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“Papa Haydn” 1732-1809Franz Joseph Haydnwas one of the most prominent composersof the Classical period, and is called bysome the "Father of the Symphony” andthe “Father of the String Quartet.” JosephHaydn was born in the Austrian village ofRohrau, near the Hungarian border.
Haydn was short instature, perhaps as aresult of having beenunderfed throughoutmost of his youth.Like many in his day,he was a survivor ofsmallpox and his facewas pitted with thescars of this disease.
Haydns parents were perceptive enough to notice that their son was musically talented and knewthat in Rohrau he would have no chance to obtain any serious musical training. It was for this reason that they accepted a proposal from a relative, the schoolmaster and choirmaster inHainburg, that Haydn be apprenticed to train as a musician. Haydn therefore went off (ten miles away) and never again lived with his parents. At the time he was not quite six.
Life in the Franck household was not easy for Haydn, who later remembered being frequently hungry as well as constantly humiliated by the filthy state of his clothing. However, he didbegin his musical training there, and soon was able to play both harpsichord and violin.
Haydn was also a talented singer and passed an audition (for a choirboy at St. Stephan’s Cathedral) and soonmoved off to Vienna,where he worked for the next nine years as a chorister.
After marriage, Haydn’s wife often cut up or rolled his manuscripts to roll her hair.Needless to say, the marriage didn’t last very long.
In 1922 the Germans stole the old Austrian imperial anthem (composed by Austrian-- Joseph Haydn), and made it the national anthem of the Republic of Germany. It is still in use today. They used a text by Hoffmann von Fallersleben from 1841.In 1929 the Austrians retaliated and declared the same Haydnsong the Austrian national anthem (with a new text by Ottokar Kernstock). So for several years the two countries used the same melody for their national anthem! www.viennaonline-ezine.com/ai/ai0302.htmlWorld War II and the post war era changed everything again. The humble Austrians graciously let the Germans keep thesong and created their present national anthem with a text by Paula von Preradovic and a melody by W. A. Mozart. www.austria.org/nat_anthem.shtml
Translation of the Austrian National Anthem Land of mountains, land on the river, Land of fields, land of cathedrals, Land of hammers, rich in outlook. You are the native home of great sons, A people uniquely gifted for the beautiful, Much applauded Austria. Fiercely embattled, ferociously contested, You lie at the center of the globe, Like a strong heart. Since the days of your early ancestorsYou have borne the burden of a sublime calling, Much-tried Austria. Courageously we stride Into the new times, free and devout, Industrious and of firm heart. In unison choruses of brotherhood We pledge our allegiance to thee, Fatherland, Much-loved Austria.
During the 12 years of the Nazi era, the first stanza was the official anthem. In May 1952 the third stanza was proclaimed the official anthem of the Federal Republic of Germany (WestGermany) by President Theodor Heuss. (East Germany had its own anthem.)The second stanza, while never verboten, was not very popular because of its “wine, women, and song” theme.
Deutschland, Deutschland über alles, Germany, Germany above all,Über alles in der Welt, Above everything in the world,Wenn es stets zu Schutz und Trutze When always, for protection,Brüderlich zusammenhält, We stand together as brothers.Von der Maas bis an die Memel, From the Maas to the MemelVon der Etsch bis an den Belt - From the Etsch to the Belt -Deutschland, Deutschland über alles, Germany, Germany above allÜber alles in der Welt. Above all in the world.Deutsche Frauen, deutsche Treue, German women, German loyalty,Deutscher Wein und deutscher Sang German wine and German song,Sollen in der Welt behalten Shall retain in the world,Ihren alten schönen Klang, Their old lovely ringUns zu edler Tat begeistern To inspire us to noble deedsUnser ganzes Leben lang. Our whole life long.Deutsche Frauen, deutsche Treue, German women, German loyalty,Deutscher Wein und deutscher Sang German wine and German song.Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit Unity and law and freedomfür das deutsche Vaterland! For the German FatherlandDanach lasst uns alle streben Let us all strive for thatBrüderlich mit Herz und Hand! In brotherhood with heart and hand!Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit Unity and law and freedomSind des Glückes Unterpfand; Are the foundation for happinessBlüh im Glanze dieses Glückes, Bloom in the glow of happinessBlühe, deutsches Vaterland. Bloom, German Fatherland.
Symphony No. 45 in F-sharp minor, known as the "Farewell" Symphony (Abschieds- Symphonie), was composed in 1772. It is particularly noteworthy that the symphony (along with others of this Sturm and Drang period of Haydn’s career) was highlyunconventional for the time. The symphony isone of Haydns better-known works from this period.
This final adagio includes a bit of stage business that may not be obviousto a listener hearing a recorded performance: several of the musicians are given little solos to play just before departing. The order of departure is: first oboe and second horn (solos), bassoon (no solo), second oboe and first horn (solos), double bass (solo), cello (no solo), orchestral violins (solos; first chair players silent), viola (no solo). The first chair violinists remain to complete the work.A typical performance of the Farewell Symphony lasts around twenty-five minutes.
Nickname (the Surprise) Haydns music contains many jokes, and the Surprise Symphony includes probably the most famous of all: a sudden loud chord in the theme of the variation-form second movement after a tranquilopening. The music then returns to its original quiet dynamic, as ifnothing had happened, and the ensuing variations do not repeat the joke. Composition and PremiereHaydn wrote the symphony in 1791 in London for a concert series. As with Haydns England visits in general, the premiere was greatly successful. In his feeble old age Haydn remembered the premiere with nostalgia:...it was my wish to surprise the public with something new, and to make a debut in a brilliant manner, in order not to be outdone by my pupil Pleyel [who was leading a rival series of concerts].
More than any other composers,Haydns music is known for its humor.