B2c ecommerce report East Europe

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B2c ecommerce report East Europe

  1. Eastern Europe B2C E-commerce Report 2013 Facts, Figures & Trends of 2012 and Forecast 2013 of the Eastern European B2C E-commerce Market Including Infographics and Country Profiles of Leading and Emerging E-commerce Markets in Eastern Europe Powered by:
  2. © Ecommerce Europe
  3. Table of Contents PREFACE ABOUT ECOMMERCE EUROPE OUR REPORT PARTNERS MEDIA PARTNERS Eastern EUROPE IN BRIEF Introduction Demographic Indicators Economic Indicators Share in Europe Online share and growth Online expenditure B2C E-commerce overview Eastern EUROPEAN COUNTRIES Romania Russia Ukraine © Ecommerce Europe page page page page page page page page page page page page page page page page 4 5 6 7 10 – 17 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 – 60 18 30 46 HOW TO GET INVOLVED page 61 BUSINESS PARTNERS page 62 MEDIA PARTNERS page 63 JOINING ECOMMERCE EUROPE page 64 MORE REPORTS ON B2C ECOMMERCE EUROPEAN MEASUREMENT STANDARD OF B2C ECOMMERCE (EMSEC) DEFINITIONS METHODOLOGY, ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS AND SOURCES ABOUT THE AUTHORS B2C ECOMMERCE IN EUROPE AT A GLANCE page 65 page 66 – 68 page page 69 - 70 page page 72 COLOPHONE page 74 71 73 Page 3
  4. Eastern Europe B2C E-commerce Preface B2C e-commerce in Eastern Europe is, compared to the other regions, in Europe still in iemerging but is showing high growth potential, especially Russia and Ukraine. In 2012 the total B2C ecommerce turnover, including online retail goods and services such as online travel bookings, events and other tickets, downloads etc., reached €13.1 billion, a growth of 35.6%, which is the highest growth of all five European regions. Growth in 2013 is estimated even better: a growth of 47% to reach €19,3 billion. This Eastern European B2C e-commerce Report 2013 focuses on facts, figures, trends and forecasts for the Eastern European region. Ecommerce Europe is also publishing regional reports covering the other European regions: North, Central, East and South. In this report we compare key e-commerce and other data from Belgium, France, Ireland, the Netherlands and the UK. Ecommerce Europe’s mission is to promote the interests of B2C ecommerce in Europe. Ecommerce Europe offers a platform to guide and assist companies in identifying and accessing new markets in Europe and worldwide and also to provide information on this fascinating, fast-growing industry. To this end, Ecommerce Europe not only collects data and know-how, but also prepares in-depth reports including facts, figures, trends and forecasts on Europe, the various regions of Europe, and on leading and emerging countries and markets around the globe. The aim of all our reports is to provide insight in order to help online retailers make the best possible decisions in support of their strategy to expand their business into new markets. Brussels, January 2014 François Momboisse Ecommerce Europe, representing e-commerce associations and e-commerce companies in Europe, wishes to thank all participating national associations and their individual research partners for providing data and information. We also extend our thanks to all participating company members, business partners and stakeholders for their involvement in making Ecommerce Europe reports possible. © Ecommerce Europe Wijnand Jongen President of Ecommerce Europe Vice-President and Chair of the Executive Committee Page 4
  5. About Ecommerce Europe Ecommerce Europe National Associations: Ecommerce Europe was founded by leading national e-commerce associations across Europe. Ecommerce Europe represents 4.000+ companies selling products and/or services online to consumers in Europe. Mission To advance the interests and influence of e-commerce in Europe through advocacy, communication and networking. Goals • • • • • Enhance the success of the European B2C e-commerce industry; Provide for a strong and effective representation of B2C e-commerce industry in Brussels; Advance the interest of B2C e-commerce industry with relevant stakeholders and institutions; In an environment where e-commerce companies feel at home; With new brand recognition and membership engagement at all levels. National Associations Ecommerce Europe welcomes and invites national associations in EU member states and EFTA countries representing (part of) the e-commerce B2C industry in their domestic market to join the association. © Ecommerce Europe Page 5
  6. Our Report Partners This report has been empowered by the following partners Hybris helps businesses on every continent sell more goods, services and digital content through every touch point, channel and device. Hybris was founded in 1997 with a simple mission: to create superbly engineered commerce solutions. Over the years, the necessary ingredients for that have evolved – multichannel, open standards, very high performance, data centricity, customer centricity – and so our company and products have evolved. RichRelevance is the global leader in omni-channel personalization. More than 160 companies in 40 countries use RichRelevance to turn data into actionable insight, which delivers the most relevant experience for consumers as they shop across web, store and mobile. RichRelevance drives more than one billion decisions every day, and has delivered over $8 billion in attributable sales to its clients, which include Target, Marks & Spencer and PriceMinister. Salesupply is a global e-business services company that enables online retailers to achieve profitable international growth faster, more efficiently and with relatively low costs. Salesupply provides a full range of solutions ranging from research and strategy, to effective localisation of web shops, followed by complete operational support, traffic generation and brand management. © Ecommerce Europe Page 6
  7. “Russia is a rising star” Long-term opportunities lie beyond Moscow and St. Petersburg Russia: From ‘sleeping giant’ to ‘rising star’ Russia is often hyped as a “rising star” in e-commerce heaven: Soaring internet penetration and a huge growth potential were the reasons for that. With over 160 million people, Russia is the biggest single market in Europe. Russia tripled its online sales in the last three years and online sales could hit 25 billion euro this year. However, to begin your online business in Russia, you want to start in the region Moscow and St. Petersburg. The greater area counts about 25-30 million people with an considerable budget to spend. The middle class is growing very fast and people like to spend money online. Also the logistic infrastructure is, for Russian standards, well developed there. The largest long-run opportunities however lie in the regions beyond Moscow and St. Petersburg. Russia has another 9 cities with over 1 million people that most Europeans have never heard of. These 130 million people spread from the Caucasus over Siberia to Manchuria are what makes Russia the real ‘sleeping giant’. Internet penetration is growing fast here, and the middle class is rising. Delivery to these areas is a logistical challenge that will be solved in the next couple of years when the offer and demand for online sales will increase significantly. E-commerce in Ukraine : Strong growth and potential The Ukrainian e-commerce market has grown nearly threefold over the past four years. The 300 largest of the 8000 online stores generate more than three quarters of the e-commerce turnover. With 45 million inhabitants, the current e-commerce turnover of €1,2bn still shows a large growth potential for the future. In general, I think doing business in either of these three countries requires thorough research and building a reliable local network of experts and partners. Any foreign company eying to enter these markets has to be aware of the economic charcteristics and the culture that shape the business climate and adapt to that. If you are willing to make this effort, there are large opportunities to be explored. Structural improvements in Romania Romania , since its entry in the European Union in 2007, has received funds and incentives to improve its infrastructure, which is a benefit for the development of ecommerce. Romanians are generally quite internet- savvy. In bigger cities such as Bucharest, Sibiu and Timisoara, the internet population is considerably larger than in rural areas. But penetration is increasing steadily throughout the whole country and the market is offering more and more opportunities for online retail. © Ecommerce Europe Henning Heesen E-Commerce Cross-Border-Specialist and Board member of Salesupply AG Page 7
  8. “Eastern Europe is showing great potential” Adapting to the local internet culture allows seizing promising opportunities Eastern European growth outpaces other Western Europe In terms of growth, the Eastern European region outpaces Western Europe. This is due to the fact that there is still a lot of ground to gain. Many of the countries, such as Romania, are still in a transition phase from being centrally regulated economies to free capitalistic market systems. Market conditions are improving In general however, the education levels are high, people are increasingly internet-smart and consumers’ demand for more shopping choices increases. As internet penetration increases and the logistic infrastructures continue to structurally improve, the Eastern European Region becomes an interesting market for international online retail businesses. Russia: The most promising market in Eastern Europe The most promising emerging market in the region is Russia: Russia is one of the fastest growing e-commerce markets worldwide, and throughout the past years, more and more international companies have shown interest in this country. Russia, with 60 Million internet users boasting the largest online community in Europe, is a market still largely controlled by local companies. © Ecommerce Europe Local companies dominate the market This is due to a variety of factors: delivery is an issue- tackled by larger players such as by having developed their own fulfilment organization. Next to that, the Russian internet culture is very different from that in other markets: Translation alone is insufficient to gain the customers’ trust: Companies must take into account completely different rules of the game: Instead of Facebook, Russian use VKontakte, Search is done on Yandex, and cash still dominates the payment market. International players enter Russia But as the Russian’s appetite for e-commerce grows, more companies are willing to take the steps necessary to enter the market, examples being the British fashion PurePlayer ASOS and the Chinese e-commerce giant Alibaba. The growth prospects of this country are thus more than promising. Pontus Kristiansson Vice President EMEA RichRelevance Page 8
  9. The “e” in e-commerce is disappearing Offering a seamless experience across all touch-points is key for cross- border growth What is your general impression of e-commerce in Europe? The ‘e’ of e-commerce is disappearing. Online is a very important element in the route a customer follows, from the moment he or she has an idea to the actual transaction: the purchase path. E-commerce is no longer a thing that companies do as an additional channel, it has reached a phase of maturity and is now a fully integrated component of the customer’s purchasing journey. Which European regions do you consider the most promising and why? Russia and Turkey are both important emerging European markets. However, we also need to consider Scandinavia. Scandinavia was hit harshly by the bursting of the dot-com bubble around the year 2000; the market grew more slowly than for example in the UK. Scandinavia is however now picking up pace. What do you consider the important trends to be? The dominant trend is mobile: mobile commerce and mobile payments. Interesting possibilities consist, for example, in the ability to track customers, the integration of mobile into offline shop processes and the use of NFC technology for payments. Imagine that shop staff is equipped with a tablet that enables them to help the customer in a completely new way, even taking care of the checkout process. In short, the whole POS is going through a transition with mobile being a key element of this change. What in your opinion is this year’s most overrated e-commerce trend? “I believe QR Codes have been an overrated trend: it is too difficult to use, what with starting your app, having an Internet connection, scanning the code -altogether too complicated! © Ecommerce Europe Which challenges do online retailers underestimate the most when expanding their e-business across Europe? Patience is key. Those new markets will still be out there in two years. If a company has 100 employees in The Netherlands and then tries to enter the German market with two dedicated staff members, this is not going to work. Selling in foreign markets is full of complexities. If companies want to succeed, they need to do it step by step, with a mature team and with patience. Is there anything else you would like to share with our readers? I believe pure-players are being challenged by Amazon: Amazon wants to control 26% of the global e-commerce market by 2016. They are heavily investing in growth right now. Retailers who want to set themselves apart have to keep in mind that clients are seeking an omni-channel experience. I would strongly advise pure-players to go offline in regions where they have many customers. Research has shown that customers of omni-channel retailers are 200% more loyal than customers of pure players. Again, this is because of the role that different sales channels play in the customer journey from the instant that interest is ignited to the moment of sale: 50% of people will change from channel in every step they make in their purchasing journey. Many retailers are losing clients because they fail to offer a seamless experience across all touch-points. Henk-Jan van der Weide VP Northern Europe & SA at hybris Page 9
  10. Eastern Europe 2012 Key e-commerce facts at a glance 249 million 100% people live in Eastern Europe 51% 114 million Russia 17% 28 million € 13,1 bn e-commerce turnover of goods & services people are e-shoppers Ukraine Europe € 312 bn + 19,0% EU 28 € 275bn + 18,0% Eastern Europe € 13,1 bn + 35,6% people use the internet 19% 81% Services Goods Romania Bulgaria Total B2C Ecommerce 2012 of goods & services Ranking Eastern Europe in turnover (EUR million) E-commerce GDP 0,66 % Total GDP € 1.992 bn National Associations: NAMO (National Association for Distance Selling & Ecommerce) Moscow, Russia Ukrainian Direct Marketing Association (UDMA); Kiev 1 2 3 1 Russia 2 Ukraine 3 Romania 4 Bulgaria # Other countries¹ € 10.300 € 1.250 € 800 € 120 € 617 1 Other countries include: Albania, Belarus, Bosnia & Herzegovina, FYR Macedonia, Moldova, Kosovo, Montenegro and Serbia. 1,6% Estimated share of online retail in total retail Estimated 40% of active internet users are on social media Powered by: © Ecommerce Europe 2013 info:
  11. Eastern Europe in Brief Introduction The Eastern European region consists of Albania, Belarus, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Kosovo, Moldova, Montenegro, Romania, Russia, Serbia and Ukraine. This report focuses on Russia, Ukraine and Romania. The rest of the countries will be referred to as “others” , as B2C ecommerce is still in its infancy . EASTERN EUROPE’S POPULATION Share of Eastern European population, 2012 Bulgaria 3% Others 13% The Eastern European region is home to a total of 248,7 million inhabitants living in around 92 million households. Romania 9% Russia is by far the largest country of the region, with a population of 143,2 million or 57% of the region’s total population. With a surface of 17.075.000 km2 Russia is not only the largest Eastern European nation but also Europe’s largest country both in surface as in population. Ukraine 18% Russia Russia 57% Belarus Ukraine Moldavia Romania Ukraine is the second largest country with a surface of 603.628 km2 and 45,6 million inhabitants. Romania has a population of 21,3 million people with a surface of 238.392 km2. © Ecommerce Europe Serbia Bulgaria Kosovo Page 11
  12. B2C E-commerce in Eastern Europe Online Expenditure Eastern European consumers from Bulgaria, Romania, Russia and Ukraine spent on average €427 online in 2012. This is below the EU28 and European average of €1.309 and €1.398 respectively. EASTERN EUROPE’S B2C E-COMMERCE Expenditure per online shopper, in euros, 2012 Russians spent most online in 2012 with €515. Ukrainians rank second with an average spend of €510. €1.398 € 1.309 The Romanians and Bulgarians are third and fourth in rank with respect to online spending (€400 and €370 respectively). Consumers from the other countries (including Albania, Belarus, Bosnia & Herzegovina, FYR Macedonia, Montenegro, Kosovo, Moldova and Serbia) spent on average €285 online in 2012. © Ecommerce Europe €370 EU28 Europe €400 Bulgaria Romania €515 €510 €285 Russia Ukraine Others Page 16
  13. Country Report Romania 2013 Facts, Figures & Trends of 2012 and Forecast 2013 of the Romanian B2C E-commerce Market
  14. Romania 2012 Key e-commerce facts at a glance 21,30 million people live in Romania 100% 45% 10% 9,60 million people use the internet 2,00 million € 800 mn e-commerce turnover of goods & services people are e-shoppers Bucharest 25% Goods Europe € 312 bn + 19,0% EU 28 € 277 bn + 18,0% Eastern Europe € 13,1 bn + 35,7 % Romania € 800 mn + 33,3% Ranking Eastern Europe in turnover (EUR million) Total B2C E-commerce 2012 of goods & services E-commerce GDP 0,6% Total GDP €131.747 mn 75% Services 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 # Russia Ukraine Romania Bulgaria Other countries¹ € 10.300 € 1.250 € 800 € 120 € 617 ¹ Other countries include: Albania, Moldova, Kosovo) Bosnia-Herzegovina, Montenegro, FYR Macedonia and Serbia. Estimated 16% of active internet users are on social media Romanian Trustmark: No trustmark available Romanian national E-commerce association No e-commerce association available 1,7% Estimated share of online retail in total retail Powered by: © Ecommerce Europe 2013 info:
  15. Romania in brief Key economic indicators The Romanian GDP per capita at current prices in 2012 was €6.200. In 2013 GDP per capita is projected to reach €6.650, following a growth in real terms of 2,2%. ROMANIA’S TOTAL GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT GDP at market prices, in million euro, 2009 - 2012 Year In million EUR The share of e-commerce was in 2012 0,6% of the Romanian GDP and is estimated to reach 0,74% in 2013 . The Internet is one of the fastest growing sectors compared to traditional sectors due to growing confidence and the further penetration of the internet in Romania. It will be one of the drivers of the economy in the coming years. € 140.520 2012 € 131.747 2011 € 131.327 2010 € 124.327 2009 Disposable income continues to grow and inflationary pressures are low pushing up purchasing power of consumers. 2013(e) € 118.196 Source: Eurostat and IMF World Economic Outlook 2013 ROMANIA’S GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT PER CAPITA A current prices Year In EUR 2012 € 12.600 2011 € 11.800 2010 € 11.400 2009 € 11.100 Source: Eurostat and IMF World Economic Outlook 2013 © Ecommerce Europe Page 22
  16. B2C e-commerce in Romania Cross-border ROMANIA’S VAT Online purchases made by Romanians from foreign web shops rose from €6 mn in 2011 to €8 mn in 2012, an increase of 25%. Only a fraction (2%) of all online purchases were made from a foreign web site in 2012. Percentage of e-commerce purchased at foreign sites, 2013 VAT overview Threshold RON 118.000 Standard VAT rate 24% Reduced VAT rates 5% and 9% Where to register Bucharest Directorate General for Public Finance Periods for declaration monthly Source: International VAT Management, Van Driel Fruijtier Resseler ROMANIA’S CROSS BORDER E-COMMERCE Percentage of e-commerce purchased at foreign sites, 2009-2013 2% 1% 1% 1% 1% 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 (e) Source: © Ecommerce Europe Page 28
  17. Country Report Russia 2013 Facts, Figures & Trends of 2012 and Forecast 2013 of the Russian B2C E-commerce Market
  18. Russia 2012 Key e-commerce facts at a glance 143 million people live in Russia 100% 48% 14% Moscow 68 million people use the internet 20 million people are e-shoppers Europe € 312 bn + 19,0% EU 28 € 277 bn + 18,0% Eastern Europe € 13,1 bn + 35,7% Russia € 10,3 bn +35,5% Total B2C E-commerce 2012 of goods & services E-commerce GDP 0,7% Total GDP € 1.562.000 bn 1 2 3 Ranking Eastern Europe in turnover (EUR million) 1 Russia 2 Ukraine 3 Romania 4 Bulgaria # Other countries¹ € 10.300 € 1.250 € 600 € 120 € 617 ¹ Other countries include: Albania, Moldova, Kosovo) Bosnia-Herzegovina, Montenegro, FYR Macedonia and Serbia. Russian Trustmark: No trustmark available Russian national E-commerce association No e-commerce association available 1,7% € 10,3 bn e-commerce turnover of goods & services 20% 80% Services Goods Estimated share of online retail in total retail Estimated 40% of active internet users are on social media Powered by: © Ecommerce Europe 2013 info:
  19. Russia in brief Key economic indicators The labor force in Russia reached 75,24 million persons in 2012. RUSSIA’S UNEMPLOYMENT RATE Percentage of the total labor force, 2009 - 2013 8,4% Unemployment declined to 6,00% in 2012. This decline will continue in 2013 and is expected to reach 5,70% by the end of the year. Unemployment in Russia is still well below the EU28 average of 11% in 2013. The inflation rate of Russia has seen a fluctuating trajectory since since 2009 that started with 11,7%. This also marked the highest peek of inflation in 5 years. 2009 7,5% 2010 6,65% 6,0% 5,7% 2011 2012 2013 (e) Source: Eurostat and IMF World Economic Outlook 2013 RUSSIA’S INFLATION RATE Annual change on Consumer Price Index (CPI), 2009 - 2013 11,7% 8,4% 6,9% Consumers have a worse opinion regarding the current state of the Russian economy and appear to be increasingly worried regarding the future economic prospects of the country. 6,7% 5,1% 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 (e) Source: Eurostat and IMF World Economic Outlook 2013 © Ecommerce Europe Page 37
  20. B2C e-commerce in Russia The online consumer and main market players An online shopper in Russia is more likely to be female (64%) than male (36%). The average age of an online shopper (who shopped in the last 12 months) is 44 years. Key reasons for Russian consumers to purchase goods and services online were lower prices (47%), saving time (36%), convenience (location, time) (33%) as well as online customer reviews (32%). Online shopping is also significantly more predominant among households with higher incomes. Top 3 Reasons for purchasing goods and services online 1. Lower price (47%) 2. Lower time consumption (36%) 2. Convenience (33%) 3. Online customer reviews (32%) Source: Morgan and Stanley , eCommerce Disruption: A Global Theme – Transforming Traditional Retail 2013 Source: Ecommerce Europe 2012 TOP 5 ONLINE RETAILERS OF RUSSIA Online retailers Market sector 1 According to studies there were around 25,000 online retailers in Russia, a growth of 56%, compared to the 16,000 in 2010. That number could very well reach 100,000 in just a couple of years. Rank (#) Revenue EUR Utkonos grocery online retailer € 230mn 2 Wildberries online fashion retailer € 223mn 3 online shopping mall € 207mn 4 online retailer of home appliances € 201mn 5 Online fashion retailer € 197mn Source: 2013 © Ecommerce Europe Page 41
  21. Country Report Ukraine 2013 Facts, Figures & Trends of 2012 and Forecast 2013 of the Ukrainian B2C E-commerce Market
  22. Ukraine 2012 Key e-commerce facts at a glance 45,63 million people live in Ukraine 100% 33% 5% 15,40 million people use the internet 2,47 million € 1,25 bn e-commerce turnover of goods & services people are e-shoppers Kiev 50% Goods Europe € 312 bn + 19,0% EU 28 € 277 bn + 18,0% Eastern Europe € 13,1 bn + 35,7% Ukraine € 1,25 bn +48,0% 50% Services Total B2C E-commerce 2012 of goods & services Ranking Eastern Europe in turnover (EUR million) E-commerce GDP 0,9% Total GDP €137.177 bn Ukrainian Trustmark: No trustmark available Ukrainian national E-commerce association No e-commerce association available 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 # Russia Ukraine Romania Bulgaria Other countries¹ € 10.300 € 1.250 € 600 € 120 € 617 ¹ Other countries include: Albania, Moldova, Kosovo) Bosnia-Herzegovina, Montenegro, FYR Macedonia and Serbia. 1,3% Estimated share of online retail in total retail Estimated 44% of active internet users are on social media Powered by: © Ecommerce Europe 2013 info:
  23. Ukraine in brief Key economic indicators Ukraine was greatly affected by the economic crisis of 2008 and as a result a 14,8% decrease in Ukraine's GDP took place over 2008 and 2009. Despite the excellent potential, the economy was still struggling in 2012. The economy entered a recession in the second half of 2012, bringing growth in real GDP for the whole year to just 0.2 per cent. In October 2013, the IMF raised its projection for Ukraine's economic growth in 2013 to 0.4 per cent from zero. The IMF downgraded its projection for Ukraine's economic growth in 2014 to 1 %, citing worsening financial conditions in Eastern Europe. UKRAINE’S TOTAL GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT GDP at market prices, in million euro, 2009 - 2012 Year In million EUR 2013(f) € 136.000 2012 € 137.177 2011 € 117.390 2010 € 102.780 2009 € 84.041 Source: Eurostat and IMF World Economic Outlook 2013 UKRAINE’S GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT REAL GROWTH RATE Percentage change of GDP, 2007 - 2013 4,1 % 5,1 % 0,2 % 2009 2010 2011 -14,8% © Ecommerce Europe 2012 0,4 % 2013 (f) Source: Eurostat and IMF World Economic Outlook 2013 Page 50
  24. Social media in Ukraine Market Sectors In Ukraine, Social Media usage is gaining momentum . Especially periods of political tensions have caused spikes in the usage of Twitter and Facebook, which so far have not been the country’s most popular social networks. FACEBOOK USERS Percentage of population, 2012 Facebook is used by of the population 40% 40% of the Ukrainian population is active on the originally Russian platform Vkontakte. Only 4% is active on Facebook. 61% of those users is between 18 and 34 years old. Two other popular social networking sites in Ukraine are operated Moy Mir and Odnoklassiki. Of the population has a VKontakte account 13-17 years 35-44 years 65 yeas + 18 - 24 years 45-54 years 25 - 34 years 55-64 years SOCIAL MEDIA USERS BY GENDER In percentage of total population Source: Social baker 49% © Ecommerce Europe 4% 51% Page 59
  25. Ecommerce Europe How to get involved? Who can be involved? • E-commerce associations, voting members of Ecommerce Europe: association membership • Companies selling products and/or services online: EU webshop register / company membership • Preferred suppliers to the European e-commerce industry: business partnership • Organizations and NGO’s related to e-commerce industry: associative partnership • European institutions, consumer organizations and stakeholders: partners for dialogue Why get involved? • Be a part, get involved or stay informed on public affairs initiatives that define your business. • Take advantage of research publications, receive several B2C • E-commerce Reports for free. • Learn from position papers, webinars and white • papers by leading ecommerce associations, companies and preferred business partners. • Show you’re engaged by displaying the Ecommerce Europe member or business partner logo. • Network, meet and greet with colleagues at Round Tables • sessions in European capitals and at the yearly Global E-commerce Summit. © Ecommerce Europe Page 61
  26. Our Business Partners Interested in becoming a business partner? Contact © Ecommerce Europe Page 62
  27. Our Media Partners Interested in becoming a media partner? Contact us at Ecommerce Europe media partners are (inter)national publishers and/or publications related to the European e-commerce industry. As the Internet continues to become a part of almost every aspect of our lives, the growing internationalization of the online retail sector places increasing demands on e-tailers to make rapid preparations for cross-border activity. Actors in the online trade sector are constantly being confronted with new challenges concerning legal issues, pricing, shipping, payment and supply. Strong partnerships are vital in order to tap into the cross-border market, optimise trade flows and ultimately increase profitability. Ecommerce Europe is looking for media partners who publish on e-commerce in the following sectors: • Affiliate marketing • Customer service • E-commerce systems • Email marketing • Fulfilment • Hosting • Payment solutions • Research & consultancy • Search Engine Optimization • Etc. © Ecommerce Europe Page 63
  28. Ecommerce Europe membership Interested? Feel free to contact us: Company Members Business partners Ecommerce Europe Company Members are B2C companies selling products and/or services online to consumers in Europe. Company membership is open to all B2C online companies at € 950 per year. Ecommerce Europe business partners are preferred suppliers of the European e-commerce industry. The cost is € 8,500 per year upon balloting. Benefits for COMPANY MEMBERS include: Benefits for PREFFERED BUSINESS PARTNERS include: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Exclusive Ecommerce Europe business partner logo Yearly European B2C E-commerce Report (€1,950) 5 Regional Reports on European B2C E-commerce (€3,950) 2 Full Conference Packages Global E-commerce Summit Free entrance to 3 Ecommerce Europe pre-conferences Free entrance to Round Table meetings in 8 European cities Pro-active involvement white papers and position papers © Ecommerce Europe Exclusive Ecommerce Europe business partner logo Yearly European B2C E-commerce Report (€1,950) 5 Regional Reports on European B2C E-commerce (€3,950) 2 Full Conference Packages Global E-commerce Summit Free entrance to 3 Ecommerce Europe pre-conferences Free entrance to Round Table meetings in 8 European cities Pro-active involvement white papers and position papers Page 64
  29. Ecommerce Europe’s reports on B2C e- commerce Interested? Order at European B2C Ecommerce Report 2013: €1.950 Global B2C Ecommerce Report 2013: €2.450 5 European regional reports 2013: €790 per report including 30 Infographics and in-depth Country Profiles Regional /continental reports: €950 per report Eastern Europe Report Belgium, France, Ireland, Netherlands, and United Kingdom Central Europe Report Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Poland and Switzerland Southern Europe Report Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain and Turkey Northern Europe Report Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway and Sweden Eastern Europe Report Romania, Russia, and Ukraine All European reports (5 regional reports + European Report): €2,950 All-In-One Ecommerce Report Package: €4.950 (European and Global Report + 5 European Regional Reports + 5 Regional/Continental Reports) © Ecommerce Europe North America: USA, Mexico and Canada Latin America: Brazil, Argentina, Chile and others Asia-Pacific: Japan, China, India, Australia, Indonesia, Vietnam, South Korea etc. MENA REGION: Middle East and North Africa BRIC Countries: Brazil, Russia, Indonesia, China and other economic entities All-In-One Ecommerce Report Package: €4.950 (European and Global Report + 5 European Regional Reports + 5 Regional/Continental Reports) Tailor-made reports are available upon request: Page 65
  30. European Measurement Standard for E-commerce EMSEC EMSEC Definition of B2C e-commerce sales Classification of B2C E-commerce EMSEC aims to provide guidelines to measure and monitor B2C e-commerce in order to enable all European countries to provide data with respect to the penetration of B2C ecommerce in a standardised way. All Ecommerce Europe figures and estimates are based upon the EMSEC, unless otherwise noted. The EMSEC agrees with data and research by GfK. Definition of B2C e-commerce: ‘Any B2C contract on the sale of products or services fully or partly concluded by a technique for distance communication’. The following classification in Table 1 provides an overview of areas and sectors included in EMSEC. The EMSEC reports on sales figures for the total B2C e-commerce in Europe and in country profiles based on total sales of goods and services. Total sales of goods and services are based according to the areas/sectors/ classification of areas and sectors as laid down on the next few pages. All data are reported in the national currency of the country involved are converted into euros according to the average (annual) rate of exchange as provided by the European Central Bank (ECB). Growth rates are calculated and measured by the B2C e-commerce sales in national currency. © Ecommerce Europe Technique for distance communication: means that can be used for communication regarding the offer made by the trader and concluding an contract, without the necessity of the consumer and trader being in the same place at the same time. Contract: an contract whereby sole or partly use is made of one or more techniques for distance communication within the framework of a system organized by the trader for the distance sale of products and/or services, up to and including the moment that the contract is concluded; Online purchases of the following items are excluded from EMSEC: • Transactions between private individuals/consumers (C2C) such as auctions and marketplaces and between businesses (B2B) • Online gambling and gaming • Car and motor vehicles • Houses and real estate • Utilities (e.g. water, heating, electricity) • Mortgages, loans, credit cards, overdrafts • Savings accounts, funds, stocks & shares, bonds. B2C e-commerce therefore includes all online transactions between businesses and consumers using desktop computers, laptops, tablets, smartphones, point-of-sales and smart-wearibles, such as webshop, physical store (‘online instore’), email, QR-code, catalogue, etc. B2C e-commerce includes Value Added Tax (VAT) or other sales tax, delivery costs and Apps, but exclude returns. Page 66
  31. European Measurement Standard for E-commerce EMSEC Food/Nearfood/Health Food/Nearfood Health & Beauty Food & Beverages Personal care & Hygiene Fresh produce Baby care Packaged consumer goods Perfume Detergents/household cleaning OTC Animal feed Tobacco Event Tickets Event Tickets Tickets for concerts and festivals Tickets for cinema and theater Tickets for zoos and amusement parks Tickets for museums Tickets for sport matches Fashion Clothing Underwear & Upperwear Children's wear Swimwear & Sportswear Nightwear & legwear Shoes & Personal lifestyle Shoes Jewellery, Bijoux, Watches & others fashion accessories (e.g. sunglasses) Bags, wallets, suitcases Sports & Recreation Sport & Recreation Sports hardware (e.g. football, tennis rackets) Bicycles & accessories Articles for camping and recreation Electronics Consumer Electronics Information Technology (IT) Photo-equipment Audio-equipment IT hardware (pc's, laptops, tablets etc.) Computer Software TV/video-equipment Music- instruments Car - electronics (navigation, audio etc.) USB-sticks, DVD/CDrecordable, ink cartridges, computer accessories Household Electronics MDA: air-conditioning, dishwashers, wash machines and other white goods SDA: equipment for personal care, home comfort, kitchen appliances Toys Toys Indoor –and outdoor toys © Ecommerce Europe Page 67
  32. European Measurement Standard for E-commerce EMSEC Package Travel Package travel Private Transport if booked through a tour operator Insurances Travel Flight Tickets & Accommodations Flight Tickets Hotel stays Apartment/bungalow/camping site New indemnity, Life and Health Insurances Liability insurance Car insurance Fire and theft insurance -> all of the above not booked in combination with other travel-parts Media & Entertainment Media & Entertainment Music (physical, download & streaming)/Spotify based on new subscriptions Video (DVD, blue-ray, downloads) Games hardware & games software Books & e-books Apps New subscriptions newspapers ands magazines (no single copy sales) Telecom Telecom Smartphones, mobile phones & Phone devices Telefax and answering machines Headsets & Accessoires (mobile) phone’s Prepaid cards and tariffs of new phone subscriptions © Ecommerce Europe ANW-gap insurance (insurance for receiving a payment in addition to a survivor's allowance) Health Insurance – Base Health insurance additional Bike/caravan/motorbike/ scooter insurance Accident insurance Boat insurance Legal assistance insurance Home insurance Travel insurance (continuous/annual + shortterm) Insurance package Annuity insurance pension Life insurance Funeral insurance Endowment insurance based on savings Endowment insurance based on investments Disability insurance – entrepreneurs Disability insurance private Mortgage related disability insurance Mixed insurance (=endowment insurance + life insurance) Services Dating based on new subscriptions Other Services Others Products Cars and parts Articles for animals Flowers & Plants Optician (excl. sunglasses, hearing-aid) Adult Page 68
  33. Definitions Definitions related to internet, e-commerce and online retailing Broadband access: the availability of broadband is measured by the percentage of households that are connectable to an exchange that has been converted to support DSL-technology, to a cable network upgraded for Internet traffic, or to other broadband technologies. It includes fixed and mobile connections (source: Eurostat) • E-households: amount of households that uses the Internet for personal gain. • E-household expenditure: expenditure per household that bought goods or services in the past year. • Cross-border e-commerce: percentage of e-commerce purchased at foreign sites • • E-commerce (or electronic commerce), a subset of e-business, is any B2C contract on the sale of products or services fully or partly concluded by a technique for distance communication’. European Measurement Standard for E-commerce (EMSEC): aims to provide guidelines to measure and monitor B2C e-commerce in order to enable all European countries to provide data with respect to the penetration of B2C ecommerce in a standardised way. • E-services (or electronic services) are defined as: “Deeds, efforts or performances whose delivery is mediated by information technology. Such e-service includes the service element of eretailing, customer support, and service delivery”. This definition reflects three main components- service providers, service receiver and the channels of service delivery (i.e., technology). (Jennifer Rowley, Professor Information and Communications, Manchester Metropolitan University, UK) • Inactive online population: users that have access to the Internet but have not (yet) purchased goods or services online in the past year. • • E-commerce GDP: total amount of goods and services online divided by the total Gross Domestic Product (GDP). • Economic Freedom Index: the Index of Economic Freedom is an annual guide published by The Wall Street Journal and The Heritage Foundation, Washington's No. 1 think tank. For over a decade, The Wall Street Journal and The Heritage Foundation have tracked the march of economic freedom around the world with the influential Index of Economic Freedom. © Ecommerce Europe Page 69
  34. Definitions Definitions related to internet, e-commerce and online retailing • • • • Logistics Performance Index (LPI): The Logistics Performance Index (LPI) measures the logistics "friendliness" of 155 countries. It helps countries identify the challenges and opportunities they face in their trade logistics performance and what they can do to improve, The Index is developed by the World Bank, is based on a worldwide survey of operators on the ground such as global freight forwarders and express carriers . Mobile commerce (or m-commerce, mCommerce) is the ability to conduct commerce, using a mobile device e.g. a mobile phone, a PDA, a smart phone, a tablet or other (emerging) mobile equipment. Mobile subscriptions: mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included (source: Eurostat) Online buyer (or e-shopper, e-buyer) is defined as an individual who regularly bought or ordered goods or services over the internet. © Ecommerce Europe • Online expenditure: spent per user who purchased goods or services online. • Online Retail (or e-retail, electronic retail or retailing or even etailing) is the selling of retail goods and services on the Internet. In the limited sense of the word, sectors such as online leisure travel, event tickets, downloading music or software are not included. Online-only retail shops are often referred to as pure players. • Penetration levels: the percentage of a population using the internet, mobile, smartphone and tablet devices. • Retail sales are defined as the selling of mainly goods from businesses to individuals from a traditional or so-called bricks-andmortar shop. • The Ease of Doing Business Index is developed by the World Bank, averages the country's percentile rankings on 9 topics, made up of a variety of indicators, giving equal weight to each topic. The rankings for all economies are benchmarked to June 2010. The Index covers 185 countries. Page 70
  35. Methodology , Acknowledgements and Sources This report could only be realized by consulting a great many sources, available in the various countries and regions in Europe and around the globe. The wide variety of sources include public domain publications, blogs, websites, industry and financial specialist publications, regional and local news, annual reports, press releases, etc. etc. Sometimes the information sourced are contradictory. Sometimes different figures and data were given by different sources within the same country, f.e. due to different definitions. In our reports and country profiles we have mentioned different sources, definitions and the different outcomes of such reports, studies and interpretations. This report is meant solely for use by the recipient and is not for circulation. This report is based on information that we consider reliable, but we cannot vouch for its being accurate or complete, nor should it be relied upon as such. Opinions expressed are our current opinions as of the date of this report. © Ecommerce Europe The sources consulted include, but are not limited to: (Inter)national Associations • Ecommerce Europe • Distansehandel Norge (Norway) • FDIH (Denmark) • KAUPPA (Finland) • SDH (Sweden) Publications Corporate sources • A.T. Kearney • Deloitte • Facebook • Forrester • GfK • Google • Hybris • Innopay • Planet Retail • Salesupply • Social Bakers • Twitter • TNS NIPPO • VDFR VAT Management • • • • • eMarketer Eurostat Internet Retailing Other sources • • • • • • • • • • • • Digital Hub Development Agency (DHDA) European Commission Eurostat European Central Bank (ECB) European Banking Association (EBA Clearing) International Monetary Fund (IMF) International Telecommunications Union (ITU) Internetworldstats National Statistics offices The Heritage Foundation United Nations (UN) CIA: World Factbook World Economic Forum Page 71
  36. About the authors Questions? Feel free to contact our researcher Jorij Abraham, Director Research & Advice Aad Weening, Advisor International eCommerce Jorij Abraham (1972) has been part of the international ecommerce community since 1997. He has been manager ecommerce at Bijenkorf, TUI and Sanoma Media and Director of Consulting as Unic Aad Weening (1941) has been involved in distance selling and retail practically all his working life. From 1966 until 1979 he worked at a professional secretariat agency offering legal and economic advice as well as lobbying services for 10 trade sectors. Since 2013 he is Director of Research & Advise at Ecommerce Europe. He is also director of the eCommerce Foundation, a research institute offering practical ecommerce research and benchmark services. From 1979 he managed the Dutch Mail Order Association (today, first in the Netherlands first, later on a European level. Between 1993 and 2006 he served as Secretary General of the European Distance Selling Trade Association (EMOTA). Currently Weening is Senior Advisor at Ecommerce Europe. Bert Nagelvoort, Senior Researcher Janine Nöthlichs, Editor Janine Nöthlichs (1982) is the editor-in-chief of the international e-commerce news site Throughout the past years, she has worked on various e-commerce related publications and events, including the European Cross-Border Round Tables and the Global E-Commerce Summit; and is a regular jury member of the Cross-Border E-Commerce Awards at the Global E-Commerce Summit in Barcelona. Bert Nagelvoort (1977) has been working for Ecommerce Europe since 2014. He is involved in international e-commerce and develops the Ecommerce Europe reports. He studied Business Administration at the Radboud University Nijmegen and has a great interest in the international (digital) economy. Previously, Bert has worked as Projectmanager / Consultant in the financial services. Previously, Janine has worked for Kantar Media in Paris. Having studied in the Netherlands and Spain. © Ecommerce Europe Page 72
  37. Europe 2012 Key data at a glance 820 million 100% people live in Europe 529 million 64% people use the internet 48% 250 million people are e-shoppers West € 158,bn + 18,0% Central €76,3 bn + 20,5% South € 32,4 bn + 29,3% North €28,5 bn + 15,1% East € 13,1 bn + 35,6% 5,5% (€17bn) Europe € 312 bn +19% EU28 € 277 bn +18% 2, €16,0 trn GDP 2012 3,5% Contribution Internet Economy to GDP , jobs directly or indirectly via e-commerce 550,000 estimated online business 3,5 billion number of parcels annually (e) Estimated M-commerce Top 5 e-commerce countries in turnover (EURO million) Total B2C s of goods & services 1 2 3 4 5 United Kingdom Germany France Spain Russia € 96,193 € 50,000 € 45,000 € 12,969 € 10,302 5% Estimated share of online retail in total retail Top 5 emerging countries in % growth 1 2 3 4 5 Turkey Greece Ukraine Hungary Romania ‘’350 million social media users’’ 75% 61% 41% 35% 33% © Ecommerce Europe 2013 1 2 info: 3 Figures and data in compliance with GfK In cooperation with Salesupply and Hybris
  38. Eastern Europe B2C Ecommerce Colophon National Associations: Ecommerce Europe Rue d’Accolay 15 box 6 B-1000 Brussels - Belgium Tel: +32 (0) 2 502 31 34 Website: Contact us at: For reports: Twitter: @Ecommerce_eu Powered by: © Ecommerce Europe Page 74