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WHAT IS A CURRICULUM?
• Curriculum is a design plan for
learning that requires the
purposeful and proactive
organization, sequencing, and
management of the interactions
among the teacher, the students,
and the content knowledge we want
students to acquire.
SUBJECT/ TEACHER-CENTERED CURRICULUM
• This model focuses on the
content of the curriculum.
• The subject centered design
corresponds mostly to the
textbook written for the specific
subject.
WHAT IS A CURRICULUM MODEL?
A model is a format for
curriculum design developed to
meet unique needs, contexts,
and/or purposes. In order to
address these goals,
curriculum developers design,
reconfigure, or rearrange one or
more key curriculum
components.
CURRICULUM DESIGNS
• Subject-Centered
Curriculum
• Learner-Centered
Curriculum
• Problem-Centered
Curriculum
DEFINITION OF CURRICULUM
The planned and guided learning
experiences and intended learning
outcomes, formulated through the
systematic reconstruction of
knowledge and experiences, under
the auspices of the school, for the
learners’ continuous and willful
growth in personal social
competence.” (Daniel Tanner, 1980)
•The subject-centered curriculum can be focused
on
– traditional areas in the traditional disciplines
– interdisciplinary topics that touch on a wide
variety of fields – on processes such as
problem solving
– on the goal of teaching students to be critical
consumers of information.
• A curriculum can also be organized around a
subject center by focusing on certain
processes, strategies, or life-skills, such as
problem solving, decision making, or teamwork.
OBJECTIVES:
To transfer
cultural
heritage
To
represent
knowledge
To impart
information
DRAWBACKS
Ignores
interest of
students
No process
of insight or
thinking
Remote
memory
Neglects
social
problems
and
demands
LEARNER-CENTERED CURRICULUM
•centered on certain aspects of
the learners
themselves.
•may explore the learner’s own
life or family
history or local environment.
ADVANTAGES:
• It gives power to the learners: they are
identified as
the experts in knowing what they need to know.
• The constructivist element of this approach
honors
the social and cultural context of the learner.
• It creates a direct link between in-class work
and
learners' need for literacy outside the
classroom.
DISADVANTAGES:
• It often relies on the teacher's ability to create
or select
materials appropriate to learners' expressed
needs.
• Teachers may also find it difficult to strike an
acceptable balance among the competing
needs and
interests of students.
TEACHERS CENTERED V/S LEARNERCENTERED
CURRICULUM
Teacher-Centered Learner-Centered
Focus is on instructor Focus is on both students and instructor
Instructor talks; students listen Instructor models; students interact with
instructor and one another
Students work alone Students work in pairs, in groups, or alone
depending on the purpose of the activity
Instructor monitors and corrects every student
utterance
Students talk without constant instructor
monitoring
Instructor chooses topics Students have some choice of topics
Instructor answers student’s questions about
language
Students answer each other’s questions, using
instructor as an information resource
Classroom is often noisy and busy Instructor evaluates student learning
Classroom is quite Students evaluate their own learning; instructor
also evaluates
PROBLEM-CENTERED CURRICULUM
•Problem-centered curriculum, or
problem based learning, organizes
subject matter around a problem, real
or hypothetical, that needs to be
solved.
•Problem-centered curriculum is
inherently engaging and authentic,
because the students have a real
purpose to their inquiry -- solving the
problem.
PROBLEM CENTERED-CURRICULUM
• Types of problems to be explored may
include:
– Life situations involving real problems of
practice
– Problems that revolve around life at a given
school
– Problems selected from local issues –
Philosophical or moral problems
CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT MODELS
• Tyler’s model
• Taba’s model
• Saylor, Alexander, and Lewis’s
model
• Oliva model
THE TYLER MODEL
THE TYLER MODEL
• Introduced in 1949 by Ralph Tyler in his classic book
Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction.
• One of the best known models for curriculum
development.
• Known for the special attention it gives to the
planning phases.
• deductive for it proceeds from the general (examining
the needs of society, for example) to the specific
(specifying instructional objectives).
• Tyler recommends that curriculum planners identify
general objectives by gathering data from three
sources:
○ the learners
○ contemporary life outside the school
○ subject matter.
• After identifying numerous general objectives, the
planners refine them by filtering them through two
screens:
○ the philosophical screen
○ the psychological screen
• In the Tyler Model, the general objectives that
successfully pass through the two screens become
what are now popularly known as instructional
objectives.
THE TYLER MODEL OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT
She believed that the curriculum should be
designed by the teachers rather than handed
down by higher authority.
• Further, she felt that teachers should begin the
process by creating teaching-learning units for
their students in their schools rather initially in
creating a general curriculum design.
• She noted 7 major steps to her grass-roots
model in which teachers would have major
input. • She was of the opinion that the Tyler
model was more of an administrative model.
HILDA TABA : GRASSROOTS APPROACH
1. Diagnosis of learners needs and expectations of the
larger society.
2. Formulation of learning objectives.
3. Selection of the learning content.
4. Organization of learning content.
5. Selection of the learning experiences.
6. Organization of learning activities.
7. Determination of what to evaluate and the means of
doing it.
THE TABA MODEL
• Diagnosis of need: The teacher who is also the
curriculum designer starts the process by
identifying the needs of students for whom the
curriculum is planned. For example, the
majority of students are unable to think
critically.
• Formulation of objectives: After the teacher has
identified needs that require attention, he or
she specifies objectives to be accomplished.
THE SAYLOR, ALEXANDER, AND LEWIS MODEL
• Curriculum planners begin by
specifying the major
educational goals and specific
objectives they wish to be
accomplished.
THE OLIVA MODEL
• The Oliva Model is a deductive model
that offers a faculty a process for the
complete development of a school’s
curriculum.
• Oliva recognized the needs of
students in particular communities
are not always the same as the
general needs of students
throughout our society.
THE OLIVA MODEL
In the Oliva Model a faculty can fashion a plan:
• for the curriculum of an area and design ways in which
it will be carried out through instruction
• to develop school-wide interdisciplinary programs that
cut across areas of specialization such as career
education, guidance, and class activities.
• for a faculty to focus on the curricular components of
the model to make programmatic decisions.
• to allow a faculty to concentrate on the instructional
components.
SUMMARIZATION
• Introduction
• Definition
• Curriculum designs
– Subject-Centered Curriculum
– Learner-Centered Curriculum
– Problem-Centered Curriculum
• Curriculum models
– Tyler’s model
– Taba’s model
– Saylor, Alexander, and Lewis’s model
– Oliva model
RECAPTUALIZATION
Fill in the blanks
• In teacher centered curriculum, the focus is only on
______________.
• Tyler model was introduced in _____________.
• The grassroot approach was given by _____________.
• The disadvantage of learner centered curriculum is
________________.
• Various sources in curriculum planning in Tyler model
are _______________.
TRUE/FALSE
• Subject centered curriculum focuses on the
content of the curriculum. T/F
• Oliva model is an inductive model. T/F
• Hilda Taba believed that the curriculum should be
designed by the teachers. T/F
• Tyler model was introduced in 1949. T/F
• Problem centered curriculum explores
philosophical or moral problems. T/F
Models of curriculum development
Models of curriculum development

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Models of curriculum development

  • 1.
  • 2. WHAT IS A CURRICULUM? • Curriculum is a design plan for learning that requires the purposeful and proactive organization, sequencing, and management of the interactions among the teacher, the students, and the content knowledge we want students to acquire.
  • 3. SUBJECT/ TEACHER-CENTERED CURRICULUM • This model focuses on the content of the curriculum. • The subject centered design corresponds mostly to the textbook written for the specific subject.
  • 4. WHAT IS A CURRICULUM MODEL? A model is a format for curriculum design developed to meet unique needs, contexts, and/or purposes. In order to address these goals, curriculum developers design, reconfigure, or rearrange one or more key curriculum components.
  • 5. CURRICULUM DESIGNS • Subject-Centered Curriculum • Learner-Centered Curriculum • Problem-Centered Curriculum
  • 6. DEFINITION OF CURRICULUM The planned and guided learning experiences and intended learning outcomes, formulated through the systematic reconstruction of knowledge and experiences, under the auspices of the school, for the learners’ continuous and willful growth in personal social competence.” (Daniel Tanner, 1980)
  • 7. •The subject-centered curriculum can be focused on – traditional areas in the traditional disciplines – interdisciplinary topics that touch on a wide variety of fields – on processes such as problem solving – on the goal of teaching students to be critical consumers of information. • A curriculum can also be organized around a subject center by focusing on certain processes, strategies, or life-skills, such as problem solving, decision making, or teamwork.
  • 9.
  • 10. DRAWBACKS Ignores interest of students No process of insight or thinking Remote memory Neglects social problems and demands
  • 11. LEARNER-CENTERED CURRICULUM •centered on certain aspects of the learners themselves. •may explore the learner’s own life or family history or local environment.
  • 12. ADVANTAGES: • It gives power to the learners: they are identified as the experts in knowing what they need to know. • The constructivist element of this approach honors the social and cultural context of the learner. • It creates a direct link between in-class work and learners' need for literacy outside the classroom.
  • 13. DISADVANTAGES: • It often relies on the teacher's ability to create or select materials appropriate to learners' expressed needs. • Teachers may also find it difficult to strike an acceptable balance among the competing needs and interests of students.
  • 14. TEACHERS CENTERED V/S LEARNERCENTERED CURRICULUM Teacher-Centered Learner-Centered Focus is on instructor Focus is on both students and instructor Instructor talks; students listen Instructor models; students interact with instructor and one another Students work alone Students work in pairs, in groups, or alone depending on the purpose of the activity Instructor monitors and corrects every student utterance Students talk without constant instructor monitoring Instructor chooses topics Students have some choice of topics Instructor answers student’s questions about language Students answer each other’s questions, using instructor as an information resource Classroom is often noisy and busy Instructor evaluates student learning Classroom is quite Students evaluate their own learning; instructor also evaluates
  • 15. PROBLEM-CENTERED CURRICULUM •Problem-centered curriculum, or problem based learning, organizes subject matter around a problem, real or hypothetical, that needs to be solved. •Problem-centered curriculum is inherently engaging and authentic, because the students have a real purpose to their inquiry -- solving the problem.
  • 16. PROBLEM CENTERED-CURRICULUM • Types of problems to be explored may include: – Life situations involving real problems of practice – Problems that revolve around life at a given school – Problems selected from local issues – Philosophical or moral problems
  • 17. CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT MODELS • Tyler’s model • Taba’s model • Saylor, Alexander, and Lewis’s model • Oliva model
  • 18. THE TYLER MODEL THE TYLER MODEL • Introduced in 1949 by Ralph Tyler in his classic book Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction. • One of the best known models for curriculum development. • Known for the special attention it gives to the planning phases. • deductive for it proceeds from the general (examining the needs of society, for example) to the specific (specifying instructional objectives).
  • 19. • Tyler recommends that curriculum planners identify general objectives by gathering data from three sources: ○ the learners ○ contemporary life outside the school ○ subject matter. • After identifying numerous general objectives, the planners refine them by filtering them through two screens: ○ the philosophical screen ○ the psychological screen • In the Tyler Model, the general objectives that successfully pass through the two screens become what are now popularly known as instructional objectives.
  • 20. THE TYLER MODEL OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT
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  • 25. She believed that the curriculum should be designed by the teachers rather than handed down by higher authority. • Further, she felt that teachers should begin the process by creating teaching-learning units for their students in their schools rather initially in creating a general curriculum design. • She noted 7 major steps to her grass-roots model in which teachers would have major input. • She was of the opinion that the Tyler model was more of an administrative model.
  • 26. HILDA TABA : GRASSROOTS APPROACH 1. Diagnosis of learners needs and expectations of the larger society. 2. Formulation of learning objectives. 3. Selection of the learning content. 4. Organization of learning content. 5. Selection of the learning experiences. 6. Organization of learning activities. 7. Determination of what to evaluate and the means of doing it.
  • 27. THE TABA MODEL • Diagnosis of need: The teacher who is also the curriculum designer starts the process by identifying the needs of students for whom the curriculum is planned. For example, the majority of students are unable to think critically. • Formulation of objectives: After the teacher has identified needs that require attention, he or she specifies objectives to be accomplished.
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  • 29. THE SAYLOR, ALEXANDER, AND LEWIS MODEL • Curriculum planners begin by specifying the major educational goals and specific objectives they wish to be accomplished.
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  • 32. THE OLIVA MODEL • The Oliva Model is a deductive model that offers a faculty a process for the complete development of a school’s curriculum. • Oliva recognized the needs of students in particular communities are not always the same as the general needs of students throughout our society.
  • 33. THE OLIVA MODEL In the Oliva Model a faculty can fashion a plan: • for the curriculum of an area and design ways in which it will be carried out through instruction • to develop school-wide interdisciplinary programs that cut across areas of specialization such as career education, guidance, and class activities. • for a faculty to focus on the curricular components of the model to make programmatic decisions. • to allow a faculty to concentrate on the instructional components.
  • 34. SUMMARIZATION • Introduction • Definition • Curriculum designs – Subject-Centered Curriculum – Learner-Centered Curriculum – Problem-Centered Curriculum • Curriculum models – Tyler’s model – Taba’s model – Saylor, Alexander, and Lewis’s model – Oliva model
  • 35. RECAPTUALIZATION Fill in the blanks • In teacher centered curriculum, the focus is only on ______________. • Tyler model was introduced in _____________. • The grassroot approach was given by _____________. • The disadvantage of learner centered curriculum is ________________. • Various sources in curriculum planning in Tyler model are _______________.
  • 36. TRUE/FALSE • Subject centered curriculum focuses on the content of the curriculum. T/F • Oliva model is an inductive model. T/F • Hilda Taba believed that the curriculum should be designed by the teachers. T/F • Tyler model was introduced in 1949. T/F • Problem centered curriculum explores philosophical or moral problems. T/F