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PREVENZIONE

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PREVENZIONE

Veröffentlicht in: Gesundheit & Medizin
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PREVENZIONE

  1. 1. Prevenzione Martino Trapani Direzione Medica P.O. Garbagnate Milanese –ASST RHODENSE
  2. 2. FACOLTA’ DI MEDICINA E CHIRURGIA CORSO DI LAUREA IN INFERMIERISTICA Anno Accademico 2017-2018 CORSO DI IGIENE GENERALE E APPLICATA METODOLOGIA EPIDEMIOLOGICA Martino Trapani
  3. 3. Azioni ed interventi per aumentare la resistenza individuale ai fattori di rischio ambientali, per impedire l’insorgenza e la progressione delle malattie. Ora diviene addirittura un imperativo categorico, una necessità inderogabile per malattie come quelle oggi prevalenti che sono croniche ed inguaribili. Martino Trapani Direzione Medica P.O. Garbagnate Milanese –ASST RHODENSE Prevenzione
  4. 4. 1. Allungare la vita (in buona qualità); 2. Ridurre la disabilità; Martino Trapani Direzione Medica P.O. Garbagnate Milanese –ASST RHODENSE Gli obiettivi della Prevenzione Stadio malattia Livello di Prevenzione Tipo di risposte Pre-malattia Primaria Promozione della salute, adozione di specifiche protezioni Malattia Latente Secondaria Diagnosi precoce e trattamento. Malattia Sintomatica Terziaria Limitazione della disabilità per Malattie Sintomatiche precoci. Riabilitazione per M.S. tardive
  5. 5. Misure atte a prevenire l’insorgenza delle malattie in individui sani riducendo o azzerando il rischio individuale. (vaccinazioni, somministrazioni di fattori carenziali, correzione di errori igienico-dietetici). METODI DI INTERVENTO: •AUMENTARE DIFESE DELL'INDIVIDUO; •AGIRE SULLO STILE DI VITA; •AGIRE SULL'AMBIENTE; Martino Trapani Direzione Medica P.O. Garbagnate Milanese –ASST RHODENSE Prevenzione Primaria
  6. 6. • PER LE MALATTIE INFETTIVE LA PREVENZIONE E' PIU' EFFICACE E COLLAUDATA. • PER LE NON INFETTIVE, SPESSO DOVUTE A FATTORI COMPORTAMENTALI, I SUCCESSI SONO INFERIORI E GRANDE IMPORTANZA HA L'EDUCAZIONE SANITARIA Martino Trapani Direzione Medica P.O. Garbagnate Milanese –ASST RHODENSE Prevenzione Primaria
  7. 7. Martino Trapani Direzione Medica P.O. Garbagnate Milanese –ASST RHODENSE Promozione della salute
  8. 8. Martino Trapani Direzione Medica P.O. Garbagnate Milanese –ASST RHODENSE Prevenzione Primaria
  9. 9. Misure atte ad evidenziare e quindi arrestare il più precocemente possibile l’insorgenza di malattie ancora clinicamente non manifesta. (screening di massa, misure di isolamento per malattie diffusive, rispetto di norme riguardanti l’igiene della persona e degli ambienti). METODI DI INTERVENTO: •"SCREENING" – SELETTIVO (ASBESTOSI) – DI MASSA (K. MAMMELLA); •ESAMI MIRATI A CERTE ETA’; Martino Trapani Direzione Medica P.O. Garbagnate Milanese –ASST RHODENSE Prevenzione Secondaria
  10. 10. Martino Trapani Direzione Medica P.O. Garbagnate Milanese –ASST RHODENSE Prevenzione Secondaria
  11. 11. Misure atte ad impedire la ricaduta delle malattie ed a ridurne le complicanze. (somministrazione di farmaci dopo la manifestazione di particolari stati morbosi, riabilitazione). (IMPEDIRE INVALIDITA’ NEI MALATI E FAVORIRE RECUPERO DI PORTATORI DI HANDICAP) Ad esempio, nelle persone affette da artropie invalidanti, negli infartuati e nei paraplegici, particolare importanza ha: •riabilitazione fisica; •assistenza psicologica; Martino Trapani Direzione Medica P.O. Garbagnate Milanese –ASST RHODENSE Prevenzione Terziaria
  12. 12. Martino Trapani Direzione Medica P.O. Garbagnate Milanese –ASST RHODENSE Prevenzione Terziaria
  13. 13. Le linee strategiche che si possono percorrere per proteggere e potenziare la salute dell'uomo sono: •Allontanare e/o correggere tutti i fattori potenzialmente nocivi; •Incrementare il livello di benessere, potenziando la presenza dei fattori protettivi ed aumentando il grado di resistenza all'azione dei diversi fattori di danno. Martino Trapani Direzione Medica P.O. Garbagnate Milanese –ASST RHODENSE Prevenzione
  14. 14. Martino Trapani Direzione Medica P.O. Garbagnate Milanese –ASST RHODENSE Prevenzione Completo stato di benessere fisico, psichico, sociale Decesso Normale stato di benessere Esposizione Prevenzione SECONDARIA MALATTIA PROMOZIONE Prevenzione PRIMARIA MedicinaclinicaMedicinapreventiva Complicanze, recidive Invalidità Diagnosi precoce Diagnosi Terapia Riabilitazione Assistenza terminale
  15. 15. Martino Trapani Direzione Medica P.O. Garbagnate Milanese –ASST RHODENSE Riassumendo IN SINTESI: A MOMENTO PREVENTIVO SANO EPIDEMIOLOGIA; PROFILASSI; B MOMENTO CURATIVO MALATO DIAGNOSI; TERAPIA; C MOMENTO RIABILITATIVO GUARITO/ESITI RIEDUCAZIONE FUNZIONALE; REINSERIMENTO SOCIALE;
  16. 16. Bibliografia: Testi: •Barbuti, Fara, Giammamco et al. “IGIENE”, Monduzzi Editore •Carlo Signorelli “Igiene Epidemiologia Sanità Pubblica”, Società Editrice Universo •F. Auxilia, M. Pontello “Igiene e Sanità Pubblica”, Piccin Risorse online: www.who.int; www.cdc.org; www.istat.it; www.epicentro.iss.it Martino Trapani Direzione Medica P.O. Garbagnate Milanese –ASST RHODENSE
  17. 17. Martino Trapani Direzione Medica P.O. Garbagnate Milanese –ASST RHODENSE GRAZIE Martino Trapani MAIL: mtrapani@asst-rhodense.it trapanimartino@yahoo.it WEB: https://trapanimartino.wordpress.com

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