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Evolution of Digital Libraries

  1. Evolution / History / Development of Digital Libraries RupeshKumarA
  2. Evolution • Theideaof digital library is not new. • It has been conceived by many people in differentways.
  3. As WeMayThink • In July 1945, Vannevar BushthethenDirector of the US Office of ScientificResearch and Developmentpublished an article. • It was titled“As WeMay Think”. • Publishedin the journalTheAtlanticMonthly • The article proposed the potentialthattechnology offers the scientiststo gather, store, find and retrieve information. • He called this systemMemex
  4. The Library ofthe Future • In 1960s, J.C.R.Licklider studieddigital computingat MassachusettsInstituteof Technology (MIT). • In his book TheLibraryoftheFuture,he described the research and development needed to builda truly digital library.
  5. ARPANET • In late 1960s, the Departmentof DefenceAdvancedResearch Project Agency (DARPA) initiateda computer network for sharing confidentialdefenceinformation. • This network was called theARPANET. • Similar projects were being initiatedin the United Kingdom and France.
  6. TCP/IP • In 1981, access to the ARPANET was expanded whenthe NationalScience Foundation(NSF) fundedtheComputer Science Network (CSNET). • In 1982, theInternetprotocol suite(TCP/IP)was introduced as the standard networking protocol on theARPANET. • In late 1980s, Commercial Internetservice providers (ISPs) began toemerge.
  7. WWW • In the1980s, research at CERN in Switzerland by British computer scientist Tim Berners-Lee resulted in theWorld Wide Web (WWW). • In themid-1990s, communicationservices such as electronic mail,instantmessaging,voice over InternetProtocol (VoIP) telephone calls,two-way interactivevideo calls started.
  8. NSF Grants for DLResearch • In 1994, USgovernmentannouncedfunding of$24.4millionto six universities forresearch in “digitallibraries”. • The funding wasa joint initiativeof NationalScience Foundation (NSF), DepartmentofDefenseAdvancedResearchProjects Agency (DARPA),andNationalAeronauticsandSpace Administration(NASA) • This was called“DigitalLibrary Initiative-1”(DLIPhase 1)
  9. NSF-funded universities forDL research • Carnegie Mellon University • University of California-Berkeley • University of Michigan • University of Illinois • University of California-SantaBarbara • Stanford University
  10. DLI-2 • In March 1997, NSF sponsored a workshop • PlanningWorkshop on Distributed Knowledgework environments. • It was held at SantaFe. • This workshop provided directions for DigitalLibrary InitiativePhase2.
  11. DLI-2 • NSF announced DLI-2in February 1998. • $8-10millionfor4-5years • Sponsoring Institutionswere: – LibraryofCongress – DARPA – NationalLibraryofMedicine(NLM) – NASA – NationalEndowmentfortheHumanities – NationalArchives – SmithsonianInstituteforMuseumandLibraryServices
  12. DLI-2 Program Goals • NewDL research • Technologiesand applications to advance the use of distributed, networkedinformationof all types around the nationand theworld.
  13. GSDL • Greenstone DigitalLibrary Software • Released in 1999 • Developed by University of Waikato as part of New Zealand DigitalLibrary Project • Presentstable versions: – Greenstone2: 2.86 – Greenstone 3: 3.07
  14. EPrints • Created in 2000 as a result of 1999 SantaFe meeting. • Developed by University of Southampton • First OAI-PMH compliant software • Latest stable release 3.3.15 (December 2015)
  15. DSpace • First public version released in Nov. 2002 • Joint effort of MIT and HPLabs • Consistentdevelopment • Latest Stable version 5.5 (March 2016)
  16. Fedora Commons • FEDORA (Flexible ExtensibleDigital Object Repository Architecture) was launched in 2003 • Developed by Cornell University. • Latest stable release 4.1.0 (February 2015)
  17. Invenio • CERN DocumentServer Software • Prior to 2006, it was calledCDSware • Later renamed CDSInvenio • Now, simply called “Invenio”