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Non Defining Clauses

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Defining vs Non-defining

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Non Defining Clauses

  1. 1. Defining relative clauses versus Non-defining relative clauses
  2. 2. <ul><li>Q1 The hotel ____ we stayed was good. </li></ul><ul><li> where which Either could be used here. </li></ul><ul><li>Q2 - The man ____ interviewed me seemed friendly enough. </li></ul><ul><li> who which Either could be used here. </li></ul><ul><li>Q3 - The car ____ was stolen belonged to my partner. </li></ul><ul><li> which that Either could be used here. </li></ul><ul><li>Q4 - The house ____ they have rented is in the centre of town. </li></ul><ul><li> which that Either could be used here. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Defining Relative Clauses <ul><li>Gives us information about the first part of the sentence, which is needed to identify a person or thing - they define exactly who or what we are talking about. </li></ul><ul><li>Second part starts with a relative pronoun i.e. who, which… </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t have commas </li></ul><ul><li>Can use ‘That’ instead of who, which… </li></ul>
  4. 4. Two clauses joined together by a relative pronoun <ul><li>Brenda is a friend. I went on holiday with her. </li></ul><ul><li>Brenda is the friend who I went on holiday with. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Example <ul><li>I spoke to the man. </li></ul><ul><li>Which man? What about the man? </li></ul><ul><li>We need more detail i.e. </li></ul><ul><li>We require a ‘defining relative clause’. </li></ul><ul><li>This gives us detail about the noun I spoke to the man who gave you the news. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Example 2 <ul><li>I read the letter </li></ul><ul><li>Which letter? </li></ul><ul><li>We need more detail. </li></ul><ul><li>The one that arrived this morning. </li></ul>
  7. 7. THAT <ul><li>Did you know the student ( WHO) THAT came to the lesson yesterday? </li></ul><ul><li>The book ( WHICH) THAT I’m reading is very interesting . </li></ul>
  8. 8. Recap on Defining Relative Clauses <ul><li>WHO = people </li></ul><ul><li>WHICH = animals and things, … </li></ul><ul><li>“ THAT” = can be used instead of ‘WHO’ and ‘WHICH’ </li></ul>
  9. 9. Other Relative Pronouns <ul><li>WHOSE = possession </li></ul><ul><li>WHEN = days, months, years.... </li></ul><ul><li>WHERE = for places </li></ul>
  10. 10. WHOSE <ul><li>That’s the woman whose son ran over my cat </li></ul>
  11. 11. WHEN , WHERE <ul><li>Tell me when you expect to arrive </li></ul><ul><li>The hotel where we stayed was excellent </li></ul>
  12. 12. Compare the two! <ul><li>Alan is the student who is wearing blue </li></ul><ul><li>Alan, who is not paying any attention in class , lives in East Ham </li></ul>
  13. 13. Do these sentences have the same meaning? <ul><li>The passengers who came out of the bus went home </li></ul><ul><li>The passengers, who came out of the bus, went home </li></ul>
  14. 14. Non-Defining Relative Clauses <ul><li>G ives us EXTRA information about a person, animal or thing. </li></ul><ul><li>The Relatives go between commas . </li></ul><ul><li>Without this extra information the sentence will still make complete sense. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Example <ul><li>Your brother , who gave me the news, saw the accident. </li></ul><ul><li>Your brother saw the accident. (still makes sense) </li></ul>
  16. 16. WHICH <ul><li>Refers to the whole of the sentence before </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used to make a comment about the whole situation described in a main clause </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher arrived on time, which amazed everybody </li></ul><ul><li>They had everything ready for us, which was nice </li></ul>
  17. 17. What’s the reason for using Non-Defining Clauses? <ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><li>Sheila is a student… </li></ul><ul><li>What can we do to make is more interesting? </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>In Non-Defining Relative Clauses </li></ul><ul><li>We can’t use ‘THAT’ </li></ul><ul><li>We can’t omit the Relative Pronouns </li></ul>
  19. 19. Example <ul><ul><li>I liked ‘ Spiderman , which I’ve seen recently . (not “that”, no Omission) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I’ve found my keys , which I had been looking for . (not “that”, no Omission) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. List the differences? <ul><li>Defining Relative Clauses: </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Defining Relative Clauses: </li></ul>
  21. 21. Read the sentences. Then decide which option, a or b, is correct. Why? <ul><li>1) My sister, who lives in Pakistan , is a doctor. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I have one sister. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) I have more than one sister. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>2) Flat screen televisions, which are very expensive , have a better picture quality. </li></ul><ul><li>a) All flat screen televisions are very expensive. </li></ul><ul><li>b) Some flat screen televisions are cheap. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>3) The athletes who tested positive for taking drugs were suspended. </li></ul><ul><li>a) All the athletes tested positive for taking drugs. </li></ul><ul><li>b) Some athletes didn’t test positive for taking drugs. </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>4) The teachers at this school who arrive late for class will be dismissed. </li></ul><ul><li>Only some teachers arrive late for class. </li></ul><ul><li>All the teachers in the school arrive late for class. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>5) The students, who had tickets, went into the museum </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the students had tickets and some did not. Only the students with tickets went into museum </li></ul><ul><li>b) All the students had tickets and all the students went into the museum </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>6) The students who had tickets went into the museum </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the students had tickets and some did not. Only the students with tickets went into museum </li></ul><ul><li>b) All the students had tickets and all the students went into the museum </li></ul>
  27. 27. Defining/Non-defining Relative Clauses <ul><li>1) Can you use ‘that’ in non-defining relative clauses? </li></ul><ul><li>The Queen, ____ lives in Buckingham Palace, has three sons. </li></ul><ul><li>Some say that Gordon Brown, ____ is Prime Minister, should resign. </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>2) Can you use ‘that’ in defining relative clauses? </li></ul><ul><li>The book ____ I bought yesterday cost over £10 pounds </li></ul><ul><li>The house ____ I live in now is smaller than the old one. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Defining or Non-Defining? <ul><li>Remember: </li></ul><ul><li>Defining Relative Clauses: </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t have commas. </li></ul><ul><li>“ That ” can replace Who, Which and When. </li></ul><ul><li>You can omit Who, Which, When and That when they are not the Subject of the Relative Clause. </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Non-Defining Relative Clauses: </li></ul><ul><li>Go between commas. </li></ul><ul><li>You can’t use “That”. </li></ul><ul><li>You can’t omit the Relatives. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Summary <ul><li>Defining Relative </li></ul><ul><li>No commas </li></ul><ul><li>Omit the relative pronoun except when SUBJECT </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Defining Relative </li></ul><ul><li>Between commas </li></ul><ul><li>No omission </li></ul><ul><li>Relative Pronouns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WHO: refers to people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WHICH: refers to things </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WHOSE: for possession </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WHEN: for time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WHERE : for places. </li></ul></ul>

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