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Nca2006

  1. 1. <ul><ul><li>Sorin A. Matei </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purdue University </li></ul></ul>Space: the stuff of communication
  2. 2. Philosophical assumptions <ul><li>Space is constructed </li></ul><ul><li>Space is social </li></ul><ul><li>Space is a set of relationally defined locations </li></ul><ul><li>Space is about vicinities and the communication processes they enable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vicinity is that space defined by our communication practices </li></ul></ul>A B C
  3. 3. Space is of two kinds
  4. 4. Space is of two kinds… Space is everywhere
  5. 5. Research questions <ul><li>If we analyze flows of exchanges between nations, should we expect an increasing alignment of nations that share same cultural/civilizational characteristics? </li></ul><ul><li>Do nations that speak the same language or have the same beliefs send more information to one another? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explored in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Globalization and heterogenization: Cultural and civilizational clustering in telecommunicative space (1989–1999). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telematics and Informatics Volume 23, Issue 4 , November 2006, Pages 316-331 </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Data <ul><li>2 who-to-whom matrices—networks—of international telephony ties between 107/110 nations (80% world population) – 1989 – 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>Data from ITU and Telegeography </li></ul><ul><li>Matrices define “telecommunicative neighbors” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Countries are neighbors of each other if they send at least 5% of their traffic to each other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5% threshold is based on analysis of tie distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Logarithmic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A nation typically sends 80% of its outgoing traffic to 4 nations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These nations typically absorb between 5 to 90% of the traffic (average 35%), each </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All the other nations (109) absorb under 5% </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Data cntd. <ul><li>Node attributes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cultural afilliation (linguistic): rated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>civilizational affiliation (religious): percentage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4 linguistic and 4 civilizational areals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>English </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>French </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arabic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spanish </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protestant </li></ul><ul><li>Catholic </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhist-Hindu </li></ul>
  8. 8. Statistical Analysis <ul><li>Spatial correlation (Moran’s I) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measures likelihood of countries that have high values on certain attributes to be surrounded by nations that are like them </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Global Moran’s I <ul><li>Global version: what is the magnitude of spatial association in the entire dataset? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0 - 1: Countries are systematically surrounded by nations with similar values on the key attribute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-1 - 0: Countries are systematically surrounded by nations with dissimilar values on the key attribute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>0: No association </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Results: Global values <ul><li>Global Moran’s I values increase for all, except one areal, Arabic </li></ul><ul><li>Value increases are significant (t-test for paired samples), except for the Islamic areal </li></ul><ul><li>There is an increasing tendency of countries that are similar culturally or civilizationally to cluster together in telecommunicative space </li></ul>
  11. 11. Discussion <ul><li>Evidence for heterogenization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nations more likely to be surrounded by their civilizational peers </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Conclusion <ul><li>Space can be viewed as a set of communicative ties </li></ul><ul><li>These ties differ from geographic ties </li></ul><ul><li>We can use this paradigm for any other situation that involves a social and a physical network </li></ul>

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