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Unit 9. The UK Education.pdf

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Unit 9. The UK Education.pdf

  1. 1. Lecturer: Ly Thi Hoang Men, MA. Education in the United Kingdom
  2. 2. 1. Basic features 2. National curriculum 3. School life 4. Public exams 5. Education beyond sixteen Content
  3. 3. 1. Basic features • Full-time education is compulsory up to the middle teenage years. • Academic year begins at the end of summer. • Compulsory education is free of charge, but parents may spend money on educating their children privately if they want to.
  4. 4. 1. Basic features Public means private? • Terminology about the school system can be confusing. • State schools: funded by the government (directly or via local authorities), provide state education. • Independent schools: provide private education. Confusing Some independent schools are known as public schools
  5. 5. Origin??? Schools & educational institutions existed in Britain long before the government began to take interest. The government left alone the small group of schools used to educate the sons of officers and senior administrators when their father were on overseas postings. At these “public schools”, the emphasis was on “character building” & “team spirit” rather than academic achievement. They were all “boarding schools” => had a deep, lasting influence on pupils with the aim to prepare young men take up higher positions in many aspects When finishing education, students formed the ruling elite, separate from the rest of society. The “public” name refers to the school origins as schools open to any public citizen who could afford to pay the fees. They are not funded from public taxes.
  6. 6. 1. Basic features • Public school also called independent school traditionally refers to one of seven private schools given independence from direct jurisdiction by the Public School Act 1868: Charterhouse, Eton College, Harrow School, Rugby School, Shrewsbury School, Westminster School, and Winchester College. • By the 1930s, the “public school” label applied to twenty-four schools. • Today the term is more generally used to refer to any fee-paying private school.
  7. 7. Eton College, established in 1440 by Henry VI, known as “The King’s College of Our Lady of Eton besides Windsor”
  8. 8. 2. National curriculum • In England, Wales, and Northern Ireland - By law, all the children in England and Wales between 5 and 16 must receive a full-time education, while in Northern Ireland children must begin at age 4. - For children under 5, publicly-funded nurseries and pre-schools are available for a limited number of hours each week. - After the age of 16, students can attend sixth form colleges or other further educational institutions.
  9. 9. 2. National curriculum • The UK introduced the National Curriculum in 1992 and state schools are required to adhere to it until students reach age 16. • The Education and Skills Act of 2008 raised the compulsory age to 18, effective in 2013 for 17 year-olds and 2015 for 18 year-olds. • Independent schools are not obliged to adhere to the National Curriculum.
  10. 10. 2. National curriculum • Core subjects: English (Welsh is also a core subject in Welsh-speaking schools), mathematics, science, design and technology, information and communication technology, history, geography, modern foreign languages, music, art and design, physical education, and citizenship. (compulsory courses such as religious education) • Northern Ireland follows a similar framework, however, schools can develop addition curriculum elements to express their particular ethos and meet pupils’ individual needs and circumstances.
  11. 11. 2. National curriculum • After 5 years of secondary education, students take examinations in a range of subjects at the level of General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE). • After taking GCSE, students may leave secondary schooling, alternatively, they may choose continue their education at vocational or technical colleges, or they may take a higher level of secondary school examinations known as AS-Level after an additional year of study. • Follow 2 years of study, students may take an A-Level (Advanced Level) examinations, which are required for university entrance in the UK.
  12. 12. 2. National curriculum • Scotland - Has its own qualification framework that is separate from that in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. - After seven years of primary education, and four years of compulsory secondary education, students aged 15 to 16 may take the Scottish Certificate of Education (SCE). - The SCE is recognized throughout the UK as the equivalent to GCE A-Levels and is usually the entry qualification for university.
  13. 13. National Curriculum
  14. 14. Key stage 1 – 2 • Is is National curriculum core subjects – 5 to 11 years old • English, Maths, Science, Design and technology Information and Communication Technology (ICT), History, Art and Design, Music, Physical education • Schools have to teach religious education • Encourage to teach at least one modern foreign language.
  15. 15. Key stage 3 • National curriculum core subjects – 11 to 14 years old. • English, Maths, Science, Design and technology Information and Communication Technology (ICT), History, Geography, Art and Design, Music, Citizenship, Physical education. • Schools also have to provide: Career education and guidance (during year 9) , Sex and Relationship education, Religious education. • Throughout Key stage 1-3 students are routinely tested in Standard Assessment Tests (SATs).
  16. 16. Key stage 4 • GCSE level: Students have to take English, Maths, Science, IT, citizenship and physical education. • The GCSE is a single – subject examination set and marked by independent examination boards. • Students usually take up to ten GCSE examinations in different subjects including mathematics and English language. • After taking GCSEs, students may leave secondary schools
  17. 17. 3. School life • At the time of writing, all children are guaranteed a free, part-time early education place for up 2 years before reaching compulsory school age (age of 5). • Primary schools become the center of local communities offering: - Conventional education - Provide breakfast - Child-minding facilities - Activity clubs - Health services
  18. 18. 3. School life • School starts around 9 a.m., finishes between 3 p.m. and 4 p.m. or a bit later for older children. • Includes lunch break (lasts about an hour and a quarter) • Is a full-five day week and holiday periods are short • Methods of teaching vary, but balance between formal lessons with the teachers in front of the classroom and activities in which children work in small groups with teacher supervising. • In primary schools: children are taught by a class teacher teaching all subjects (with T.A. help) • At the age of 7 and 11: have to take national tests in English, Maths and science.
  19. 19. 3. School life • In secondary education, pupils get different teachers for different subject and regular homework. • The older children get, the more likely they are to be separated into groups according to their perceived abilities. • Some schools do not practice such “streaming” and instead teach all subjects to “mixed ability” classes.
  20. 20. 3. School life • School usually divide their year into three “terms”, starting at the beginning of September. • Additionally, all schools have a “half-term” (a half term holiday), lasting a few days or a week in the middle of each term. Autumn term Christmas Holiday (about 2 weeks) Spring term Easter Holiday (about 2 weeks) Summer term Summer Holiday (about 6 weeks)
  21. 21. 4. Public exams • At the end of compulsory schooling, schoolchildren take exams. • Exams are organized neither by schools nor by the government => called “public”. • No unified school-leaving exam or school-leaving certificate. • Exams are set and marked by largely independent examining boards • Some boards offer a vast range of subjects. • Each school or Local Education Authority (LEA) decides which board’s exams its pupils take (except Scotland). • Some schools even enter their pupils for the exams of one board in some subjects, and another board in other subjects. • Assessment: combination of coursework assignments and formal, sit-down exams.
  22. 22. Academic exams and qualifications GCSE (General Certificate of Secondary Education) - Taken by most 15-16 years old in England, Wales, Northern Ireland. - Marks are given for each subject separately. - Syllabuses and methods of examination of the various examining boards differ - Uniform system of marks (A-G): A, B, C are regarded as good SCE (Scottish Certificate of Education) - Equivalent to GCSE - Set by the Scottish Examination Board - Grades are awarded in number, 1 is the best
  23. 23. Academic exams and qualifications A-Level (Advanced level) - Higher-level academic exams set by the same examining boards that set GCSE - Taken by most people around 18 wishing to go on to higher education - Split into A1 and A2: A1 is worth half an A2, can stand as a qualification by itself. SCE “Advanced higher” - The Scottish equivalent of A-levels
  24. 24. Academic exams and qualifications Degree - A qualification from a university - Other qualifications obtained after secondary education are usually called “Diploma” or “Certificate” Bachelor’s Degree - General name for a 1st degree, most commonly a BA (Bachelor of Arts) or BSc (Bachelor of Science) - Students are called undergraduates. - When they have been awarded a degree, they are known as graduates.
  25. 25. Academic exams and qualifications Master’s Degree - General name for a second (postgraduate) degree - Most commonly MA or MSc - At Scottish universities, these titles are used for first degree Doctorate - The highest academic qualification - Usually carries the title PhD (Doctor of Philosophy) - The time taken to complete a doctorate varies, but is generally expected to involve three years of more-or-less full-time study.
  26. 26. 5. Education beyond sixteen • At the age of 16, people are free to leave school if they want to. • Fewer 16-year-olds go straight out and look for a job than they did previously. • Most do not find employment immediately and many take part in training schemes involving on-the-job training combined with part-time college courses. • For those who stay in education and study conventional academic subjects, there is more specialization. • Pupils spend a whole two years studying just three or four subjects, usually related ones => In preparation for taking A-level exams
  27. 27. 5. Education beyond sixteen • The most noticeable in universities is the independence of Britain’s education institutions: - Make their own choices of who to accept for their courses. - No right of entry to university for anybody. - University normally select students on the basis of A-level results and a few conduct interviews. - Ss with better exam grades are more likely to be accepted.
  28. 28. 5. Education beyond sixteen • In principle, there is nothing to stop a university accepting a student who has no A-levels at all and conversely, a student with top grades in several A-levels is not guaranteed a place. • The availability of higher education increased greatly in the last second half of the 20th century, but finding a university place is not easy. • The numbers who can be accepted on each course are limited => students at universities get a relatively high degree of personal supervision.
  29. 29. 5. Education beyond sixteen • The vast majority of university students complete their studies in a very short time. • It is only in exceptional circumstances that Ss are allowed to “retake” years repeatedly. • Traditionally, reason for low drop-out rate is that Ss typically live “on campus” or in rooms nearby, and are surrounded by a university atmosphere. • The expansion of higher education caused this characteristics and other traditional features to become far less typical.

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