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PLANT CONSERVATION AND
FOURTH YEAR, M.Sc. LIFE SCIENCES
BIO DIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION
Importance's of bio diversity
Loss of bio diversity
Conservation of biodiversity
Regulations/ laws relating to protected areas (pas)
Role of bio technology in plant conservation
1. In situ
Bio sphere reserves
Wild life sanctuaries
2. Ex situ
In vitro storage methods
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Biodiversity is - Degree of variation on life forms.
It is the totality of genes, species and ecosystems of
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IMPORTANCE OF BIODIVERSITY
Biological diversity is the very basis of human survival and economic development
as it provides food, housing, clothing, medicine and industrial raw material.
A wide range of industrial materials are directly obtained from biological
Rubber, oil, fiber, building material, timber and paper all are obtained from
80% of the world population depends on medicines obtained from nature (Behera
et al., 2008).
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LOSS OF BIO DIVERSITY
The main causes of biodiversity loss are:
Habitat destruction, Invasive species, Pollution, Population, Over-exploitation and
climatic changes, introduction of exotic species.
Destruction of the habitat is the biggest threat to biodiversity.
Habitats can also be damaged by flooding, lack of water, climate changes,
salination etc., all phenomena which may be both natural and man-made.
Global warming affects plants, animals and microorganisms, both by changing their
habitats and by direct effects of temperature.
Climatic changes also affect species at cellular level and can alter the genetic
makeup of the cell.
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CONSERVATION OF BIODIVERSITY
Protecting the loss of Biodiversity.
Both in situ and ex situ methods of biodiversity conservation are equally
It is now recognized that ex situ techniques can be efficiently used to
complement in situ methods, and they may represent the only option for
conserving certain highly endangered and rare species (Ramsay et al., 2000).
Preserving the habitat is the most important issue in the conservation of
Since chemical pesticides are responsible for a large number of animal deaths
occurring every year, minimizing the use of chemical pesticides is another
technique for the survival of biodiversity.
Conservation of biodiversity through establishment of protected areas like
National Park, Wild life sanctuary, Biosphere Reserves, Marine Reserves etc.
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ROLE OF BIO TECHNOLOGY IN PLANT CONSERVATION
1. IN SITU
BIO SPHERE RESERVES
WILD LIFE SANCTUARIES
2. EX SITU
SELECTION OF SUPERIOR GERM PLASM
FIELD GENE BAKS
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PROTECTED AREAS (PAs)
The PAs are constituted and governed under the provisions of the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972,
which has been amended from time to time, with the changing ground realities concerning wildlife
crime control and PAs management.
Implementation of this Act is further complemented by other Acts viz.
Indian Forest Act, 1972,
Forest (Conservation) Act,1980,
Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 and
Biological Diversity Act, 2002 and
The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act,
In order to strengthen and synergize global wildlife conservation efforts, India is a member to major
international conventions viz.
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of wild fauna and flora (CITES),
International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN),
International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling, UNESCO-World Heritage Committee and
Convention on Migratory Species (CMS).
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STATE WISE DETAILS OF THE
PROTECTED AREA NETWORK OF INDIA
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In situ Protected Areas
BIO SPHERE RESERVES
WILD LIFE SANCTUARIES
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BIO SPHERE RESERVE
A biosphere reserve is an area proposed by its habitats, ratified by a
national committee, and designated by UNESCO’s Man and Biosphere (MAB)
program in 1971, which demonstrates innovative approaches to living and
working in harmony with nature.
The term ‘biosphere’ refers to All of the land, water and atmosphere that
supply life on earth.
The word ‘reserve’ means that it is a Special area recognized for balancing
conservation with sustainable use.
Each biosphere reserve demonstrates practical approaches to balancing
conservation and human use of an area.
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Biosphere reserves of India
The Indian government has established 18 Biosphere Reserves in India, which
protect larger areas of natural habitat (than a National Park or Animal Sanctuary),
and often include one or more National Parks and/or preserves, along buffer zones
that are open to some economic uses.
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A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes.
National Park is an area having adequate ecological, faunal, floral,
geomorphological, natural or zoological significance.
The National Park is declared for the purpose of protecting, propagating or
developing wildlife or its environment.
Although individual nations designate their own national parks differently, there is a
common idea: the conservation of wild nature for posterity and as a symbol of
Furthermore, an international organization, the International Union for Conservation
of Nature (IUCN), and its World Commission on Protected Areas, has defined
"National Park" as its Category II type of protected areas.
National parks are almost always open to visitors.
Most national parks provide outdoor recreation and camping opportunities as well as
classes designed to educate the public on the importance of conservation and the
natural wonders of the land in which the national park is located.
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To protect natural biodiversity along with its underlying ecological structure
and supporting environmental processes, and to promote education and
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NATIONAL PARKS VS WILD LIFE
In a National Park no rights are
No grazing of any livestock shall
also be permitted inside a National
While In addition, from a National
Park requires recommendation of
the National Board for Wildlife
WILD LIFE SANCTUARY
Certain rights can be allowed.
In a Sanctuary, the Chief Wildlife
Warden may regulate, control or
While any removal or exploitation
of wildlife or forest produce from a
Sanctuary requires the
recommendation of the State
Board for Wildlife, removal etc.,
Rights of people living inside.
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WILD LIFE SANCTUARIES
A wildlife refuge, also called a wildlife sanctuary, is a naturally occurring
sanctuary, such as an island, that provides protection for species from hunting,
predation or competition, it is a protected area, a geographic territory within
which wildlife is protected.
IUCN Category IV Protected Area.
Such wildlife refuges are generally officially designated territories.
It is created by government legislation, publicly or privately owned.
The Chernobyl nuclear accident site has accidentally become a wildlife refuge.
India has 515 animal sanctuaries, referred to as Wildlife sanctuaries.
Among these, the 41 Tiger Reserves are governed by Project Tiger
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WILD LIFE SANCTUARIES OF
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There are 47 tiger reserves in India (5-28-2014) which are governed by
Project Tiger which is administered by the National Tiger Conservation
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TIGER RESERVES OF INDIA
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Ex-situ conservation of plant genetic resources
can be achieved through different methods such
Field gene banks,
In vitro storage methods,
Pollen banks and
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The genetic diversity is sometimes conserved under natural habitat.
In other words, areas of great genetic diversity are protected from human
Gene sanctuary is generally established in the center of diversity or microcenter.
India has setup its first gene sanctuary in the Garo Hills of Assam for wild relatives of
Efforts are also being made to setup gene sanctuaries for banana, sugarcane, rice
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SELECTION OF SUPERIOR GERM PLASM
Gene banks are also known as germplasm banks.
Gene bank refers to a place or organization where germplasm can be
conserved in living state.
Germplasm are stored in the form of seeds, pollen or in vitro cultures
or in the case of a field gene bank, as plants growing in the field.
Gene banks are mainly of two types :
1) Seed gene banks and
2) Field gene banks
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Seed Gene Bank:
A place where germplasm is conserved in the form of seeds is called seed
Seeds are very convenient for storage because they occupy smaller space
than whole plants.
However, seeds of all crops can not be stored at low temperature in the
The germplasm of only orthodox species can be conserved in seed banks.
In the seed banks, there are three types of conservation, viz.
1) Short term,
2) Medium term and
3) Long term.
Base collections are conserved for long term (50 years or more) at 18 or
Active collections are stored for short term (3-5 years) at 5-10 0 C.
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Seed Gene Bank:
1. Large number of germplasm
samples or entire variability can be
conserved in a very small space.
2. In seed banks, handling of
germplasm is easy.
3. Germplasm is conserved under
pathogen and insect free
1. Seeds of recalcitrant species can
not be stored in seed banks.
2. Failure of power supply may
lead to loss of viability and there
by loss of germplasm.
3. It requires periodical evaluation
of seed viability. After some time
multiplication is essential to get
new or fresh seeds of storage.
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Field gene banks or living collections are the main conservation strategy for
long-lived perennials, recalcitrant species and vegetative propagated species.
Furthermore, out-breeders require controlled pollination for regeneration
When displayed, the plants have an important educational value and can
easily be accessed for research purposes.
Field gene bank is one of the techniques in the strategy for plant genetic
It is an ex situ method where genetic variation is maintained away from its
original location and samples of a species, subspecies or variety are
transferred and conserved as living collections.
Field gene bank is the most common method of conserving genetic resources
with recalcitrant seeds and vegetatively propagated plants.
FIELD GENE BANKS
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In vitro Storage Methods
The storage of germplasm in laboratory conditions (in vitro) is specially suited
for the long-term conservation of recalcitrant species and vegetatively
They can be stored at low temperature under slow growth conditions or
cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen at -196ºC.
Cryopreservation has so far been successful with only a relatively few species
but is a very promising development for long-term storage (WCMC, 1992).
The main limitation of in vitro storage is the need for special equipment,
techniques and trained staff.
However, more research is necessary to define the mechanisms of desiccation
and chilling injury and to investigate methods of alleviating it (Eberhart, Roos
& Towill, 1991).
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Pollen preservation may be useful for base collections of species that do not
produce orthodox seeds.
It requires little space but some cytoplasmic genes would be lost.
Like seeds, pollen can be divided into desiccation tolerant and intolerant.
However, information about storage characteristics of pollen from wild
species is fragmentary, existing mainly for some crop relatives and for
medicinal and forest species (Eberhart, Roos & Towill, 1991).
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The creation of a network of DNA banks is ex situ conservation and more
precisely germplasm collections can allow large quantities of genetic
resources (genes, DNA) to be stored quickly and at low cost and could act as
an insurance policy against rapid loss of the world's gene pool.
It could be used in molecular phylogenetic and systematics of extinct taxa
and genes can be distributed via the polypeptide chain reaction (PCR) using
primers supplied by the users (Adams et al., 1994).
DNA samples have been mainly used for bio-prospecting and assessment of
Its use in conservation is limited as whole plants cannot be reconstituted
from DNA but the genetic material can be introduced to other genotypes for
plant breeding and enhancement purposes.
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