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LODE: Linking Open
     Descriptions of Events

Ryan Shaw <ryanshaw@ischool.berkeley.edu>
Raphaël Troncy <raphael.troncy@e...
We have directory of events...




   08/12/2009 -   LODE: Linking Open Descriptions of Events - ASWC 2009, Shanghai, Chin...
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08/12/2009 -   LODE: Linking Open Descriptions of Events - ASWC 2009, Shanghai, China   -4
08/12/2009 -   LODE: Linking Open Descriptions of Events - ASWC 2009, Shanghai, China   -5
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08/12/2009 -   LODE: Linking Open Descriptions of Events - ASWC 2009, Shanghai, China   -7
08/12/2009 -   LODE: Linking Open Descriptions of Events - ASWC 2009, Shanghai, China   -8
08/12/2009 -   LODE: Linking Open Descriptions of Events - ASWC 2009, Shanghai, China   -9
08/12/2009 -   LODE: Linking Open Descriptions of Events - ASWC 2009, Shanghai, China   - 10
08/12/2009 -   LODE: Linking Open Descriptions of Events - ASWC 2009, Shanghai, China   - 11
08/12/2009 -   LODE: Linking Open Descriptions of Events - ASWC 2009, Shanghai, China   - 12
We have knowledge about “many things”...




   16/09/2009
   08/12/2009 -   LODE: Linking Open Descriptions of Events - A...
08/12/2009 -   LODE: Linking Open Descriptions of Events - ASWC 2009, Shanghai, China   - 14
Event-based centric interfaces

 Action or occurrence taking place at a certain
 time at a specific location
   Useful for...
There are already many event ontologies
    Event Model                                                       Ontology URL...
Fundamental Types of Events
 Aspect: ongoing activity vs transition between states
    cyc:Event ∩ cyc:StaticSituation ≤ c...
Events and Temporal Intervals
 Relating events to chronological spans of time
    Persistent, socially attributed meanings...
Events, Spaces and Places
 Relating events to places
    Semantically significant places
    Abstract spatial regions

 Su...
Participation in events
 Object involvement in events:
    Simple involvement in event:
             abc:Event    abc:invo...
Events, Influence, Purpose and Causality
 Making broad assertions linking events to any thing
    cidoc:P12.occurred_in_th...
Events, Parts and Composition
 Event A being part of event B ≠
 A's timespan ϵ B's timespan
    cidoc:P86.falls_within for...
Towards a Linked Data Event Model




  16/09/2009
  08/12/2009 -   Event-basedLinking Open Descriptions ofof Media--ASWC ...
Some mappings in LODE
   ABC                       CIDOC                                            DUL                   ...
16/09/2009
08/12/2009 -   Event-basedLinking Open Descriptions ofof Media--ASWC 2009, Shanghai, China (CH)
               ...
Applications 1/2

 Extracting events from Wikipedia Timelines
   Timeline of World War II
            7 years specific tim...
Applications 2/2

 Interoperability with Legacy Event Collections
   Congressional Biographies:
            Biographical D...
16/09/2009
08/12/2009 -   LODE: Linking Open Descriptions of Events - ASWC 2009, Shanghai, China   - 28
Conclusion and Future Work
 Events are core in our thoughts and useful for
    describing History, exploring archival reco...
http://www.slideshare.net/troncy

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LODE Linking Open Descriptions of Events

LODE: Linking Open Descriptions of Events - Talk given at the 4th Asian Semantic Web Conference (ASWC'2009), Shanghai, China, December 8th 2009

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LODE Linking Open Descriptions of Events

  1. 1. LODE: Linking Open Descriptions of Events Ryan Shaw <ryanshaw@ischool.berkeley.edu> Raphaël Troncy <raphael.troncy@eurecom.fr> Lynda Hardman <lynda.hardman@cwi.nl>
  2. 2. We have directory of events... 08/12/2009 - LODE: Linking Open Descriptions of Events - ASWC 2009, Shanghai, China -2
  3. 3. 08/12/2009 - LODE: Linking Open Descriptions of Events - ASWC 2009, Shanghai, China -3
  4. 4. 08/12/2009 - LODE: Linking Open Descriptions of Events - ASWC 2009, Shanghai, China -4
  5. 5. 08/12/2009 - LODE: Linking Open Descriptions of Events - ASWC 2009, Shanghai, China -5
  6. 6. 08/12/2009 - LODE: Linking Open Descriptions of Events - ASWC 2009, Shanghai, China -6
  7. 7. 08/12/2009 - LODE: Linking Open Descriptions of Events - ASWC 2009, Shanghai, China -7
  8. 8. 08/12/2009 - LODE: Linking Open Descriptions of Events - ASWC 2009, Shanghai, China -8
  9. 9. 08/12/2009 - LODE: Linking Open Descriptions of Events - ASWC 2009, Shanghai, China -9
  10. 10. 08/12/2009 - LODE: Linking Open Descriptions of Events - ASWC 2009, Shanghai, China - 10
  11. 11. 08/12/2009 - LODE: Linking Open Descriptions of Events - ASWC 2009, Shanghai, China - 11
  12. 12. 08/12/2009 - LODE: Linking Open Descriptions of Events - ASWC 2009, Shanghai, China - 12
  13. 13. We have knowledge about “many things”... 16/09/2009 08/12/2009 - LODE: Linking Open Descriptions of Events - ASWC 2009, Shanghai, China - 13
  14. 14. 08/12/2009 - LODE: Linking Open Descriptions of Events - ASWC 2009, Shanghai, China - 14
  15. 15. Event-based centric interfaces Action or occurrence taking place at a certain time at a specific location Useful for organizing and browsing collections of media Useful for discovering complex relationships between data Need for an expressive event model for connecting pieces of data Not Yet Another Model! 08/12/2009 - LODE: Linking Open Descriptions of Events - ASWC 2009, Shanghai, China - 15
  16. 16. There are already many event ontologies Event Model Ontology URL CIDOC CRM http://cidoc.ics.forth.gr/OWL/cidoc_v4.2.owl ABC Ontology http://metadata.net/harmony/ABC/ABC.owl Event Ontology http://purl.org/NET/c4dm/event.owl# EventsML-G2 http://www.iptc.org/EventsML/ Dolce+DnS Ultralite http://www.loa-cnr.it/ontologies/DUL.owl F http://events.semantic- multimedia.org/ontology/2008/12/15/model.owl OpenCyc Ontology http://www.opencyc.org/ SEM http://semanticweb.cs.vu.nl/2009/04/event/ 08/12/2009 - LODE: Linking Open Descriptions of Events - ASWC 2009, Shanghai, China - 16
  17. 17. Fundamental Types of Events Aspect: ongoing activity vs transition between states cyc:Event ∩ cyc:StaticSituation ≤ cyc:Situation cidoc:E5.Event ∩ cidoc:E3.Condition_State ≤ cidco:E2.Temporal_Entity abc:Event is a transition between abc:Situation ≈ cidoc:E3.Condition_State Agentivity: who has produced the event? cyc:Action, dul:Action ≤ Event E7.Activity ≤ E5.Event abc:Action ∩ abc:Event = Ø Events are fully described as a set of actions taken by specific agents Issue for modeling e.g. earthquakes Interpretation matters! Identifiable changes or not? Agency can be assigned? dul:Situation describe dul:Event dul:Action, dul:Process ≤ dul:Event 08/12/2009 - LODE: Linking Open Descriptions of Events - ASWC 2009, Shanghai, China - 17
  18. 18. Events and Temporal Intervals Relating events to chronological spans of time Persistent, socially attributed meanings Arbitrary system for subdividing an abstract space Modeling a class for temporal intervals and use an OP ABC, CIDOC, EO (owl:TemporalEntity) Modeling a XML Schema typed value and use a DP Pro: simplicity, values expressed as xsd:date or xsd:dateTime Cons: inability to express uncertain period or when there is no coincidence with date units Having two properties dul:hasEventDate ... litteral value dul:isObservableAt ... dul:TimeInterval 08/12/2009 - LODE: Linking Open Descriptions of Events - ASWC 2009, Shanghai, China - 18
  19. 19. Events, Spaces and Places Relating events to places Semantically significant places Abstract spatial regions Support spatial regions only: ABC, CIDOC, EO eo:Event eo:place wgs84:SpatialThing cidoc:E5.Event cidoc:P7.took_place_at cidoc:E53.Place Support the place/space distinction dul:Event dul:hasLocation dul:Place dul:Event dul:hasRegion dul:SpaceRegion Most flexible approach: allow to resolve to places with no geographical coordinate systems (e.g. mythical events, SecondLife) 08/12/2009 - LODE: Linking Open Descriptions of Events - ASWC 2009, Shanghai, China - 19
  20. 20. Participation in events Object involvement in events: Simple involvement in event: abc:Event abc:involves owl:Thing (≤ abc:Actuality) cidoc:E5.Event cidoc:P12.occurred_in_the_presence_of cidoc:E77 dul:Event dul:hasParticipant dul:Object eo:Event eo:factor owl:Thing Tangible thing which results from an event: abc:Event abc:hasResult owl:Thing eo:Event eo:product owl:Thing Agent participation in events: abc:hasParticipant ≤ abc:hasPresence cidoc:P11.had_participant ≤ cidoc:P14.carried_out_by dul:involvesAgent ≤ abc:hasParticipant 08/12/2009 - LODE: Linking Open Descriptions of Events - ASWC 2009, Shanghai, China - 20
  21. 21. Events, Influence, Purpose and Causality Making broad assertions linking events to any thing cidoc:P12.occurred_in_the_presence_of, cidoc:P15.was_influenced_by eo:factor, abc:hasResult F model uses the DnS pattern 08/12/2009 - LODE: Linking Open Descriptions of Events - ASWC 2009, Shanghai, China - 21
  22. 22. Events, Parts and Composition Event A being part of event B ≠ A's timespan ϵ B's timespan cidoc:P86.falls_within for expressing containment among timespans cidoc:P9.consist_of ≈ eo:sub_event ≈ abc:isSubEventOf Linking sub-events with parthood dul:hasPart The 20th century contains the year 1923 World War II included Pearl Harbour Linking sub-events with composition dul:hasConstituent The French revolution is composed of the Bastille catch 08/12/2009 - LODE: Linking Open Descriptions of Events - ASWC 2009, Shanghai, China - 22
  23. 23. Towards a Linked Data Event Model 16/09/2009 08/12/2009 - Event-basedLinking Open Descriptions ofof Media--ASWC 2009, Shanghai, China (CH) LODE: Annotation and Exploration Events PetaMedia SYTIM, Lausanne - 23
  24. 24. Some mappings in LODE ABC CIDOC DUL EO LODE atTime P4.has_time_span isObservableAt time atTime P7.took_place_at place inSpace inPlace hasLocation atPlace involves P12.occurred_in_the_ hasParticipant factor involved presence_of hasPresence P11.had_participant involvesAgent agent involvedAgent 08/12/2009 - LODE: Linking Open Descriptions of Events - ASWC 2009, Shanghai, China - 24
  25. 25. 16/09/2009 08/12/2009 - Event-basedLinking Open Descriptions ofof Media--ASWC 2009, Shanghai, China (CH) LODE: Annotation and Exploration Events PetaMedia SYTIM, Lausanne - 25
  26. 26. Applications 1/2 Extracting events from Wikipedia Timelines Timeline of World War II 7 years specific timelines involving people at days granularity Timeline of Irish History Single geographical location spread of wide temporal range Timeline for the day of the September 11 attacks 147 fine-grained events from a single day Timeline of evolution Very coarse-grained events associated with times far in the past 08/12/2009 - LODE: Linking Open Descriptions of Events - ASWC 2009, Shanghai, China - 26
  27. 27. Applications 2/2 Interoperability with Legacy Event Collections Congressional Biographies: Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress Series of statements for every member of the United State legislature from 1774 to the present 69,228 events represented with the BIO vocabulary The Emma Goldman Chronology: Day to day activity of her assistants ... From 1910 to 1916 Parsing dates, geo-coding place names, linking person names with DBpedia Generating 1041 events modeled with the EO vocabulary 08/12/2009 - LODE: Linking Open Descriptions of Events - ASWC 2009, Shanghai, China - 27
  28. 28. 16/09/2009 08/12/2009 - LODE: Linking Open Descriptions of Events - ASWC 2009, Shanghai, China - 28
  29. 29. Conclusion and Future Work Events are core in our thoughts and useful for describing History, exploring archival records, structuring our lives LODE: Linking Open Descriptions of Events a set of mappings between event data models http://linkedevents.org/ontology/ Event directory providing stable URI for events Challenges: Event description vs event interpretation Event identification: how to map multiple textual description to the same event identifier? events are linguistic phenomena rather than objectively existing ... but we want two descriptions of past occurrences are the same event Publish linked descriptions of large repositories of upcoming events 08/12/2009 - LODE: Linking Open Descriptions of Events - ASWC 2009, Shanghai, China - 29
  30. 30. http://www.slideshare.net/troncy 08/12/2009 - LODE: Linking Open Descriptions of Events - ASWC 2009, Shanghai, China - 30

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