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T. Renée Anthony, PhD, CIH, CSP
Department of Occupational and Environmental Health
The University of Iowa
renee-anthony@u...
Seminar Objective
 Dr. Renée Anthony
 Identify chronic and acute health and safety hazards associated with
chemicals in ...
Objectives
 Provide Motivation and Rationale
 Identify chronic health hazards in swine production buildings
 Common con...
Acknowledgements
 Great Plains Center for Agricultural Health
 CDC/NIOSH U54 OH007548
 Iowa Fatality Assessment and Con...
I: Chronic Health Hazards
 Air contaminants in swine CAFO
 Ammonia (NH3) – manure pits, urine
 Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) –...
Risk Factors
 Clear need to reduce exposures to these workers
 Winter exposures are highest
Risk Factors
 Clear need to reduce exposures to these workers
 Winter exposures are highest
O'Shaughnessy et al. (2010) ...
Risk Factors
 Clear need to reduce exposures to these workers
 Winter exposures are highest
Duchaine et al. (2000) Influ...
Risk Factors
 Clear need to reduce exposures to these workers
 Winter exposures are highest
Jacobson et al. (2005) Spati...
Risk Factors
 Clear need to reduce exposures to these workers
 Winter exposures are highest
 Concentrations increase ov...
Risk Factors
 Clear need to reduce exposures to these workers
 Winter exposures are highest
 Concentrations increase ov...
Risk Factors
 Clear need to reduce exposures to these workers
 Winter exposures are highest
 Concentrations increase ov...
Recommended Exposure Limits
Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs) ACGIH TLVs –
Single component limits, which do not account...
Methods to Reduce Exposures
 Focus on dust/endotoxin exposure reduction
 Respiratory Protection: N95 Respirators
 Low A...
Methods to Reduce Exposures
 Recirculating Ventilation Findings
 1000 cfm (5.4 air exchanges/hour)
 No increased room c...
Methods to Reduce Exposures
 Recirculating Ventilation Findings
 Also identified high CO2 generated by
common LPG heater...
Additional Information
 Detailed results of heater and ventilation studies available
 http://www.public-health.uiowa.edu...
II: Acute Effects - Manure Gases
 High concentrations for short periods of time result in serious
health and safety hazar...
H2S Fatalities (2015)
“Quick” attempt to retrieve equipment from
pit resulted in two father-son fatalities in
summer 2015
...
Preventing Manure Gas Fatalities
 Educate/warn: post signs
 Prevent accidental entries
 Don’t enter during / just after...
Foaming Manure
 Methane (CH4) is trapped in the foam but is
released when foam breaks
 Sources of breaking foam:
 Dropp...
Preventing Manure Gas Fatalities:
Monitors
 At-Risk decisions
 “I don’t have an SCBA, but I only need to go in for a sec...
Preventing Manure Gas Fatalities:
How to Select Monitors
Currently:
• No information on how long these
last when stored in...
Preventing Manure Gas Fatalities:
Operating Monitors
Prepare to Sample Air for Manure Gases
• Ventilate space
• Allow suff...
Preventing Manure Gas Fatalities:
Operating Monitors
Testing Order and Key Decisions:
1. Oxygen
%LEL won’t give reliable
n...
Preventing Manure Gas Fatalities:
Operating Monitors
To Test Prior to Entering Manure Pit
Test manure pit while
outside of...
Preventing Manure Gas Fatalities:
Operating Monitors
To Test for Methane Gas in Barn
Washing Barn
1. Prohibit entry
2. Pre...
Summary
 Multiple compounds in the barn are associated with long-term
adverse health effects
 Respirators or improved ve...
Questions?
Example monitors on display at Booth 1210
renee-anthony@uiowa.edu
www.gpcah.org
Fact Sheets: Ventilation Study:
QR code for gpcah web for farmers
Chronic Health Outcomes
Authors
Declines in Lung
Function
Increased Respiratory
Symptoms
Increased Airway
Inflammation
Zus...
Chronic Health Outcomes
Authors
Declines in Lung
Function
Increased Respiratory
Symptoms
Increased Airway
Inflammation
Ive...
Studies Relating Exposures to Outcomes
Contaminant Mean Conc. Recommendation To Prevent:
“Total” dust (A) 4.3 mg/m3
(P) 6....
Studies Relating Exposures to Outcomes
Contaminant Mean Conc. Recommendation To prevent:
“Total” dust 4.53 mg/m3 1.3* – 2....
Studies Relating Exposures to Outcomes
Contaminant Mean Conc.
Recommended Exposure
Limit Association?
“Inhalable” dust 2.6...
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Dr. Renée Anthony - Hazards and Prevention of Airborne Exposures and Risks

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Hazards and Prevention of Airborne Exposures and Risks - Dr. Renée Anthony, Great Plains Center for Agricultural Health, from the 2016 Iowa Pork Congress, January 27-28, Des Moines, IA, USA.

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Dr. Renée Anthony - Hazards and Prevention of Airborne Exposures and Risks

  1. 1. T. Renée Anthony, PhD, CIH, CSP Department of Occupational and Environmental Health The University of Iowa renee-anthony@uiowa.edu Pit Foam & Producer Safety: Hazards and Prevention of Airborne Exposures and Risks Iowa Pork Congress January 27, 2016 | 10:45 – 12:00 Hy-Vee Hall, Lower Level, Rooms 107 & 108
  2. 2. Seminar Objective  Dr. Renée Anthony  Identify chronic and acute health and safety hazards associated with chemicals in swine production buildings  Discuss identification and prevention alternatives  Leon Sheets  Share producer experiences of barn fire  Dr. Dan Andersen  Update state of knowledge of foaming manure  Discuss prevention strategies
  3. 3. Objectives  Provide Motivation and Rationale  Identify chronic health hazards in swine production buildings  Common contaminants  Health risks: current state of knowledge  Prevention options  Discuss acutely hazardous gases: H2S and CH4  Sources  Risk factors  Prevention considerations
  4. 4. Acknowledgements  Great Plains Center for Agricultural Health  CDC/NIOSH U54 OH007548  Iowa Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE)  CDC/NIOSH 2U60OH008460-10  Subcontract with the Iowa Department of Public Health (IDPH)
  5. 5. I: Chronic Health Hazards  Air contaminants in swine CAFO  Ammonia (NH3) – manure pits, urine  Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) – manure pits  Dust (respirable, inhalable) – food, animal dander, manure  Endotoxin (on dust) – animal dander, manure  Carbon monoxide (CO) – heaters  Carbon dioxide (CO2) – heaters, swine respiration  Workers in swine CAFO exhibit adverse health outcomes  Declines in lung function (FEV1 dose-dependent)  Increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms (chronic cough, phlegm)  Increased prevalence and amount of inflammation (bronchial lavage)  Clear need to reduce exposures to these workers
  6. 6. Risk Factors  Clear need to reduce exposures to these workers  Winter exposures are highest
  7. 7. Risk Factors  Clear need to reduce exposures to these workers  Winter exposures are highest O'Shaughnessy et al. (2010) A Task-specific assessment of swine worker exposure to airborne dust. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene 7(1):7-13 Inhalable Dust Endotoxin
  8. 8. Risk Factors  Clear need to reduce exposures to these workers  Winter exposures are highest Duchaine et al. (2000) Influence of building maintenance, environmental factors, and seasons on airborne contaminants of swine confinement buildings. AIHAJ 61(1):56-63 “Total” Dust Endotoxin Ammonia Dust and ammonia significantly higher in winter. (Endotoxins analyzed by different methods: not comparable between seasons)
  9. 9. Risk Factors  Clear need to reduce exposures to these workers  Winter exposures are highest Jacobson et al. (2005) Spatial, diurnal, and seasonal variations in temperature, ammonia, and hydrogen sulfide concentrations in two tunnel ventilated sow gestation buildings in MN. Livestock Environment VII, Proceeding of 7th International Symposium 18-20 May 2005, ASAE Publication 701P0205, 198-206 Hydrogen Sulfide (Gestation) Ammonia (Breeding) Significant increases in winter: 100 to 1000 ppb H2S, 2-25 ppm NH3
  10. 10. Risk Factors  Clear need to reduce exposures to these workers  Winter exposures are highest  Concentrations increase over the winter
  11. 11. Risk Factors  Clear need to reduce exposures to these workers  Winter exposures are highest  Concentrations increase over the winter
  12. 12. Risk Factors  Clear need to reduce exposures to these workers  Winter exposures are highest  Concentrations increase over the winter  Exposure recommendations:  Single component – OSHA, ACGIH, other… not consider combined effect to compounds associated with health outcomes  Multiple component – Literature recommendations to prevent declines in lung function and inflammation
  13. 13. Recommended Exposure Limits Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs) ACGIH TLVs – Single component limits, which do not account for mixtures Threshold Large Dust, mg/m3 Small (Respirable) Dust, mg/m3 NH3, ppm CO, ppm CO2, ppm OEL 10 3 25 25 5000 50% OEL 5 1.5 12.5 12.5 2500 10% OEL 1 0.3 2.5 2.5 500 Literature recommendations: Donham et al. 1989, 1995 2.8 (T) (<10% decrease in FEV1) 0.23 7 (3% decline in FEV1) - 1540 (FEV50, FEF50) Vogelzang et al. 2000 2.6 (I) 7.2 Increased bronchial hyperresponsiveness
  14. 14. Methods to Reduce Exposures  Focus on dust/endotoxin exposure reduction  Respiratory Protection: N95 Respirators  Low Adoption: 26% of MN farmers “sometimes” used (Odu et al. 2015)  Iowa Outreach: Community college education activities (fit testing, hands-on demonstrations) – Sheridan, Rudolphi  Engineering Controls  Oil mist – Zhang et al. 1996; Senthilselvan et al. 1997; Rule et al. 2005  Recirculating ventilation with dust removal (winter) – Park et al. 2013; Anthony et al. 2014, 2015; Peters et al. 2015
  15. 15. Methods to Reduce Exposures  Recirculating Ventilation Findings  1000 cfm (5.4 air exchanges/hour)  No increased room concentrations of gases from operation (NH3, H2S, CO, CO2)  Two air control units tested in farrowing barn  Filtration (SDC) reduced particles by:  33% for large (inhalable)  41% for small (respirable)  Cyclone reduced particles by:  44% for large (inhalable)  18% for small (respirable) Filtration (SDC) Cyclone
  16. 16. Methods to Reduce Exposures  Recirculating Ventilation Findings  Also identified high CO2 generated by common LPG heaters  Unvented heater (Yr 1) Mean: 2480 ppm (330 ppm SD) Exceeded 1540 ppm all days Mean approached ½ single gas OELs  Vented heater (Yr 2) Mean: 1401 ppm (330 ppm SD) Exceeded 1540 ppm on 5 of 19 days  800 ppm drop due to heater  Between years, outdoor temperatures and sow/piglet counts also varied
  17. 17. Additional Information  Detailed results of heater and ventilation studies available  http://www.public-health.uiowa.edu/gpcah/center- projects/intervention-to-reduce-exposures-in-cafos/ Ventilation Study:
  18. 18. II: Acute Effects - Manure Gases  High concentrations for short periods of time result in serious health and safety hazards  Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) – In manure pit  50 – 100 ppm: altered breathing  100-300 ppm: pulmonary edema  500-700 ppm: collapse in 5 min, death 30-60 min  1000 ppm: nearly instant death  “Heavier than air”  Methane (CH4) – In foaming manure  Simple asphyxiant: every 4% increase in methane, 1% decrease of oxygen  Flammable at 5 to 15% (50,000 to 150,000 ppm)  Foam: 50-70% Methane (too high to be flammable)  When foam breaks: concentration dilutes and becomes explosive  “Lighter than air” Fact Sheets:
  19. 19. H2S Fatalities (2015) “Quick” attempt to retrieve equipment from pit resulted in two father-son fatalities in summer 2015 Iowa FACE report 2005 IA 024/025
  20. 20. Preventing Manure Gas Fatalities  Educate/warn: post signs  Prevent accidental entries  Don’t enter during / just after agitation  Ventilate spaces prior to entry  Enter only with adequate equipment  Retrieval system (harness, mechanical lift)  Standby-by person  SCBA
  21. 21. Foaming Manure  Methane (CH4) is trapped in the foam but is released when foam breaks  Sources of breaking foam:  Dropped feed  Manure agitation  Pressure washing  Methane dilutes to flammable concentrations  Sources of combustion:  Electric motors (e.g., pressure washers, feed systems)  Pilot lights  Welding/cutting  Faulty/damaged wiring  Smoking  Critical to eliminate combustion sources during activities when foam might break
  22. 22. Preventing Manure Gas Fatalities: Monitors  At-Risk decisions  “I don’t have an SCBA, but I only need to go in for a second.”  “I can hold my breath”  “I have had the fan on long enough…”  “I pumped days ago…”  How can we tell if hazardous gases are at dangerous concentrations?  Monitors can provide risk information to producer in real time  Prices are extremely low (single gas H2S ~$100)  These units are commonly used in other industries in high-hazard environments
  23. 23. Preventing Manure Gas Fatalities: How to Select Monitors Currently: • No information on how long these last when stored in AG environments • Selections based on purchase cost and warranty • Store in clean environment • No “industry recommendations” for calibration and sensor (“bump”) check • Bump check before every use • Calibrate at least monthly and immediately before planned entries
  24. 24. Preventing Manure Gas Fatalities: Operating Monitors Prepare to Sample Air for Manure Gases • Ventilate space • Allow sufficient warm-up time • Understand how long it takes your sensor to respond – May take up to 90 seconds • Obtain tools to measure at a distance: – 4 feet in front of you in the direction of travel – Mount monitor securely on stick or use probe with extension hose • Confirm monitor is working: – Bump-test with gas to make sure it alarms – Calibrate per manufacturer’s instructions • Identify alarm settings: – Be clear what you need to do if monitors alarm
  25. 25. Preventing Manure Gas Fatalities: Operating Monitors Testing Order and Key Decisions: 1. Oxygen %LEL won’t give reliable numbers if insufficient O2 Need 21% O2 If lower, may have high methane: Get out! 2. %LEL (flammable methane) Need <1% LEL 10% LEL or more: Get out! 3. H2S >10 ppm: Chronic health effects 100 ppm: Get out! The LEL of methane = 5% = 50,000 ppm A reading of “1%LEL”  500 ppm methane
  26. 26. Preventing Manure Gas Fatalities: Operating Monitors To Test Prior to Entering Manure Pit Test manure pit while outside of it first Do not enter! Ventilate space then retest from outside Safe ? Test at entry location and every 4 feet (in front, to side, above, below) No Yes Notes: • Monitors take time to get true concentrations (60 -90 sec). • We set alarms lower than what can cause death. • Concentrations can go up quickly, so react to low concentrations as indication of inadequate ventilation.
  27. 27. Preventing Manure Gas Fatalities: Operating Monitors To Test for Methane Gas in Barn Washing Barn 1. Prohibit entry 2. Prepare ventilation equipment and monitor 3. Implement shut-down for electricity and gas 4. Put monitor on worker during activity: EVACUATE if %LEL Changes from 0% 5. If evacuate – Continue ventilating room – Return with a monitor, testing in 4 foot increments, including ceiling level; back out if concentrations still high – Return to task only when %LEL = 0 6. When work is completed/foam not at risk of breaking, continue ventilating until confirm no methane Hot Work Changes to feed system 1. Prohibit hot work in barn with foaming manure 2. If work must be done, prevent activities breaking foam 3. Follow all procedures to the left Pumping Manure Pit 1. Prohibit agitation when less than 2 feet between foam and slats 2. Ensure pit fans are operating 3. Follow all procedures to the left 4. If anyone enters barn, O2, H2S and %LEL monitors should be used 5. Continue ventilating barn after pumping back to background: 21% O2, <1 ppm H2S, 0% LEL
  28. 28. Summary  Multiple compounds in the barn are associated with long-term adverse health effects  Respirators or improved ventilation, particularly during winter, can reduce health risks  Acute hazards from manure gases still pose dangers  Procedures via ASABE and Extension recommend ventilation duration and safety protocols  Available inexpensive technology can ensure concentrations throughout the room are safe for activities • Working with monitors to recommend maintenance and lifetime to recommend specifics • Developing training  Booth 1210 contains specifics  Sign-up sheet for those interested in classes on using monitors
  29. 29. Questions? Example monitors on display at Booth 1210 renee-anthony@uiowa.edu www.gpcah.org Fact Sheets: Ventilation Study:
  30. 30. QR code for gpcah web for farmers
  31. 31. Chronic Health Outcomes Authors Declines in Lung Function Increased Respiratory Symptoms Increased Airway Inflammation Zuskin (1992) – Netherlands (N=59) Cross-shift (FVC, FEV1, FEF50, FEF25) Lower pre-shift capacity vs controls Chronic cough, dyspnea, chest tightness, chronic bronchitis (not ♂, N=41) Cormier (1991) – Quebec (N=102) Obstruction (FEV1/FVC, MMFR) Choudat (1994) – France (N=102) Lower but insignificant difference (MEF, FEF50, FEF25) Cough (morning, diurnal, workplace), Work-related sneezing Pedersen (1996) – Denmark (N=27) Normal FEV1 More bronchial reactivity: (via bronchoscopy and BAL -- increased lymphocytes, neutrophils, increased macrophage activity) Larsson (1994) – Sweden (N=14, non- farmers) BAL changes 1 day post exposure
  32. 32. Chronic Health Outcomes Authors Declines in Lung Function Increased Respiratory Symptoms Increased Airway Inflammation Iverson (1990) – Denmark (N=124 pig, 57 dairy) No difference in dairy vs pig farmer: FEV1 decrease 12 mL/year of farming More wheezing, shortness of breath, dry cough compared to dairy farmer Age, years in pig farming, and smoking all associated with bronchial hyperreactivity (PC20 histamine values) Iversen (2000) – Denmark (7-yr follow up, N=135) FEV1 declined more with pig farmer: 53 mL/yr pig (significant) vs 36 mL/yr dairy (not significant) No difference in FVC Same as previous Small decrease in bronchial hyperreactivity between pig and dairy, only once correcting with FEV1 Vogelzang (2000) – Netherlands (N=171) Mean FEV1: 73 mL/yr, FVC 55 mL/yr n/a Increased bronchial responsiveness (associated with NH3, automated dry feeding, wood shavings as bedding)
  33. 33. Studies Relating Exposures to Outcomes Contaminant Mean Conc. Recommendation To Prevent: “Total” dust (A) 4.3 mg/m3 (P) 6.8 mg/m3 (A) 2.4 mg/m3 (P) 3.8 mg/m3 Chronic cough & phlegm Respirable dust (A) 0.33 mg/m3 (P) 0.34 mg/m3 (A) 0.23 mg/m3 (P) 0.28 mg/m3 Chronic cough & phlegm; frequent chest colds; febrile episodes Endotoxin - total (A) 0.18 ug/m3 (P) 0.24 ug/m3 (A) 0.08 mg/m3 (P) 0.09 mg/m3  FEV1 Endotoxin - respirable (A) 0.17 ug/m3 (P) 0.23 ug/m3 n/a n/a Ammonia 9 ppm 7 ppm FEV50, FEF50 Carbon dioxide 1740 ppm 1540 ppm FEV50, FEF50 Hydrogen sulfide n/d - - Carbon monoxide n/d - Donham et al., 1989 (Sweden, N=57) (A) Indicates area sample, (P) indicates personal sample
  34. 34. Studies Relating Exposures to Outcomes Contaminant Mean Conc. Recommendation To prevent: “Total” dust 4.53 mg/m3 1.3* – 2.8 mg/m3 <10% decrease in FEV1 (>2 hr /day, 6 yr) Respirable dust 0.23 mg/m3 - - Endotoxin – “total” 202.35 EU/m3 - - Endotoxin - respirable 16.59 EU/m3 - - Ammonia 5.64 ppm 7.5 ppm 3% decline in FEV1 Carbon dioxide Hydrogen sulfide Carbon monoxide Donham et al., 1995 (Iowa, N=201) Not reported *smokers had more response and effects not seen below 1.3 mg/m3
  35. 35. Studies Relating Exposures to Outcomes Contaminant Mean Conc. Recommended Exposure Limit Association? “Inhalable” dust 2.63 mg/m3 2.6 mg/m3 Yes Entotoxin 105 ng/m3 - No Ammonia 1.6 mg/m3 (2.13 ppm) 5.4 mg/m3 (7.2 ppm) Limited Vogelzang et al. 2000: Examined bronchial hyperresponsiveness

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