from farmers and store it for later purpose. It is then transferred to the people. Food grains are available to the people at affordable prices Suffers from various insufficiencies- One major criticism- leakages Target is to reach out to the lower classes of the economy It is not reaching actual beneficiary, idea of DBT was implemented, and subsidy amount will be credited to the beneficiaries DBT- Cut administrative cost Reduce leakages Food of choice Monthly transfers are made to the credit of the beneficiaries. Targeted beneficiaries will directly get amount on their credit Beneficiaries can buy food grains of their choice Risks in DBT- Poor implementation- sometimes the vulnerable households can be excluded, benefits may not be reaching the beneficiaries Inadequate transfers- transfer is made in rupees so it can be adequate, market prices will be higher than the subsidized price. Financial inclusions- many bank accounts are not functional, around 60% are non-functional, there should be formal bank account for beneficiary Reduction in the impact of policy goals- providing food commodity, ensure food security, it is assured through availability and accessibility of food grains, the money credited can be used to purchase of non-food grains. Dissolve the entire policy Inflation- prices may vary, inflation is not taken into account in DBT, prices are constant, lesser purchase of food grain because market prices are higher, DBT process will get complicated, food and fuel have volatile prices, entire process would become complicated Comparison- DBT and PDS DBT- quality and choice; money is transferred, choices will be increased PDS- lower price, higher quality- households will get food grains at lower price and the quantity will be high Choice based PDS can be an answer to both DBT and PDS Features of choice based PDS- Choice for e-POS- electronic point of sale, choice of households can be captured in these machines and allocations can be made easily, govt. can provide MSP to households, risks are also there Choice based approach-people living in different parts require different commodities, food requirements are different, govt. can address this issue Beneficiary welfare- improves this welfare, more choices than PDS, and lead to welfare Reduce political and ethical risks- dilemma will be resolved between PDS and DBT Economic viability of PDS dealers improve- more economically viable, allow them to stock other food products too, will have more food grains available for them Impact of food consumption and nutrition- huge impact on food consumption, pattern will improve (Scan the QR code to watch the video) NOTES:
  19. 19. Page 19 of 111 For Free Download visit www.upsciq.com (Click on the image above to watch the video) The Criminalization of Politics Supreme Court Verdict Above topic is important for PRELIMS Exam but very important for MAINS perspective for the topic CIVIL SERVICES MAINS GENERAL STUDIES PAPER 2 Topic: Indian Constitution -historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions, and basic structure. Topic: Salient features of the Representation of People's Act SUPREME COURT ON CRIMINALISATION OF POLITICS The Supreme Court's constitutional bench, in its judgment in CASE NAME: PUBLIC INTEREST FOUNDATION & OTHERS vs UNION OF INDIA. WHAT SUPREME COURT SAID Supreme Court delivered its much-awaited pronouncement on the petitions asking it to bar politicians facing heinous criminal charges — like rape, murder, and kidnapping — from contesting elections. A five-judge bench led by Chief Justice Dipak Misra said that the Court cannot play the role of Parliament. The bench pronounced that it is not in a position to enable disqualification of candidates who face criminal charges. It has, however, provided a slew of directions to curb the criminalization of politics. First, while filing their nominations, the candidates must declare if there are pending criminal cases against them in courts. Second, political parties are also responsible for putting up details of criminal cases filed against their candidates on their websites. Third, Parliament must legislate on the matter to ensure that candidates with criminal antecedents do not enter public life or become lawmakers. Fourth, while filling the nomination forms, candidates must declare their criminal past and the cases pending against them in bold letters. Lastly, political parties should publicise the background of their candidates via the electronic media and issue declarations. The recommendations, though welcome, have practical issues. CENTRAL GOVERNMENT Attorney General K K Venugopal had submitted that fast- track courts to try the charges against the candidates were “the only solution”. The Representation of People Act also recognizes this in principle, requiring the high courts to decide on election petitions within six months. COURT'S LOST CHANCE? Section 8 of the Representation of People Act, 1951, bans convicted politicians. But those facing trial, no matter how serious the charges, are free to contest elections. NOTES An affidavit submitted to the Supreme Court in March by the Centre also testifies to the shortcomings of the RPA's(Representation of People Act ) disqualification clause: There are more than 3800 criminal cases against 1765 MP's and MLA's across the country, of which 3045 cases are pending. (Scan the QR Code to the watch video) NOTES:
  20. 20. Page 20 of 111 For Free Download visit www.upsciq.com (Click on the image above to watch the video) Status of Poverty in India according to latest report- MDPI- It stands for Multi-dimensional poverty index. it is a measurement of poverty, developed by UNDP and OPHDI OPHDI- Oxford poverty and human development initiative Takes into account many dimensions, measures beyond the income- deprivation of households Dimensions involved- health, education and standard of living Indicators that measure- Health- nutrition and child mortality Education- adult literacy and child enrolment Standard of living- cooking fuel, drinking water, electricity, toilet floor assets. Recent findings- MDI has been updated ● More than 270 million Indian moved out of poverty. ● Poverty rate has almost reduced to half between 2006-2016 ● High economic growth, economic liberation adopted since 1991 ● Real MPCE increased ● Monthly per capita consumption expenditure- expenditure of household increased. Health and Education parameters- policies like BetiBachaoBetiPadhao, Mid-day meal Standard of living- policies like SBM, MNGREGA, UJJWALA have uplifted standard of living Concerns- Lesser share of spending on health and education as a share of GDP In 2016-17, 364 million individuals were living in multi- dimensional poverty (MDP) 19% vulnerable to MDP and 9% vulnerable to severe MDP Existing issues in measuring poverty- Suresh Tendulkar committee report of 2009 Income based Poverty can be based on health, education and SOL. Govt. has introduced BPL + programs Govt. has the income plus approach Measures to be taken- Skill development- job and skill mismatch has to be rectified Digitization- better targeting is possible, leakage can be minimized. Welfare programs Focus on outcomes Improve HH income- with household improvement, SOL is improved. (Scan the QR code to watch the video) NOTES:
  21. 21. Page 21 of 111 For Free Download visit www.upsciq.com (Click on the image above to watch the video) Sabarimala Temple Verdict by Supreme Court Sabarimala Sabarimala is a Hindu pilgrimage centre located at the Periyar Tiger Reserve in the Western Ghat mountain ranges of Pathanamthitta District. It is very important Hindu pilgrimage specially in southern part of India. It is one of the largest annual pilgrimages in the world with an estimated 45–50 million devotees visiting every year. BASICS The shrine at Sabarimala is an ancient temple of Ayyappan also known as sasta and Dharmasasta. In the 12th century, Manikandan, a prince of Pandalam dynasty, meditated at Sabarimala temple and became one with the divine. Manikandan was an avatar of Ayyappan. AYYAPPAN – HINDU GOD Belief - the deity is a ‘naishtika brahmachari’ (eternal celibate) PURITY • The devotees are expected to follow a Vratham (41- day austerity period) prior to the pilgrimage. • This begins with wearing of a special Mala (a chain made of Rudraksha or Tulasi beads is commonly used, though still other types of chains are available.). • During the 41 days of Vratham, the devotee who has taken the vow, is required to strictly follow the rules that include follow only a lacto-vegetarian diet (In India, vegetarianism is synonymous with lacto- vegetarianism), follow celibacy, follow teetotalism, not use any profanity and have to control the anger, allow the hair and nails to grow without cutting. WHO RUNS THE TEMPLE? •The temple, dedicated to Lord Ayyappa, is one of the most famous temples in Kerala. •The Travancore Devaswom Board (TDB) manages the temple. •They argued that only women of a certain age are barred from entering the temple and that it is okay to wait till 50 to enter the holy shrine. THE ISSUE OF DISCRIMINATION - 1991 In 1991, the Kerala High Court restricted entry of women above the age of 10 and below the age of 50 from offering worship at Sabarimala Shrine as they were of the menstruating age. THE SABARIMALA CASE •A group of five women lawyers has challenged Rule 3(b) of the Kerala Hindu Places of Public Worship (Authorisation of Entry) Rules, 1965, which authorises restriction on women “of menstruating age”. •Senior Advocate Indira Jaising, who represented the petitioners, said the restrictions went against Articles 14, 15 and 17 of the Constitution. • She argued that the custom is discriminatory in nature and stigmatised women, and that women should be allowed to pray at the place of their choice. KERALA GOVT’S STANCE While the Kerala government had opposed the entry of women in 2016, it told the SC during the hearing this year that it was in favour of allowing women to pray at the temple. Advocate Jaideep Gupta, representing the state government, said it would support the entry of women of all ages to the temple. SABARIMALA VERDICT The Supreme Court in September 2018 allowed women of all ages in the Ayyappa temple at Sabarimala in Kerala. The five-judge constitution bench headed by Chief Justice Dipak Misra, in a 4:1 verdict, said banning the entry of women in Sabarimala temple is gender discrimination and the practice violates the rights of Hindu women. OBSERVATIONS While Justices R F Nariman and D Y Chandrachud concurred with the CJI and Justice A M Khanwilkar, Justice Indu Malhotra gave a dissenting verdict. OBSERVATIONS OF JUSTICE INDU MALHOTRA •Justice Malhotra, the only woman on the bench, said that the petition does not deserve to be entertained. • She was of the view that it is not for courts to determine which religious practices are to be struck down except in issues of social evil like ‘Sati’. Adding that the issue is critical to various religions, she said, “Issues of deep religious sentiments should not be ordinarily be interfered by the court. The Sabarimala shrine and the deity is protected by Article 25 of the Constitution of India and the religious practices cannot be solely tested on the basis of Article 14.” “Notions of rationality cannot be invoked in matters of religion,” said Justice Malhotra, adding: “What constitutes essential religious practice is for the religious community to decide, not for the court. NOW WHAT? The temple is open for worship only during the days of Mandalapooja (approximately 15 November to 26 December), Makaravilakku or"Makara Sankranti"
  22. 22. Page 22 of 111 For Free Download visit www.upsciq.com (14 January) and Maha Vishuva Sankranti (14 April), and the first five days of each Malayalam month. (Scan the QR Code to watch video) NOTES:
  23. 23. Page 23 of 111 For Free Download visit www.upsciq.com (Click on the image above to watch the video) SC/ST Promotion Supreme Court Verdict UPSC PERSPECTIVE Civil Services Mains General Studies Paper 2 under the topic Indian Constitution - historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions, and basic structure. BOOST TO SC/ST QUOTA IN PROMOTIONS Constitution Bench made it easy for SC/ST to get reservation in promotion for government job. BACKGROUND OF THE PREVIOUS JUDGEMENTS 1992 CASE (Indra Sawhney & Others Vs Union Of India (Mandal case)(OBC Reservation)) Supreme Court said SC/ST will get reservation in promotion for government job. No creamy layer test for SC/ST. Creamy layer test is present in OBC . RESERVATION IN PROMOTIONS Supreme Court Article 16 (4) . Stopped the reservation in the promotion for SC/ST in the job. Since 1950 there is reservation in promotion. Indra Sawhney & Others Vs Union Of India Why Reservation? SC/ST should get a good start at the institute. The reasoning was that reservation exists to create a level - playing field, to remedy unequal starting positions, thereby removing the justification for promotion quotas. The court used the light of Article 335 to justify this. So, in 1992 reservation in promotion for government job for SC/ST got stopped. GOVERNMENT CAME INTO ACTION Article 16 (4A) 1995 again reservation in promotion in the job again started . M NAGARAJ CASE 2006: 77th Amendment .Reservation in JOB promotion will continue. Supreme Court THE CONDITIONS Article 16(4A) is fine but Three conditions must be followed 1. The state has to show that the person is really backward. 2. The state have to show that the top admin of beaurocracy has lack of SC/ST people. 3. Proof that administration's efficiency is not disturbed while providing reservation in promotion for SC/ST in government job . PRESENT JUDGEMENT SEPTEMBER 2018 Supreme court in the present judgement (Jarnail Singh vs Lachhmi Narain Gupta) There is no need to revisit the judgment of M Nagaraj case by 7 judge bench. VERDICT 2018 1. The person is really backward or not . (State has no need to show this) 2. Department's condition is deteriorating or not is also not important. 3. However, states will have to back it with data to show their inadequate representation in the cadre Supreme Court :Quota in the promotion, OK but keep out creamy layer among SCs, STs (Scan the QR Code to watch video) NOTES:
  24. 24. Page 24 of 111 For Free Download visit www.upsciq.com (Click on the image above to watch the video) National database on sexual offenders- India has launched the National Database on Sexual Offenders. It has become the 9th country in the world to implement this Objectives of the NDSO- ● NDSO will maintain the database of convicted sexual offenders ● Database includes names, photographs, residential addresses, fingerprints, DNA samples, PAN and Aadhar numbers ● The data is maintained by National Crime Records Bureau ● Made available to only Law enforcement agencies Features of NDSO- ● Database- contain more than 4.5 lakhs cases, first- time offenders along with repeat offenders, details compiled from prisons across the country ● Classification of offenders- according to criminal history ● Period of data storage- depend on category a convicted falls, period depends on crime ● Juvenile offenders ● System ● Appeals ● Data ● Arrested and charge sheeted- the information will be stored except a limited access to the data What are the concerns? ● Access- general public will not have access. The only law enforcement agency can know the records ● Classification- sexual offenses are classified. ● Under-reporting: offenses are committed by people known to the victim. According to NCRB, in 2015, out of 34,651, 33,098 are cases of offenders who are known to the victims. This leads to under reporting of the issues. ● Violence- data breach ● Discrimination- the details included and the data is breached, this is against the law. All these concerns need to be addressed. (Scan the QR code to watch the video) NOTES:
  25. 25. Page 25 of 111 For Free Download visit www.upsciq.com (Click on the image above to watch the video) Status of Swacch Bharat Abhiyaan or SBA in Rajasthan- Implementations of SBA in Rajasthan show that there are its own limitations in the state. There is a long way to go in achieving the goal. According to Ministry of Drinking water and Sanitation- 86.8 million Household now has latrines- constructed under SBA. Subsidies were provided to construct latrines Sanitation access is provided to 94% in rural areas- 5, 07,369 open defecation free villages Swacch Bharat cess- 16, 400 crore fund was collected by the govt. and utilized for implementing SBA 25 states and UTs free of open defecation Ground Reality in Rajasthan- ODF- Open defecation free, people use latrines instead of open defecation, every household has toilets. Target has to be met within a particular period. Many vulnerable households did not get toilets, the usage is in questions Inclusion- houses constructed after 2012 were exempted from providing subsidies Self-declaration: it is the local officials who make this declaration. Pressure was there from high officials. Coercions-built toilets out of compulsions and did not use it later. Construction and usage should be met. There was a pressure from the govt. to construct toilets but no usage was there Awareness creation-5% should be used for spreading information. Only 0.5% was used for spreading information. Very poor Manual Scavenging- this has been reported. Some areas are not open defecation free Issues with survey of Ministry- Ministry’s MIS- Management Information System, the latrine construction survey is evaluated and not the usage. According to this survey, it is very high. But no usage according to the survey National Annual Rural Sanitation Survey- Quality Council of India- the latrine use was 90%. PHR has different opinions NFHS- evaluation in Ajmer. Found out that open defecation is 39% in 2018. But this was declared ODF in the month of July 2016. The data contradicts. Indian Institute of Health Management and Research University- 4893 household survey was taken in October 2016. 49% was open defecation in Jaipur. Six months later, the state govt. declared the state ODF. Usage was not taken into account, only construction was considered. What steps should be taken- Proper enforcement of laws on municipal solid wastes, protection of water sources and pollution control- according to SBA, 3/4th households have door-to-door municipal collection. But ground reality is different, more chances of waste generation, waste volumes continue to grow in reality Manual scavenging- many areas of Rajasthan are not ODF. Funds should be given for rehabilitation. Open defecation- govt. should reach out to areas where people defecate in the open. More focus should be given in these areas. Vision should be broader and target should be achieved. (Scan the QR code to watch video) NOTES:
  26. 26. Page 26 of 111 For Free Download visit www.upsciq.com C. INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS (Click on the image above to watch the video) STATUS OF ROHINGYAS 7 Rohingya deported to Myanmar, Supreme Court gave the approval of the deportation. BASIC - WHO ARE ROHINGYA Rohingya are Muslims living in Arakan region of Myanmar. Myanmar government don't see them as a proper citizen hence they have not been given proper citizenship in Myanmar. 40,000 Rohingya don't have citizenship in Myanmar hence they have difficulty in finding the job and in other services too. WHY ROHINGYAS FLED MYANMAR? They have Indo- Tabitayan(facial features) ethnicity causes the problem here, developing countries are frequently seen with the problem of ethnicity which creates fighting among the individuals. Fighting in people due to there Race causes difficulty in finding the job and in other services too for them. The Whole Rohingya case:(Violence case (spark)) Rape of an Indo Tabitayan ethnicity girl happens and the rumours are spread that Rohingya's people raped her .so, there is clash/riots. Rohingya are running from their country after this clash Rohingya ran to Bangladesh because they have ancestral roots in Bangladesh. They ran to different countries as well. They entered India through boats via West Bengal. 40,000 Rohingya are presently in India. They are mainly spread all over India but the ratio is quite high in Jammu. Rohingya in India are mainly living in the states of Jammu and Kashmir, Telangana, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi, and Rajasthan. Rohingya's illegally entered India. For example : People(illegal immigrant) from Mexico enter into the USA for getting jobs and other services (of the local people), s the president of USA is planning to build the wall against them. Similarly, Rohingya people entered India. NUMBERS? Rohingya people are having bad intentions?? are they linked to any terrorist activities. REFUGEES AND INDIA ● Most of the Rohingya Muslims living in India are registered with the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), better known as UN Refugee agency. ● International organisations have appealed to India not to deport the Rohingyas. But, the government has stated that its decision to deport Rohingyas concerns the state of security. NOTES India does not have a refugee specific law and the matter falls under the Foreigners Act of 1946, enacted by the Central Legislative Assembly. The Foreigners Act makes undocumented physical presence of a foreigner in India a crime. It also empowers the government to detain a foreigner living illegally in the country till that person is deported. PROBLEM Myanmar have not registered them as the citizen of Myanmar .How will Indian government deport them. ISSUES OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS : An illegal immigrant ( without any document) Refugee (At the time of calamity) India has fundamental rights for foreigners too. Under the article :protection of life and personal liberty (Article 21) WHY 7 ROHINGYAS WERE DEPORTED? The Rohingya Muslims from Rakhine province on Myanmar’s western coast started arriving in sizeable numbers in India’s northeast in late 2011. (Scan the QR code to watch video) NOTES:
  27. 27. Page 27 of 111 For Free Download visit www.upsciq.com ( Click on the image above to watch the video) GS2 UPSC PERSPECTIVE MAINS GENERAL STUDIES PAPER 2 under the topic India and its Neighbourhood- Relations. AGARTALA-AKHAURA RAILWAY PROJECT Recently, Prime Minister Narendra Modi along with his Bangladeshi counterpart Sheikh Hasina, Chief Minister of Tripura Biplab Kumar , Chief Minister of West Bengal Mamata Banerjee inaugurated the commencement of work for the Agartala-Akhaura railway project through video conferencing. A HUGE PROJECT FOR BOTH COUNTRIES It will get over by 2019 very good project for the north eastern part of our country. NOTES 500 MW additional power supply from India to Bangladesh: It will be transferred through existing Bheramara (Bangladesh)-Baharampur (India) interconnection. With completion of this project, India will be supplying around 1.16 Gigawatts of power to Bangladesh. This project announced during his PM Modi’s visit to Bangladesh in 2015. AKHAURA–AGARTALA RAIL LINK(Very important for prelims UPSC ) The railway project was conceptualized in 2010. Later, both the countries had signed MoU on this railway project in 2013. It is expected that railway line will become operational in 2019. The railway project consists of constructing 15.054 km long railway line. It will provide another link in the cross-border connectivity between two countries by connecting Akhaura in Bangladesh with capital city of Tripura, Agartala through Nischintapur in Indo-Bangla border. It will help to develop socio-economic as well as cultural bond between two neighbouring countries TRIPURA TO BECOME GATEWAY TO ASEAN COUNTRIES Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. 1 Observer – Papua New Guinea. BIG PLANS(UPSC MAINS ANSWER WRITING) Tripura would be turned into ‘HIRA’, which is acronym for development in Highways, i-ways or Internet Services, Roadways and Airways. NOTES Referring to eight states of the northeast, PM had said the region would be developed into ‘Astalaxmi’. (Scan the QR code to watch video) NOTES:
  28. 28. Page 28 of 111 For Free Download visit www.upsciq.com ( Click on the image above to watch the video) U.S Sanctions on Chinese Military The U.S has imposed a sanction (Punishment) on China because it bought military weapons from Russia. A DANGEROUS SCENARIO The US imposed sanctions Thursday against China's military for its purchases of Russian military equipment in a move US officials said is meant to punish Moscow for its "malign activities," including attacks on American elections. The USA is doing this because Russia took the side of the Republican party in the elections and recently China has bought equipment from Russia ,so sanction on China. NOTES "Today's actions are not intended to undermine the military capabilities or combat readiness of any country," the State Department said in a statement, "but rather to impose costs on Russia in response to its interference in the United States election process, its unacceptable behaviour in eastern Ukraine, and other malign activities." The punishment is given to Russia but the pain is felt by China . What will happen after sanction? The growth of the Chinese military will stop. Big companies(like Google , Apple) were about to trade in China but now they are stepping back for any trade in China. REASON FOR PUTTING SANCTION ON CHINA • The US says China has contravened US sanctions on Moscow introduced over Russian actions in Ukraine and alleged interference in US politics. • China recently bought 10 Russian Sukhoi Su-35 fighter jets and S400 missiles. • Beijing has not joined in the sanctions imposed on Moscow by the US and its Western allies since 2014. • Its forces took part in giant Russian war games held earlier this month. COUNTERING AMERICA'S ADVERSARIES THROUGH SANCTIONS ACT The Countering America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act, CAATSA is a United States federal law that imposed sanctions on Iran, North Korea, and Russia. The bill was passed during the 115th Congress, 98–2 in the Senate. On August 2, 2017, President Donald Trump signed it into law while issuing two statements simultaneously that he believed the legislation was "seriously flawed" THE CHINESE RESPONSE "We strongly urge the US side to correct the mistakes immediately and revoke the so-called sanctions. Otherwise, the US has to bear the consequences of it." WHAT OTHER REACTION HAS THERE BEEN? • Russia has also criticised the sanctions on the Chinese military, warning the US against "playing with fire". • "It would be good for them to remember there is such a concept as global stability which they are thoughtlessly undermining by whipping up tensions in Russian-American ties," Deputy Foreign Minister Sergei Ryabkov said in a statement. The US do not have any official power to put sanctions on any country, but US is doing this because it has a lot of gold deposits and the value of the dollar is very high. US economy is the biggest . Dollar is used in every transaction. The US is misusing its power. The US has given warning to India. US may put sanction on India if India deals with Russia for S-400. Not to buy defence system from Russia. What India can do? 1. Not to buy S-400 2. Stand with Russia and China. India needs help from the US. If the US puts sanction on India then it will be very bad for the Indian Economy. (Scan the QR code to watch the video) NOTES:
  29. 29. Page 29 of 111 For Free Download visit www.upsciq.com ( Click on the image above to watch the video) INDO-BANGLA PIPELINE PROJECT • Prime Minister Narendra Modi and his Bangladesh counterpart Sheikh Hasina on September 18, 2018 jointly launched the construction of India-Bangladesh Friendship Product Pipeline. Pipeline is from India to Bangladesh Project through video conferencing. • The project will go a long way in strengthening the Indo- Bangla ties. It is a new milestone in the history of cooperation between India and Bangladesh. • Both the sides had entered into an agreement for the construction of the pipeline in April 2018 during Foreign Secretary Vijay Gokhale's visit to Dhaka. INDIA-BANGLADESH FRIENDSHIP PRODUCT PIPELINE PROJECT • The 130-kilometre pipeline will connect Siliguri in West Bengal in India and Parbatipur in Dinajpur district of Bangladesh. • The six-kilometre Indian leg of the pipeline project will be implemented by the Assam-based Numaligarh Refinery Limited and the remaining 124kilometres of the pipeline project will be implemented by BangladeshPetroleum Corporation. •The capacity of the pipeline will be 1 million metric tons per annum. MAJOR MILESTONE • Bangladesh would initially receive 2.5 lakh tonnes of diesel every year and it would gradually be increased to 4 lakh tonnes. • The project will replace the existing practice of sending diesel by rail covering a distance of 510 kilometres. • The estimated project cost will be Rs 346 crore and it will be completed in 30 months time. • This will be the first such pipeline through which refined diesel will be supplied to Parbatipur depot from Numaligarh of Assam in India. BANGLADESH TO PROVIDE INDIA ACCESS TO KEY PORTS • Bangladesh Cabinet chaired by Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina has approved draft agreement allowing India to use its Chittagong and Mongla ports to transport cargo to and from its North eastern states. AGREEMENT ON SEA PORTS FOR TRANSPORTING GOODS • Under this agreement, India can transport goods as per capacity of two sea ports. NOTES : • Under it, India will have to follow General Agreement on Tariff and Trad (GATT) and Bangladeshi regulations, pay customs duties and buy tax equivalent bonds to transport freight. India will also pay fees for using infrastructure of Bangladeshi land ports. To keep track of cargo new modern tracking system will be used. • The agreement will be effective for five years, but it can be extended for another five years automatically. However, any side can cancel the agreement after giving six months’ notice and suspend deal. Standard Operational Procedure (SOP) will be prepared for implementing this agreement. The SOP will be prepared after consulting with various stakeholders. IMPORTANCE OF BANGLADESH According to global firepower index ECONOMY OF BANGLADESH The market-based economy of Bangladesh is the 42nd largest in the world in nominal terms, and 31st largest by purchasing power parity; it is classified among the Next Eleven emerging market middle income economies and a Frontier market. (Scan the QR code to watch the video) NOTES:
  30. 30. Page 30 of 111 For Free Download visit www.upsciq.com (Click on the image above to watch the video) India to buy Four Russian Frigates for 2.2 Billion dollars - Made in India INDIA RUSSIA HIGH IN INVESTMENT External Affairs Minister Sushma Swaraj said that India and Russia should consider raising the overall investment target to $50 billion because the target of $30 billion set for 2025 has already been met. MAJOR PROJECTS IN PREVIOUS YEARS • ONGC Videsh Ltd in 2001 bought a 20 per cent stake in the Sakhalin-1 project in Far East Russia. OVERCOMING THE TRADE GAP BY INVESTMENT SUSHMA SWARAJ VISIT • Meeting prepared the groundwork for the annual India- Russia bilateral summit between Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Russian President Vladimir Putin, to be held in New Delhi next month. • Russia is one of only two countries with which India holds annual bilateral summits, the other being Japan. • The Indian Minister also said that both sides have agreed to organise the first-ever India-Russia Business Summit involving major companies from both countries in early October in India. THE PARTNERSHIP •The India-Russia bilateral relationship was elevated to Special and Privileged Strategic Partnership in 2010. •Modi and Putin have already met twice this year -- at an informal summit in the Russian resort city of Sochi in May and then on the sidelines of the BRICS (Brazil,Russia, India, China and South Africa) Summit in SouthAfrica in June. Major defence deal between India and Russia. NOTES • Two weeks after India significantly upgraded its defence ties with the United States through the Comcasa (Communications Compatibility and Security Agreement), the Modi government has cleared the way for one of the biggest purchases from Russia — $2.2-billion frigates deal. • Financial sanctions by the US have complicated purchase of weapons from Moscow as Indian banks are unable to transfer money to defence companies in Russia. •An alternative arrangement, to pay in Indian rupee instead of the standard US dollar, is being worked out to partly deal with the matter. DETAILS OF THE DEAL • The agreement will allow India to procure four new warships from Russia for the Navy. • The deal will also involve building two of the ships at the Goa shipyard. • The deal has been processed as 2+2 scheme. (2 will come from Russia and two will be made in India(from scratch)) • In this scheme, the technology will be transferred to Goa Shipyard to construct two of the frigates from scratch. • The Indian-made warships are expected to cost 30-50% more than the direct Russian import due to the cost of building infrastructure and transfer of technology. THE DETAILS After Crimea fallout, Russia and Ukraine suspended all defense ties which rendered the underconstruction Admiral Grigorovich class frigates of limited operational use to Russian Navy until they were re-engined with Russian alternative which is expected to be ready only by 2020. NOTES •India’s defense acquisition council has sanctioned$75 million for acquiring M7N.1E gas turbine engines from Ukraine for powering the two Grigorovich class frigates that are expected to soon arrive in India from Russia. •India had agreed to purchase the two frigates Admiral Butakov and Admiral Istomin. (Scan the QR code to watch the video) NOTES:
  31. 31. Page 31 of 111 For Free Download visit www.upsciq.com (click on the image above to watch the video) Putin In India | S-400 | Space Exploration VLADIMIR PUTIN VISIT TO INDIA Vladimir Putin is the second most powerful person in the world according to the Forbes magazine. UPSC PERSPECTIVE Above topic is essential for both prelims and mains under the topic Civil services mains general studies paper 2 Sub Topics : Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and /or affecting India's interests. IMPORTANCE Russian President(Vladimir Putin) visits more frequently to India and this is the 3rd meeting in 2018. India finally signed the deal to purchase s-400 . LOW KEY ANNOUNCEMENT The deal for S-400 missile system was signed by Joint Secretary (Land Systems) from Indian Defence Ministry and Director General ROE (Rosoboronexport). Under COMCASSA, USA has warned countries not to do any deal with Russia, whoever will do the deal with Russia, the USA will put sanction on that country. Previously it was seen that China did deal with Russia and the USA have put sanction on China. India has friendly relations with the USA. USA did not put sanctions on India after this deal. This is a huge diplomatic victory for India. RELIANCE OFF-SET CLAUSE? S-400 is a NO Offset clause. It is government to the government initiative. LIST OF PACTS SIGNED Space Exploration More on Space – Along with assistance to India ‘s ambitious ‘Gaganyaan’ project, Russia has also agreed to set up data collection ground stations for India’s recently developed navigation system NaVIC. RAILWAYS The MoC includes the implementation of a ‘speed- upgradation project’ in the Nagpur-Secunderabad section, installation of a single traffic-control centre for efficient management of rail traffic at the local level, efficient practices in freight and cargo operations, development of multi-modal terminals and a mutual exchange of the advanced technologies used by the two countries. AGRICULTURE The Russian Direct Investment Fund (RDIF), Indian Potash Ltd and producers of phosphate-containing fertilisers PhosAgro Friday announced joint investments in mineral fertiliser production in Russia and India. ECONOMY Russia and India also agreed upon encouraging the use of national currencies while engaging in bilateral trade. Trade between Russia & India will reach $30bn by 2025 THE BIG INVITATION (significant) Vladimir Putin invites Modi to 2019 Vladivostok Economic Forum also known as the Eastern Economic Forum. (Scan the QR Code to watch video) NOTES:
  32. 32. Page 32 of 111 For Free Download visit www.upsciq.com (click on the image above to watch the video) WHY IS CHINA BETTING ON AFRICA? ● Because of excellent growth opportunities (raw materials required for manufacturing) available in African countries China is emphasizing to increase its investment. ● If the product is manufactured then China requires different markets where it can export those products in African countries. ● In 2015, China’s President Xi Jinping announced a plan to invest $60billion in development projects across Africa. ● The benefits for African nations include the reduction of poverty, an increase in health infrastructure and industrialisation. Why China investing ● By investing in such a development project China increases the influence in the region and control the political power, Economic power of a particular country. ● China also increases its presence in African countries. Amount of investments made by China ● Before the 21st century, there is less priority to African countries. ● Early 21st century China emphasizing more in African countries both Saharan & sub-Saharan countries. Foreign Direct Investment in Africa (2005) ● China has made an investment of over $300 million ● China investment is seeing not only in infrastructures like coastal railway or Hydropower dam but also emphasize promoting industrialization in African countries like Cement plants. The purpose is to improve the level of industrialization. 1.2 China emerged as African’s largest trading partner 1.3 One Built One Road One Built One Road initiative is China wants to explore the markets available in different part of the world. Earlier China is an export-oriented economy. China mainly exports the products to the developed world (U.S.A, Europe). Because of adoption or protest nest policy i.e. country are increasing tariff and non-tariff barrier. If China has a dependency on this developed world then its economy would be affected. So, China is searching for an alternative.
  33. 33. Page 33 of 111 For Free Download visit www.upsciq.com Raw Material in African Countries -> Petroleum, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Diamond etc Strategic point of view ● Some African countries have an important strategic location because some of the sea routes are used by ships to reach to different countries. ● If China has a presence/influence in the countries then China can easily control the sea route which again provides a huge strategic advantage to China. ● If China able to control the sea route then it can impact on India’s economy because by controlling China limit the exporting in India. ● Increase in China presence in African countries will result in neo-colonialism. ● China is investing in infrastructure in African countries because Africa provides minerals to China that increase dependency of African countries on China. ● The Chinese-African relationship looks simple and based on Chinese exploitation of African resources; however, the relationship is very complex and multi-layered. ● By increasing the economic activities in African countries China is trying to connect different developing economies across the world. (Scan the QR Code to watch video NOTES:
  34. 34. Page 34 of 111 For Free Download visit www.upsciq.com (click on the image above to watch the video) World's Longest Sea Bridge CHINA IN THE NEWS AGAIN In 2018 China President Xi Jinping officially disclose the world’s longest sea bridge connecting with Hong Kong, Macau and mainland China. It hooks with three important regions Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge(HKZMB or HZMB). STRUCTURE Government start working according to China’s People decision. The bridge starts from Zhuhai and Macau Boundary, passes from Dual 3-lane carriageway then go to undersea tunnel (7km long) that comprises of two circles which are basically an Island chained with dotted line i.e underwater tunnel and reach to Hong Kong link road. Main bridge and tunnel length are 30 km. CHINESE ENGINEERING ● The submerged tunnel is 6.7-kilometer (4-mile) to avoid the busy shipping paths over the Pearl River Delta. ● The tunnel runs between two artificial islands, each measuring 100,000 square meters (1 million square feet) and located in relatively shallow waters. SOME POINTS YOU SHOULD KNOW It will shear the travel time between Hong Kong and Zhuhai from three hours to just 30 minutes The bridge designed in such a way that it deals with a magnitude eight earthquake, a super typhoon and strikes by super-sized cargo vessels was built using 400,000 tonnes of steel, enough to build 60 Eiffel Towers. ARE HONG KONG AND MACAU PART OF CHINA? The Special Administrative Regions are Hong Kong and Macau, two relatively independent regions within the People's Republic of China that maintain separate administrative, legal and judicial systems from the rest of the country. CRITICISM The critics called the bridge a 'white elephant' and a 'blood and sweat project', as more than 600 workers were injured and 10 died during construction. (Scan the QR Code to watch the video) NOTES:
  35. 35. Page 35 of 111 For Free Download visit www.upsciq.com ( Click on the image above to watch the video) India and China to Sign Internal Security Cooperation Agreement. NOTES Zhao Kezhi, China’s Minister of Public Security and Union Home Minister Rajnath Singh are slated to discuss various aspects of security cooperation between the two countries. For the first time, India and China will sign an internal security cooperation agreement next week, marking a new beginning in bilateral relations. While Mr. Singh is the head of eight central armed police forces with a combined strength of about 10 lakh personnel, Mr. Zhao is responsible for day-to-day law enforcement in China and commands about 19 lakh personnel. The scheduled meeting may lead to a future India-China agreement on the exchange of sentenced prisoners, another official said. Currently, India does not have an extradition treaty with China, nor a pact to exchange each other’s sentenced prisoners. There are at least 10 Indians in Chinese prisons and an equal number of Chinese citizens in Indian prisons. This will help in the improvement of relations between India and China hence we can see more agreements between India and China in the coming future. THE AGREEMENT The proposed pact is expected to cover areas of intelligence sharing, exchange programme, sharing of best practices, cooperation in disaster mitigation. INTERESTING TIMES - CLOSER INDIA CHINA Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Chinese President Xi Jinping held an informal summit in Wuhan, China, in April this year which helped repair bilateral ties. CHINA NEEDS INDIA IN THE TRADE WAR China seeks help from India to fight US trade protectionism. GOLDEN RULE OF GEOPOLITICS There are no permanent enemies, and no permanent friends, only permanent interests. ( Scan the QR code to the watch video ) NOTES:
  36. 36. Page 36 of 111 For Free Download visit www.upsciq.com (Click on the image above to watch the video) US Fed Rate Hike The current affair was that- US federal Reserves raised interest rates for a 3rd time this year It is a rising cause of concern for India Effects of interest rise- Investment- investing in dollar will give more return. Since interest rates are high. The return and the risk in concerned. US economy is providing more return. Foreign companies invest in equity. It can be withdrawn anytime. Foreign portfolio investors will put out their capital from Indian market and invest in Indian market. Because of more return. Indian economy is providing low return. Demand of Indian rupee will fall. Leads to deprivation of Indian economy. Imports- the value of dollar increases. Leads to strengthening of dollar. Import bills will be expensive. Crude oil price will increase. Expensive imports. CAD- excess of value of imports over exports. Weakening of rupee bill will lead to widening of CAD Domestic inflation- it will lead to cost-push inflation. Cost of production increases as supply comes down. It leads to negative impact on the economy. GDP will come down. Economic Scenario- ● RBI/MPC- meet the differential in US economy and Indian economy. Reserve bank will increase the interest rate. Provide better returns. Loans will become expensive. Negative impact on economy. Private investment comes down. Fiscal burden for government. Production comes down because of absence of capital. ● Reserves- there are obligations from RBI. Further bring down the reserves RBI holds ● Balance of payment- chances of increase in capital flow. Negative impact on country’s finance situation. ● Protectionism- increase in custom duty and imports will become expensive. Reduce the supply of imported commodities. Cost of commodities will increase. Focus on enhancing the capacity of domestic producers. RBI must make smart policies to control the economy. (Scan the QR code to watch video) NOTES:

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