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Internet governance and the filtering problems

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My presentation at Barcamp Saigon, RMIT University, December 11,2011

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Internet governance and the filtering problems

  1. 1. LOGOINTERNET GOVERNANCEAND THE FILTERING PROBLEM Presented by Tran Quang Minh Tan BarCampSaigon – RMIT University December 11, 2011
  2. 2. About me tranquangminhtan@gmail.com 2
  3. 3. Contents 1 Internet Governance + Definition + Status 2 Internet Filtering + Definition + Status + Problems 3 Case Study and Discussion + Filtering Standard 4 Conclusion 3
  4. 4. As March 2011Internet Population: 2.095bAbout 30.2% of World PopulationSource: InternetWorldStats.com 4 Source: opte.org
  5. 5. The Internet - Issues 5
  6. 6. Internet Governance - Definition “Internet governance is the development and application by Governments, the private sector and civil society, in their respective roles, of shared principles, norms, rules, decision-making procedures, and programs that shape the evolution and use of the Internet.” (source: wikipedia) The term Internet Governance is formally defined in June 2005 by a working group in World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) 6
  7. 7. Internet Governance - Authorities Internet Society Internet Corporation for Assigned (ISOC) Names and Numbers (ICANN) Internet Assigned Numbers Internet Architecture Authority (IANA) Board (IAB) Address Supporting Organization Internet Engineering (ASO) Task Force (IETG) (IESG) Country Code Names Supporting Organization (CCNSO) Internet Research Task Force Generic Names Supporting (IRTF) (IRSG) Organization (GGNSO) Network Solutions - Central Domain Database Accredited Registrars 7Source: coactive.org - Root Server System
  8. 8. Internet Governance - Authorities Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) ICANN was formed in 1998. ICANN is an acronym for the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, a global multi- stakeholder organization that was created and empowered through actions by the U.S. government and its Department of Commerce. It coordinates the Internet DNS, IP addresses and autonomous system numbers; which involves a continued management of these evolving systems and the protocols that underly them. The Internet Society The Internet Society (ISOC) is a nonprofit organization founded in 1992 to provide leadership in Internet related standards, education and policy. They are dedicated to ensuring the open development, evolution and use of the Internet for the benefit of people throughout the world. 8
  9. 9. Internet Governance - Principles1. Human rights, democracy and rule of law2. Multi-Stakeholder governance3. Responsibilities of States4. Empowerment of Internet Users5. Global nature of the internet6. Integrity of the Internet7. Decentralized management8. Open architecture9. Network neutrality10. Cultural and linguistic diversity(Source: Council of Europe conference, Strasbourg, 18-19 April 2011) 9
  10. 10. Internet Governance - Framework Source: nav6.org 10
  11. 11. Internet Governance - Concerns Manage Internet Infrastructure + Physical Infrastructure + IP Addresses, Domain Names Define protocol and standard + IETF, W3C Promote Internet Access + Especially in developing country Security + Anonymity, Privacy Content Regulation + Child-abusing protection + Copyright, Pirate Software, Music + Filtering / Censoring 11
  12. 12. Internet Filtering 12
  13. 13. Internet Filtering - Definition Internet filtering normally refers to the technical approaches to control access to information on the Internet. An Internet filter is hardware or software that restricts the information that is delivered over the Internet. Filters can greatly reduce the flow of harmful content onto your computer. Filters can be installed on the servers of an Internet Service Provider (ISP) or proxy service, as part of a local area network, or on individual computers. They can block access to websites, e-mail, chat, or other Internet-based communications based on category, site, or content. 13
  14. 14. Types of Content Filtered Political reasons - Content that expresses views in opposition to those of the current government, or is related to human rights, freedom of expression, minority rights. Religious reasons Social reasons - commonly pornography, information about gay and lesbian issues, and sex education information 14
  15. 15. Internet Filtering - ImplementationHow filtering is implemented- Domain filtering eg. http://facebook.com- IP Address filtering eg. URL filtering eg. http://www.facebook.com/ BarCampSaigon- Keyword filtering eg. “Tiananmen” in China- Ad-hoc filtering eg. Ebay Vietnam 15
  16. 16. 2011 Best Internet Filter SoftwareSource: http://internet-filter-review.toptenreviews.com/ 16
  17. 17. Global Status - Political contentPolitical content: Content that expresses views in opposition to those ofthe current government, or is related to human rights, freedom ofexpression, minority rights, and religious movements. 17Source: http://map.opennet.net/filtering-pol.html
  18. 18. Global Status - Social contentSocial content: Content related to sexuality, gambling, and illegal drugs andalcohol, as well as other topics that may be socially sensitive or perceived asoffensive. 18Source: http://map.opennet.net/filtering-soc.html
  19. 19. Global Status - Conflict & securityConflict & security: Content related to armed conflicts, border disputes,separatist movements, and militant groups. 19Source: http://map.opennet.net/filtering-consec.html
  20. 20. China - the leader in internet filtering Source: http://opennet.net/research/profiles/chinaChina + Internet = Chinternet 20
  21. 21. Internet Filtering – Problem Internet Performance Eg. In Australia from 2% - 75% (http://www.acma.gov.au/webwr/_assets/main/lib310554/ isp-level_internet_content_filtering_trial-report.pdf) Ethic / Freedom of speech / Human Rights Inefficiency Jasmine Revolution in Egypt  Aggressive filter: block the wrong content because of over-filtering 2010: 255 million websites, 1.97 billion – Internet users worldwide (June 2010). (source: http://royal.pingdom.com/2011/01/12/internet-2010-in-numbers/) Eg. Website of Log Cabin Republicans was blocked by U.S.-based SmartFilter as pornography  User can by pass by using proxy Eg. public proxy servers or tools 21
  22. 22. Internet Filtering – Problem (cont.) Each country implement its own of filtering engine  costly, ineffectiveEg. Australia: Based on the Governments budgeting of $44.5 million to implement the filteringscheme, this means the policy will cost $90,000 per URL.(source: http://www.smh.com.au/news/technology/web/2009/06/03/1243708489312.html) Global problems: criminal, virus, sexuality, gambling, andillegal drugs and alcohol, security…Should filtering implemented byindividual or as a global standard? 22
  23. 23. Discussion – .XXXSexually-Explicit WebsiteOperated under ICM RegistryBrief history  First proposed in 2000 (rejected)  Resubmitted again in 2004 (rejected)  Another time in 2007 (rejected)  Finally approved in 2011   a 10-years effortICM is expected to make over 200m / year Source: Wikipedia 23
  24. 24. Discussion – .XXXCyber Safety for Kids Act of 2006  Raised by Senator Max Baucus and Mark Pryor  Require website with explicit sexual content MUST operate under .xxx domain Should we consider .xxx domain as a standard for sexual filtering ? 24
  25. 25. Discussion - .XXXIOMO: .XXX is not feasible for a filtering standard  How to define sexual content ?  How to enforce the standard globally ?  Commercialized-motivation ? 25
  26. 26. Discussion – ICANN Reform 26Source: http://www.icann.org
  27. 27. Conclusion There is a need for Internet Governance, but is not a simple subject. The Internet filtering is costly, ineffective now. There is a greater need for cooperation between various branches of government and law enforcement in and between countries. The trend: build up the standards by + An Independent Organization + By cooperation governments Our opinion: - Independent Organization (ICANN reform, ITU…) - And… 27
  28. 28. References Local Nets: Filtering and the Internet Governance Problem, John Palfrey, (Chapter in Jack Balkin et al., The Global Flow of Information) September, 2005 Wikipedia OpenNET Intialtive, website http://opennet.net CoActive.org/.NYC Project ICANN, website http://www.icann.org 28
  29. 29. LOGO Q&A