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Rochas magmáticas

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Rochas magmáticas

  1. 1. Rochas Magmáticas<br />CN8<br />Prof. Tânia Reis<br />
  2. 2. Formação das Rochas Magmáticas<br />As rochas magmáticas resultam da solidificação de magmas à superfície ou em profundidade, devido à descida de pressão e temperatura.<br />
  3. 3. Rochas Magmáticas ou Ígneas<br />São as rochas mais abundantes na Natureza.<br />Rochas magmáticas vulcânicas Quando o magma solidifica à superfície.<br />Rochas magmáticas plutónicas Quando o magma solidifica em profundidade.<br />
  4. 4. Granito – rocha magmática plutónica<br />Basalto – rocha magmática vulcânica<br />
  5. 5. Quanto à origem podem ser<br />“Plutão”<br />Vulcão<br />
  6. 6. Constituição do granito e do basalto<br />
  7. 7. Textura das rochas magmáticas<br />O tamanho, a forma e o arranjo dos minerais define a Textura de uma rocha.<br />
  8. 8. Textura fanerítica ou Holocristalina- Cristais bem desenvolvidos, visíveis à “vista desarmada”.<br />Granito<br />Textura afanítica ou Hemicristalina- Cristais pequenos, pouco visíveis à “vista desarmada”.<br />Basalto<br />
  9. 9. Textura das Rochas Magmáticas<br />Rochas Plutónicas<br />Textura Holocristalina ou Fanerítica:quando toda a massa do magma se transforma em cristais de dimensões pouco diferentes e visíveis à “vista desarmada”. <br />
  10. 10. Textura das Rochas Magmáticas<br />Rochas Vulcânicas<br />Textura Hemicristalina ou Afanítica: quando ocorre uma cristalização incompleta, os cristais são pouco ou nada visíveis à “vista desarmada” no seio de uma massa amorfa.<br />
  11. 11. Textura das Rochas Magmáticas<br />Rochas Vulcânicas<br />Textura Amorfa ou vítrea: devido a um arrefecimento muito rápido, não dá tempo à organização e for-<br />mação de cristais.<br />
  12. 12. Rochas Magmáticas<br />Granito<br />Basalto<br />Obsidiana<br />
  13. 13. Magma<br />arrefece e solidifica<br />no interior da crosta<br />na superfície da crosta<br />sofre<br />sofre<br />arrefecimento lento<br />arrefecimento rápido<br />condicionando o aparecimento<br />permitindo por vezes a formação <br />possibilitando <br />cristalização total<br />pasta vítrea ou amorfa (sem cristais)<br />pequenos cristas<br />originando<br />originando<br />Rochas Plutónicas<br />Rochas Vulcânicas<br />
  14. 14. Textura<br />
  15. 15. Granito<br />
  16. 16. Basalto<br />
  17. 17. Exercícios de aplicação<br />Completa o seguinte texto, de modo a obteres afirmações correctas:<br />magmáticas<br />plutónica<br />em profundidade<br />lento<br />o quartzo<br />bem<br />visíveis<br />as micas<br />o felsdpato<br />à superfície<br />vulcânica<br />pouco<br />rápido<br />as piroxenas<br />as olivinas<br />vítrea<br />plagioclases<br />
  18. 18. Características de Rochas Magmáticas<br />Plutónicas:<br /> - Totalmente cristalizadas.<br /> - Cristais grandes, observáveis à “vista desarmada”.<br /> - Os minerais aparecem misturados sem ordem de distinção.<br /> - Muito compactas, sem espaços ocos.<br />Vulcânicas:<br /> - Só alguns cristais alcançam um desenvolvimento pleno, dispersos no seio de uma massa amorfa.<br /> - Numerosas cavidades pequenas.<br /> - Estruturas em forma de coluna, devido ao arrefecimento.<br />
  19. 19. Características de Rochas Magmáticas<br />Granito<br />O granito é uma rocha plutónica de textura holocristalina e de cores muito variadas, devido a diferenças de cristalização. É uma rocha dura e maciça de aspecto heterogéneo com minerais bem visíveis; os minerais mais comuns são: quartzo, feldspato e micas (moscovite e biotite).<br />
  20. 20. Características de Rochas Magmáticas<br />Basalto<br />O basalto é uma rocha vulcânica de textura hemicristalina.<br />É uma rocha de cor negra, de aspecto homogéneo, no seio da qual se podem distinguir ou não com minerais cristalizados à “vista desarmada”. Os minerais mais comuns são: feldspato, olivina e piroxena.<br />
  21. 21. Paisagens Graníticas<br />Conjunto de diáclases<br />
  22. 22. Paisagens Basálticas<br />
  23. 23. Paisagens Graníticas<br />Caos de blocos<br />
  24. 24. Paisagens Basálticas<br />Disjunção colunar<br />
  25. 25. Utilizações do Granito<br />
  26. 26. Utilizações do Basalto<br />
  27. 27. Torre dos Clérigos, Granito<br />Igreja em Basalto, São Miguel<br />
  28. 28. Ficha de trabalho<br />Exercícios 5 a 8<br />

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