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Virtual Reality & the Teaching of Anatomy & Physiology

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In this presentation educators Natalia Bilton and Clare Chapman provide a walkthrough of their use of Virtual Reality in their teaching practice.

Find out more about our Mixed Reality season at http://uimagine.edu.au/uimagine-website/events/weimagine-mixed-reality.html

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Virtual Reality & the Teaching of Anatomy & Physiology

  1. 1. Clare Chapman and Natalia Bilton Virtual Reality and the Teaching of Anatomy and Physiology
  2. 2. 21st century world faced by young people today…. $120 10m Plastics War & Terrorism Drought Human trafficking Pollution Technologyaddictions Immigration Gender Antibiotic resistance Global warming Shootings Disease Racism
  3. 3. Status quo of secondary science in Australia ★ Australia has seen a decline over the last 20 years in students studying sciences in later highschool years ★ Participation in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) subjects in Australian schools is declining and are at the lowest level in the last two decades. ★ Performance in these areas has also been decreasing ★ Australia’s declining performance in scientific literacy has also been reported in the PISA 2015 comparative study ★ Australia’s achievement results for scientific literacy was outperformed by 9 countries and shows decline in performance between 2006 to 2015 ★ Only 61% of Australian students achieved the National Proficient Standard in scientific literacy.
  4. 4. Science Enrolments at University Australian science is generally in good health. At present there is growth in science enrolments in universities. But there are some immediate concerns and challenges in the short to medium term. Science participation in the senior years of school has fallen. Although the rate of this decline has slowed, participation rates have not yet stabilised. Compared with other nations, secondary school performance in science literacy is also slipping. Despite a recent increase in science enrolments at university, the trend has been flat for most of the past decade and has not recovered to the levels achieved in the early 1990s.
  5. 5. 21st century education https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ax5cNlutAys
  6. 6. The New Learning Paradigm ★ The “New Learning Paradigm” proposed this decade by Kivunja (2014a) describes a new educational pedagogical approach which combines the learning of both 21st century skills alongside science outcomes detailed in syllabi. ★ This more recent educational paradigm suggests that the true purpose of today’s education is to prepare students for succeeding in continually adjusting environments. ★ Within this paradigm, constructivism is a useful guideline for the student centred teaching and learning of science and the active construction and conceptualization of knowledge and cognition ★ Constructivist science instruction involves students being experiential, active constructors of knowledge rather than passive receivers of chunks of facts. ★ Modern students need to have some autonomy over their learning activities and being given the opportunity to explore and create new ideas which are oriented towards the needs and interests of modern students and hence useful for the learner.
  7. 7. Graduate Learning Outcomes
  8. 8. What skills do we want CSU graduates to leave with ? WAYS OF THINKING 1. Creativity and Innovation ● Think creatively ● Work creatively with others ● Implement innovations 1. Critical thinking, problem solving, Decision making ● Reason effectively and evaluate evidence ● Solve problems ● Articulate findings 1. Learning to Learn and Metacognition ● Self motivation, lifelong learning, adaptability and flexibility TOOLS FOR WORKING 1. Information literacy ● Access and evaluate information ● Use and manage information ● Apply technology effectively 2. ICT literacy ● Open to new ideas, information, tools, ways of thinking ● Use ICT accurately, creatively, ethically, legally ● Be aware of cultural and social differences ● Apply technology appropriately and effectively WAYS OF WORKING 1. Communication ● Competency in written and oral language ● Open minded and preparedness to listen ● Sensitivity to cultural differences when communicating 2. Collaboration and Teamwork ● Interact effectively with others ● Work effectively in diverse teams ● Prioritise, plan and manage projects LIVING IN THE WORLD 1. Citizenship - global and local ● Awareness and understanding of rights and responsibilities as a global citizen ● Preparedness to participate in community activities ● Respect the values and privacy of others 2. Personal and social responsibility ● Communicate constructively in different social situations ● Understand different viewpoints and perspectives 3. Life and career ● Adapt to change, Manage goals and time ● Be a self directed learner
  9. 9. New generation of learners ❏ We are now in the era of ubiquitous access to technology ❏ Students of today, known as Generation Z are both motivated by technology and can access learning material, educational videos, apps and programs more easily ❏ Generation Z also learn and construct meaning within social settings using social media ❏ Generation Z’s learning styles are also changing. These learners are tech savvy and multitaskers, who have a need to communicate using social media rather than by direct contact with people, and are visual rather than auditory learners ❏ Motivated by interactive games, collaborative small team projects, and challenges they can learn from by trial and error ❏ Engaging Generation Z requires the use of technology with complex graphics, combined with learning activities that are experiential and constructivist in nature, as well as ones that provide instant feedback and positive reinforcement. ❏ It could therefore be postulated that Generation Z would find the use of virtual reality technologies both engaging and a useful educational tool, as this form of technology has many affordances by which these learners are motivated.
  10. 10. The CSU Student Cohort
  11. 11. Anatomy and Physiology at CSU B.Paramedicine B.Medical Radiation B.Nursing
  12. 12. What is Virtual Reality?
  13. 13. Virtual reality is the term used to describe a three- dimensional, computer generated environment which can be explored and interacted with by a person.
  14. 14. Virtual Reality
  15. 15. Affordances of VR for tertiary education ★ Interactivity ★ 360-degree visual authenticity ★ 360-degree navigation ★ Stereoscopic 3D images ★ First person perspective ★ In situ contextual information ★ Simulations ★ Single user experiences ★ Collaborative BMS 192 201860
  16. 16. Benefits of VR for learning ➢ Learning benefits ➢ Improvements to student outcomes and academic performance ➢ Increase in motivation for learning ➢ Increase in engagement ➢ Enhances motivation ➢ Development of scientific literacy ➢ Development of 21st century skills ➢ Makes visualising and understanding difficult and/or abstract concepts easier ➢ All immersive ➢ Less classroom behaviour problems ➢ Restructuring of teaching and learning processes ➢ Facilitates differentiation ➢ Less cognitive effort to acquire scientific knowledge ➢ Provides instant, individual feedback ➢ Student centred, independent learning
  17. 17. EIGHT ABORIGINAL WAYS OF LEARNING Acknowledgement: Developed by the NSW Department of Education in partnership with the Aboriginal peoples of Western New South Wales. Image source: https://8ways.wikispaces.com/ Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike Non-Commercial 3.0 License.
  18. 18. VR in the Health Industry
  19. 19. Virtual and augmented reality market in healthcare grew from $525 million in 2012 to an estimated $976 million in 2017. VR becoming common place in the Health Industry The giant investment bank GOLDMAN SACHS is predicting that the global market for VR in healthcare will reach $5.1. billion by 2025 and will benefit some 3-4 million people
  20. 20. Used as a treatment: Physical therapy, phobias and anxiety, pain, post traumatic stress disorders, mental diseases, dementia Used for dentist visits Patient education: use of VR eg to learn about hypertension, smoking etc - As a tool to aid health car workers with day-to-day tasks - Increasing access to Doctors through virtual visits - Training of health care staff using real life scenarios - use in aged care facilities
  21. 21. For Radiation Science students Future of radiology “ANATOMY VIEWER” By The Body VR https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JVuEmW9uAYs
  22. 22. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RgGJqqYAS54
  23. 23. BMS 191 201830
  24. 24. First Pilot Second Pilot 2017 Using own equipment in BMS191 PTI 2018 Purchased basic headsets BMS191 and 192 PTI 2019 Aim: Increase interactivity of the headsets and add BMS291 PTI
  25. 25. BMS 191 201830
  26. 26. BMS 192 201860
  27. 27. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X05bb63PEM0
  28. 28. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YnAeJTIP35I
  29. 29. ANATOMY VR https:// www.youtube.com/ watch? v=prZenIH6e-c
  31. 31. Future Directions ➢ Currently sourcing funding for equipment for use in teaching for 201930 session ➢ Development of learning activities to use with VR in BMS191 Human Bioscience 1 offered at the Port Macquarie Campus ➢ Data gathering and analysis will guide roll out of technology all other campuses of CSU