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UWB &
APPLICATIONS
Thomas George. C
S7 ECE
TOPICS COVERED

 Introduction to UWB
 Comparison of UWB with other wireless

technologies
 Advantages
 Applications in...
Introduction to UWB
FREQUENCY RESPONSE

 Narrow pulses have a wide frequency response.
Introduction to UWB

Sinusoidal signals are narrow in frequency and "wide" over time

A pulse is narrow in time and wideba...
Introduction to UWB
Limitations of narrowband communication



Narrowband Problems



• Multipath fading




Destructi...
Introduction to UWB
So what is ultra wide band technology?





Uses narrow pulses(pulse width = nS) of very low duty
...
The history of UWB Technology


Before 1900: Wireless Began as UWB




1900-40s: Wireless goes ‘tuned’







Anal...
Introduction to UWB
Definitions and regulations of UWB




A low energy level, short-range & large bandwidth
technology...
Comparison of UWB ,NB and SS
Properties of UWB


Extremely difficult to detect by unintended users




Non-interfering to other communication system...
Summary of the FCC Rules
 Significant protection provided for sensitive


systems

GPS, Federal aviation systems, etc.

...
Comparison
Power radiated
Device type

Transmit Power (Watts)

Allowed leakage from a MicroWave oven

1.00000 Watt

Typical mobile ph...
FCC UWB Device Classifications


Report and Order authorizes 5 classes of devices with
different limits for each:


Imag...
FCC Limitations
Class / Application

Communications and
Measurement Systems

Frequency Band for Operation at
Part 15 Limit...
Modulation techniques
 DS UWB modulation techniques






Pulse Position Modulation (PPM)
Bipolar Signaling (BPSK)
P...
DS Modulation techniques
 A number of modulation schemes may be used with UWB

systems. The potential modulation schemes ...
Band Plan for MB OFDM


Group the 528 MHz bands into 4 distinct groups

GROUP B

GROUP A

GROUP C

GROUP D

Band
#1



...
Advantages of UWB
Advantage

Benefit

Coexistence with current narrowband and wideband

Avoids expensive licensing fees.

...
More advantages
 The low power requirement eliminates the need

of a power amplifier in the transmitter
 Adding security...
UWB Major Application Areas
a) Communications
–Wireless Audio, Data & Video Distribution
–RF Tagging & Identification
b) R...
Some of Military & Commercial
Applications of UWB
Source:MSSI
Applications of UWB
1. WPANs

 WPAN: wireless personal area


network

Small network of devices and host

 Bluetooth wa...
UWB can enable a wide variety of WPAN
applications.
•
Replacing IEEE1394 cables between portable multimedia CE
devices, su...
Content Transfer: Mobile Devices


Applications



Smartphone/PDA, MP3, DSC
 Media Player, Storage, display
Requirement...
Wireless USB


Inadequacy of current wireless solutions:


Bluetooth
Bandwidth of 3 Mbps is not enough for most of the a...
Wireless USB
Wireless USB







Wireless USB is used in game controllers, printers, scanners, digital
cameras, portable media pla...
Wireless USB
• Due to absence of physical ports port expansion is easy
• Host
USB interface of host computer system – Host...
Bluetooth 3.0
 In 2006 it was predicted that

Bluetooth 3.0 will have data rates
Up to 480 Mbps using UWB
 But due to st...
Applications of UWB
RADAR application
 Due to high bandwidth and short pulse duration,

UWB radars can be used for penetr...
Ground and Ice Penetrating RADAR
• A system used to detect objects buried in the ground.
•A special directional antenna to...
Through Wall Radar System
•Uses very short pulses to provide detection of objects
on the opposite side of a non-metallic w...
Vehicular Radar Systems
Potential applications include
• collision avoidance,
• proximity aids,
•intelligent cruise contro...
Medical application
• Penetrating through obstacles
• High precision ranging at the centimeter level
• Low electromagnetic...
Medical imaging
Other applications
•
•
•
•
•

Wireless Sensor networks( military and commercial use)
Automotive industry (collision avoida...
Challenges in UWB
• Main challenge is in the standardization. Different countries allocated
different spectral regions for...
Conclusion
 UWB technology has very high potential in real life

applications, due to its high bandwidth and low
power.
...
References





Ultra-wideband communications: fundamentals and applications-F
Nekoogar – 2005
K. Siwiak and D. McKeow...
UWB and applications
UWB and applications
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UWB and applications

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UWB and applications

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UWB and applications

  1. 1. UWB & APPLICATIONS Thomas George. C S7 ECE
  2. 2. TOPICS COVERED  Introduction to UWB  Comparison of UWB with other wireless technologies  Advantages  Applications in various fields  conclusion
  3. 3. Introduction to UWB FREQUENCY RESPONSE  Narrow pulses have a wide frequency response.
  4. 4. Introduction to UWB Sinusoidal signals are narrow in frequency and "wide" over time A pulse is narrow in time and wideband in frequency
  5. 5. Introduction to UWB Limitations of narrowband communication  Narrowband Problems  • Multipath fading   Destructive interference of CW signals causes signal loss • Insecure    Narrow Band signals are easily detected and jammed • Poor range resolution Range resolution for tracking applications is a function of RF bandwidth • Limited data rate  Narrow RF bandwidth means narrow data bandwidth
  6. 6. Introduction to UWB So what is ultra wide band technology?     Uses narrow pulses(pulse width = nS) of very low duty cycles. Very high band width ( in GHz range) The first ever radio(spark gap radio) was a form of UWB radio, but found no use UWB technology gained strength when FCC provided 3.1 to 10.6 GHz for unlicensed use in 2002. UWB 3.1-10.6 GHz
  7. 7. The history of UWB Technology  Before 1900: Wireless Began as UWB   1900-40s: Wireless goes ‘tuned’      Analog processing: filters, resonators ‘Separation of services by wavelength’ Era of wireless telephony begins: AM / SSB / FM Commercial broadcasting matures, radar and signal processing 1970-90s: Digital techniques applied to UWB    Large RF bandwidths, but did not take advantage of large spreading gain Wide band impulse radar Allows for realization of the HUGE available spreading gain Now: UWB approved by FCC for commercialization
  8. 8. Introduction to UWB Definitions and regulations of UWB    A low energy level, short-range & large bandwidth technology in radio frequency spectrum Very large bandwidth, >500MHz Very low average power: Should not exceed -43.1 dBm  Fractional bandwidth > 0.25 (fh and fl are highest and lowest frequency)
  9. 9. Comparison of UWB ,NB and SS
  10. 10. Properties of UWB  Extremely difficult to detect by unintended users   Non-interfering to other communication systems     It appears like noise for other systems Both Line of Sight and non-Line of Sight operation   Highly Secured Can pass through walls and doors High multipath immunity Common architecture for communications, radar & positioning (software re-definable) Low cost, low power, nearly all-digital and single chip architecture
  11. 11. Summary of the FCC Rules  Significant protection provided for sensitive  systems GPS, Federal aviation systems, etc.  Lowest emission limits ever by FCC  Allows UWB technology to coexist with existing radio services without causing interference  FCC opened up new spectrum for UWB transmissions   One of the bands is from 3.1GHz to 10.6GHz Maximum power emission limit is - 41.3dBm/MHz
  12. 12. Comparison
  13. 13. Power radiated Device type Transmit Power (Watts) Allowed leakage from a MicroWave oven 1.00000 Watt Typical mobile phone transmit power 0.25000 Watts up to 1 Watt Class 1 Bluetooth device (100 m range) 0.10000 Watts Class 2 Bluetooth device (10 m range) 0.00250 Watts Sunlight reflecting from the head of a pin (on a sunny day) 0.00100 Watts UWB device 0.00005 Watts
  14. 14. FCC UWB Device Classifications  Report and Order authorizes 5 classes of devices with different limits for each:  Imaging Systems Ground penetrating radars, wall imaging, medical imaging  Thru-wall Imaging & Surveillance Systems   Communication and Measurement Systems Indoor Systems  Hand-held Systems   Vehicular Radar Systems  collision avoidance, improved airbag activation, suspension systems, etc.
  15. 15. FCC Limitations Class / Application Communications and Measurement Systems Frequency Band for Operation at Part 15 Limits User Limitations 3.1 to 10.6 GHz (different “out-of-band” emission limits for indoor and hand-held devices) No <960 MHz or 3.1 to 10.6 GHz Yes Imaging: Through-wall <960 MHz or 1.99 to 10.6 GHz Yes Imaging: Surveillance 1.99 to 10.6 GHz Yes 22 to 29 GHz No Imaging: Ground Penetrating Radar, Wall, Medical Imaging Vehicular
  16. 16. Modulation techniques  DS UWB modulation techniques      Pulse Position Modulation (PPM) Bipolar Signaling (BPSK) Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) On/Off Keying (OOK) Pulse-Shape Modulation  Multi band OFDM suggested for data transmission  Use FFT to achieve high data rates.
  17. 17. DS Modulation techniques  A number of modulation schemes may be used with UWB systems. The potential modulation schemes include both orthogonal and antipodal schemes.  Pulse Position Modulation (PPM)  Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM)  On-Off Keying (OOK)  Bi-Phase Modulation (BPSK)
  18. 18. Band Plan for MB OFDM  Group the 528 MHz bands into 4 distinct groups GROUP B GROUP A GROUP C GROUP D Band #1    Band #3 Band #4 Band #5 Band #6 Band #7 Band #8 Band #9 Band #10 Band #11 Band #12 Band #13 3432 MHz  Band #2 3960 MHz 4488 MHz 5016 MHz 5808 MHz 6336 MHz 6864 MHz 7392 MHz 7920 MHz 8448 MHz 8976 MHz 9504 MHz 10032 MHz Group A: Intended for 1st generation devices (3.1 – 4.9 GHz) Group B: Reserved for future use (4.9 – 6.0 GHz) Group C: Intended for devices with improved SOP performance (6.0 – 8.1 GHz) Group D: Reserved for future use (8.1 – 10.6 GHz) f
  19. 19. Advantages of UWB Advantage Benefit Coexistence with current narrowband and wideband Avoids expensive licensing fees. radio services Large channel capacity High bandwidth can support real-time highdefinition video streaming. Ability to work with low SNRs Offers high performance in noisy environments. Low transmit power Provides high degree of security with low probability of detection and intercept. Resistance to jamming Reliable in hostile environments. High performance in multipath channels Delivers higher signal strengths in adverse conditions. Simple transceiver architecture Enables ultra-low power, smaller form factor, and better mean time between failures, all at a reduced cost.
  20. 20. More advantages  The low power requirement eliminates the need of a power amplifier in the transmitter  Adding security for data transmission is easy.  Simple CMOS transmitters at very low power available, suitable for battery driven devices
  21. 21. UWB Major Application Areas a) Communications –Wireless Audio, Data & Video Distribution –RF Tagging & Identification b) Radar –Collision/Obstacle Avoidance –Precision Altimetry –Intrusion Detection (“see through wall”) –Ground Penetrating Radar c) Precision Geolocation –Asset Tracking –Personnel localization
  22. 22. Some of Military & Commercial Applications of UWB
  23. 23. Source:MSSI
  24. 24. Applications of UWB 1. WPANs  WPAN: wireless personal area  network Small network of devices and host  Bluetooth was previously used  Bandwidth of bluetooth is very low ( ≈ 1 MbPS)  UWB can replace bluetooth for WPANs
  25. 25. UWB can enable a wide variety of WPAN applications. • Replacing IEEE1394 cables between portable multimedia CE devices, such as camcorders, digital cameras, and portable MP3 players, with wireless connectivity • Enabling high-speed wireless universal serial bus (WUSB) connectivity for PCs and PC peripherals, including printers,scanners, and external storage devices • Replacing cables in next-generation Bluetooth Technology devices, such as 3G cell phones, as well as IP/UPnP-based connectivity for the next generation of IP-based PC/CE/mobile devices • Creating ad-hoc high-bit-rate wireless connectivity for CE,PC, and mobile devices
  26. 26. Content Transfer: Mobile Devices  Applications  Smartphone/PDA, MP3, DSC  Media Player, Storage, display Requirements Low Power Use Cases   Mobile device storage sizes     Flash 5, 32, 512, 2048 … MB HD 4, …, 60+ GB Images from camera to storage/network MP3 titles to music player Range is near device (< 2m) User requires xfer time < 10s Low Power & High Data Rate Use MPEG4 movie (512 MB) to player Mount portable HD Exchange your music & data Print from handheld
  27. 27. Wireless USB  Inadequacy of current wireless solutions:  Bluetooth Bandwidth of 3 Mbps is not enough for most of the applications which needs very high bandwidth. The applications like video, HDTV, monitor etc. are good examples.  Wi-Fi  One of the main disadvantage of Wi-Fi is its high expense to set up a network and make it working. It is not always feasible to install Wi-Fi for home or personal networks.  Another draw back of Wi-Fi is the higher power consumption. Power consumption is one of the important hurdles of wireless designers. As the wireless devices work on their own power, almost always battery power, the high power consumption becomes a big drawback.
  28. 28. Wireless USB
  29. 29. Wireless USB      Wireless USB is used in game controllers, printers, scanners, digital cameras, portable media players, hard disk drives and flash drives. It is also suitable for transferring parallel video streams. Due to high data rate, HD videos can be transmitted live without wires. As in USB 2.0 a WUSB hub supports 127 devices It frees the USB devices from cables. To back support the devices, a WUSB hub is also developed
  30. 30. Wireless USB • Due to absence of physical ports port expansion is easy • Host USB interface of host computer system – Host Controller Wire Adapters Belkin Wireless USB hub
  31. 31. Bluetooth 3.0  In 2006 it was predicted that Bluetooth 3.0 will have data rates Up to 480 Mbps using UWB  But due to standardization issues, it accepted the 60-GHz technology, which provides a data rate of 24 Mbps.
  32. 32. Applications of UWB RADAR application  Due to high bandwidth and short pulse duration, UWB radars can be used for penetration RADARs.  As it is spread over a wide range jamming is not possible
  33. 33. Ground and Ice Penetrating RADAR • A system used to detect objects buried in the ground. •A special directional antenna to transmit the stimulus signal into the ground and receive the reflected waves. •Depth of penetration is typically between 0.5 and 10 m, very short pulses are needed to resolve typical buried targets. Wall Imaging Radar System •To detect the location of objects contained within a "wall," such as a concrete structure, the side of a bridge, or the wall of a mine. •Operation is restricted by FCC to law enforcement, fire and rescue organizations, to scientific research institutions, to commercial mining companies, and to construction companies.
  34. 34. Through Wall Radar System •Uses very short pulses to provide detection of objects on the opposite side of a non-metallic wall. •The stimulus signal is transmitted into the wall. A portion of the signal incident on the wall is transmitted through the wall and into the space on the far side. •Objects in the field then reflect the signal back to the wall where part of the signal is transmitted through the wall to the receiver. •Freq of Operation: below 960 MHz or 3.1-10.6 GHz band.
  35. 35. Vehicular Radar Systems Potential applications include • collision avoidance, • proximity aids, •intelligent cruise control systems, •improved airbag activation •suspension systems that better respond to road conditions. •FCC limits operation of vehicular radar to the 22-29 GHz band using directional antennas on terrestrial transportation vehicles provided the center frequency of the emission and the frequency at which the highest radiated emission occurs are greater than 24.075 GHz.
  36. 36. Medical application • Penetrating through obstacles • High precision ranging at the centimeter level • Low electromagnetic radiation • Low processing energy consumed Used for… • Patient monitoring( movement, vital signs, medical store security) • Medical imaging ( cardiac imaging, pneumology, ENT, Obstretrics)
  37. 37. Medical imaging
  38. 38. Other applications • • • • • Wireless Sensor networks( military and commercial use) Automotive industry (collision avoidance, roadside assistance) Tagging and identification Non LOS communication Intrusion detection
  39. 39. Challenges in UWB • Main challenge is in the standardization. Different countries allocated different spectral regions for unlicensed use. • Design of antenna • Due to power limit set by FCC, the high data rate is available only in short range ( <10 m)
  40. 40. Conclusion  UWB technology has very high potential in real life applications, due to its high bandwidth and low power.  Very interesting application in wireless content transfer, especially for HD videos.
  41. 41. References     Ultra-wideband communications: fundamentals and applications-F Nekoogar – 2005 K. Siwiak and D. McKeown, Ultra-Wideband Radio Technology, Wiley: UK, 2004. J. McCorkle, “A Tutorial on Ultrawideband Technology,” Doc. IEEE 802.1500/082r0, March 2000. Young Man Kim. Ultra Wide Band (UWB) Technology and Applications. Ohio State University NEST group.

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