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• Agenda 21 is an action plan of the United Nations (UN) related to sustainable development and was an outcome of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development(UNCED) held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992.• A comprehensive blueprint of action to be taken globally, nationally and locally by organizations of the UN, governments, and major groups in every area in which humans directly affect the environment.• It recognizes that sustainable development is primarily the responsibility of governments, and this will require national strategies, plans and policies. .
• The objectives of Agenda 21 require substantial assistance for developing countries.• Money is also needed to allow international bodies to implement the recommendations of Agenda 21.
Earth Summit• Agenda 21 was established at the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.• Agenda 21 is a commitment to sustainable development, which was agreed by many of the world’s governments.
Agenda 21• Countries that have agreed to Agenda 21 are encouraged to conserve and preserve their environments and natural resources at local and national level.
Agenda 21 tackles social and environmentalproblems, including:• Air pollution • Waste Production• Deforestation • Transport• Biodiversity loss• Health• Overpopulation• Poverty• Energy consumption
Sustainable development• Sustainable development encourages the conservation and preservation of natural resources and of the environment.• If sustainable development is to be successful we all have to change our attitudes to our current lifestyles and the impact they have on the environment.
Conservation and preservation• Conservation is the sustainable use and management of natural resources, including wildlife, water, air and earth deposits. The conservation of trees involves making sure that they are not used faster than they can be replaced.• Conservationists say that development is necessary for a better future, but only if the changes are not wasteful.
Conservation and preservation• Preservation attempts to maintain in their present condition areas of the Earth that are so far untouched by humans.• Many landscapes are being taken over by farming, industry, housing, tourism and other human developments, and we are losing many landscapes that are truly natural.
Energy• Energy is needed for heating, electricity, manufacturing, construction and transportation.• Fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) are non- renewable. The average person in the UK uses 35 times as much energy as someone in India.• Renewable energy sources include solar power, wind power and hydroelectric power. Agenda 21 requires countries to increase the proportion of energy supplied by renewable schemes that do not produce greenhouse gases, which may cause global warming.
Transport• Transport is damaging our environment, producing pollutants that lead to acid rain, poor air quality and global warming.• Governments need to control the rate of traffic growth and improve the performance of vehicles.• People need to be encouraged to become less dependent on cars and increase their use of public transport.
Waste• The more waste we produce the more we have to dispose. Sustainable waste management encourages the generation of less waste, the re- use of consumables and the recycling of waste that is produced.• Waste includes paper, plastics, glass, metals, foods, chemicals, oils, bricks and wood.• The UK aims to reduce, re-use, recycle and recover waste.
Background• 1987 Constitution• Approved Adoption of the Philippine Strategy for Sustainable Development (PSSD) in 1989• Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (July 1992)
• Earth Summit Commitments• Creation of the Philippine Council for Sustainable Development through Executive Order No. 15• Formulation of the Philippine Agenda 21 in 1996 through Memorandum Order No. 288 16
THE PHILIPPINE AGENDA 21 (PA21) The PHILIPPINE AGENDA 21 is part of the country’s response to fulfill its commitments in the historic Earth Summit in 1992 where government and key sectors of society agreed to implement an action agenda for sustainable development. 17
THE PHILIPPINE AGENDA 21 (PA21) • The nations blueprint for sustainable development. • In concreting the vision, it describes a path for individuals, families, households and communities; an action plan for each ecosystem (coastal/marine, freshwater, upland, lowland, and urban); and across ecosystems in consideration of the interaction of the various lifescapes and landscapes found therein. 18
Philippine Agenda 21 (PA 21) is our own nationalagenda for sustainable development. It is basically made up of: – - The Principles of Unity – - The Action Agenda – - The Implementation Strategies
Philippine Agenda 21 advocates a fundamental shift in development thinkingand approach. It departs from traditional conceptual frameworks thatemphasize sector-based and macro concerns. Philippine Agenda 21promotes harmony and achieves sustainability by emphasizing: – A scale of intervention that is primarily area- based. The national and global policy environment builds upon and supports area-based initiatives. – Integrated island development approaches where applicable. This recognizes the archipelagic character of the Philippines which includes many small island provinces.
• People and integrity of nature at the center of development initiatives. This implies the strengthening of roles, relationships, and interactions between and among stakeholders in government, civil society, labor and business. Basic sectors have an important role to play in achieving equity and managing the ecosystems that sustain life.
SustainableDevelopment PrinciplesPrimacy of Developing Full Human Potential This putsman at the center of all development efforts.Holistic Science and Appropriate Technology. Impliesdevelopment of appropriate technology to solve developmentproblems with due consideration to its impact to society andecology.Cultural, Moral and Spiritual Sensitivity. Considers theinherent strengths of local and indigenous knowledge,practices and beliefs, while respecting cultural diversity, moralstandards and the spiritual nature of the Filipino society.
SustainableDevelopment PrinciplesNational Sovereignty. Self-determination at the nationallevel to pursue social and ecological concerns in itsgovernance to achieve human, environmental and foodsecurity.Gender Sensitivity. Recognize the importance ofcomplementary roles and empowerment of both womenand men in development.Peace, Order and National Unity. Makes sure that theright of everyone to a peaceful and secure existence isrespected.
SustainableDevelopment PrinciplesViable, Sound and Broad-based EconomicDevelopment. Requires working for development that isbased on stable economy, where everyone equally sharesthe benefits of progress.Sustainable Population. Needs to maintain a number ofpeople that can be supported by the limited capacity ofour natural resources.Ecological Soundness. Requires that we recognize theearth as a common heritage that belongs to all of us, andeveryone should care for its capacity to support us andthe future generations.
SustainableDevelopment PrinciplesBio-geographical Equity and Community-BasedResource Management. Means entrusting to the peopleresiding near or within an ecosystem the primary right tomanage its resources.Global Cooperation. Requires international solidarity ofevery nation’s effort to build a better life and saferenvironment.
• PA 21 envisions a better quality of life for all Filipinos through the development of a just, moral and creative, spiritual, economically vibrant, caring, diverse yet cohesive society characterized by appropriate productivity, participatory and democratic processes, and living in harmony and within the limits of the carrying capacity of nature and the integrity of creation.
• Poverty Reduction: Poverty is a central concern of sustainable development. Consistent with this, the various consultations for the updating of PA 21 have yielded poverty reduction agenda that includes measures to create an enabling economic environment for sustained and broad- based growth; improve employment, productivity and income; and attain food security
• Social Equity: Social equity should mean allocation of resources on the bases of efficiency and equity to achieve balanced development. Efficiency and equity mean the channeling of resources to developing areas where greater economic benefits accumulate and where there is greater need, distribution being dependent on the practicality and urgency of needs.
• Empowerment and Good Governance: Empowerment is a precondition of informal choices. Good governance is a necessary precondition to empowerment, as empowerment is to good governance. These two are a defining element of each other.
• Peace and Solidarity: The cycle of poverty and conflict goes on as the costs of war escalate in terms of various kinds of destruction while withholding funds for basic services, resulting in more poverty and underdevelopment.
• Ecological Integrity: In general, the path towards enhancing the integrity of the country’s ecological domain will have to involve heightened and sustained implementation of environmental laws, as well as the continued pursuit of resource conservation, and environmental restoration/enhancement programs.
KEY ACTORS IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTCIVIL GOVERNMENTSOCIETY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT BUSINESS 33
ESSENTIAL DIMENSIONS OF SOCIETY INRELATION TO NATURE, HUMAN BEING & SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT HUMAN BEING DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABLE CULTURE POLICY (Civil Society) (Government) ECONOMY ` (Business) NATURE 34