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Ethical Hacking & Network Security

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The Art of exploring various security breaches is termed as
Network Security

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Ethical Hacking & Network Security

  1. 1. Cyber Ethics-hacking introduction And IT Security Author: Lokender Yadav
  2. 2. SESSION FLOW Why Security? Hacking – Introduction Hacker Communities Types of Hackers. Malicious Hacker Strategies Ethical Hacker Strategies Steps for conducting Ethical Hacking. Importance of Vulnerability Research. Vulnerability Research References. Conclusion.
  3. 3. WHY SECURITY ? • Increasing use of Complex computer infrastructure. • Increasing use of Network elements & applications. • Decreasing level of skill set. • Any Security breach in company will affect its asset & goodwill. •Any Security breach in government can affect its operations & reputation.
  4. 4. HACKING-DEFINITION • The Art of exploring various security breaches is termed as Hacking. •It’s an anti-society activity. •It says, there always exists more than one way to solve the problem. •The terms Hacker and Hacking are being misinterpreted and misunderstood with negative sidelines.
  5. 5. COMMUNITIES OF HACKER  Hackers  Crackers  Phreaks  Script Kiddies
  6. 6. HACKER WHO ARE THEY ?  Hackers are Intelligent Computer Professionals. Motive/Intent To gain in-depth knowledge of a system, what’s happening at the backend, behind the screen To find possible security vulnerabilities in a system. They create security awareness by sharing knowledge. It’s a team work.
  7. 7. CRACKERS/ATTACKERS An Individuals who break into computers with malicious intent. Motive/Intent – •To seek unauthorized access into a system and cause damage or destroy or reveal confidential information. •To compromise the system to deny services to legitimate users for troubling, harassing them or for taking revenge. Effects- Can cause financial losses & image/reputation damages, •Defamation in the society for individuals or organizations
  8. 8. PHREAKS •Phreaks – These are persons who use computer devices and software to break into phone networks. •Motive/Intention- To find loopholes in security in phone network and to makes phone calls at free of cost!!! •Effects- You may have to big amount of phone bills, for doing nothing!!!
  9. 9. SCRIPT KIDDIES •Script Kiddies – These are persons not having technical skills to hack computers. •Motive/Intention- They use the available information about known vulnerabilities to break into remote system. •it’s an act performed for a fun or out of curiosity.
  10. 10. HATS OFF •White Hat Hackers – They use their knowledge and skill set for good, constructive intents. They find out new Security loopholes and their solution. E.g.- LIKE ME.. As I’m Doing It Right Now ( I Hope So!!!) • Black Hat Hacker- They use their knowledge and skill set for illegal activities destructive intents. E.g.- to gain money (online robbery), to take revenge. Disgruntled Employees is the best example of Black Hats. Attackers (Black Hat HACKERS) are not at all concerned with security professionals (White hat hackers). Actually these hackers are Bad Guys!!!`
  11. 11. HOW HACKERS WORKS…….
  12. 12. ETHICAL HACKER STRATEGIES “The one who can hack it, can only secure it” “If you want to catch criminal then you’ll have to think like criminal” • What to protect? • How to protect? • Against whom? • How much resources needed?
  13. 13. •Understand Client Requirements for Security / Vulnerability Testing. • In Preparation Phase, EH will sign an NDA with the client. • Internal / External Testing. • Conduct Network Security Audits/ VAPT. • Risk Assessment & Mitigation •Documenting Auditing Reports as per Standards. •Submitting Developer as well as remediation reports. • Implement remediation for found vulnerabilities. ETHICAL HACKER STRATEGIES
  14. 14. Social Engineering…. social engineering is the single greatest threat to enterprise security.
  15. 15. Social Engineering…. A Case Study……
  16. 16. A consultant was hired by a business executive to test the security of the executive's enterprise. The consultant was not hired to try to hack through the firewall or bypass the intrusion detection system. He was hired to see how easy it would be for a motivated intruder to gain physical access to the company's mission-critical systems. So the consultant created a fake company ID badge for himself. He even simulated a magnetic swiping strip on the back of the ID by using a piece of electrical tape. He used this fake ID to get into the company's main building, then made his way up to the data centre where he began swiping his fake ID badge through the scanner. After several failed attempts, a friendly employee walked up and said, "Sometimes, that thing doesn't work." The friendly fellow proceeded to swipe his own badge, letting the consultant into the data centre.
  17. 17. At that point, the consultant walked to the centre of the room, raised his arms, and said, "Okay everyone, I'm conducting a surprise security audit. I need everyone to leave the room immediately." Although there were a few surprised faces, all the employees in the data centre filed out. The consultant pulled out his cell phone, called the executive who hired him, and said, "Guess where I am?"
  18. 18. How to Prevent Social Engineering Attack……………………….
  19. 19. Information gathering
  20. 20. VULNERABILITY RESEARCH  Vulnerability research is process of finding vulnerabilities, threats & loopholes in server/ system.  Includes Vulnerability Assessment & Penetration Testing.  Vulnerability notes can be search on internet via Number, CVE.
  21. 21. VULNERABILITY RESEARCH REFERENCES • Common Vulnerability database is available at http://cve.mitre.org/ •National Vulnerability Database is available at http://web.nvd.nist.gov/ • US – CERT also publishes CVD on http://www.us-cert.gov 1. Contains Alerts which can be helpful to administrator. 2. It doesn’t contain solutions.
  23. 23. CONCLUSION  Security is important because prevention is better than cure.  Community of Hackers.  Security Involves five phases.  Ethical Hacking involves Conducting Security Audits, Vulnerability, Assessment & Penetration testing.  Vulnerability Research is process of discovering different vulnerabilities in technology & applications.
  24. 24. SQL Injection Attack Allow remote attacker to execute arbitrary database commands Relies on poorly formed database queries and insuiffcient Input validation Often facilated,but does not rely unhandled exceptions and ODBC error messages. Impact:Massive This is one of the most dangerous vulnerability on the web.
  26. 26. How? • Information Gathering- Definition • Initial Info gathering of websites. • Info Gathering using search engine , blogs & forums. • Info gathering using job, matrimonial websites.
  27. 27. Why Information Gathering ? • Information Gathering can reveal online footprints of criminal. • Information Gathering can help investigator to profile criminals
  28. 28. Information Gathering Of Websites Who is Information •Owner of website. •Email id used to register domain. •Domain registrar. • Domain name server information. • Related websites.
  29. 29. WHO IS. Who is. is query to database to get following information. 1.Owner of website. 2.Email id used to register domain. 3.Domain registrar. 4. Domain name server information. 5. Related websites.
  30. 30. Reverse IP -Mapping • Reverse IP will give number of websites hosted on same server. •If one website is vulnerable on the server then hacker can easily root the server.
  31. 31. Info. Gathering Using Search Engine • Search engines are efficient mediums to get specific results according to your requirements. •Google & yahoo search engine gives best results out of all
  32. 32. Info. Gathering Using Search Engine • This type of search engines retrieves results from different search engine & make relation or connections between those results.
  33. 33. Info.Gathering Using Search Engine • Maltego is an open source intelligence and forensics application. • It allows for the mining and gathering of information as well as the representation of this information in a meaningful way. • Coupled with its graphing libraries, Maltego, allows you to identify key relationships between information and identify previously unknown relationships between them.
  34. 34. Information Gathering Almost 80% internet users use blogs/forums for knowledge sharing purpose. Information gathering from specific blog will also helpful in investigations.  Information gathering from Social Networking websites can also reveal personal info about suspect.  Many websites stored email id lists for newsletters. these email ids can also be retrieved using email spiders.
  35. 35. Phishing Frauds In the cyber-world phishing is a form of illegal act whereby fraudulently sensitive information is acquired, such as passwords and credit card details, by a person/entity masquerading as a trustworthy person or business in an apparently official electronic communication, such as an e- mail or instantaneous communication.
  36. 36. Investigation Steps  Investigator should trace Email using Headers.  As it is going to be Spoof Mail in every case, Investigator should gather information about hosting server from which it is originated.  Contacting Hosting Server with Message ID & Headers for Real IP Address.  Asking for Domain names registered within specific time duration during which this incident reported.  Credit Card or Paypal account or any other online payment account which was used for transaction.
  37. 37. Cont…….. Bank Statement with online banking A/C Access log which gives IP address of the culprit.  Beneficiary Bank account statement.  Beneficiary Bank account Access Log.
  38. 38. Prevention is Better Harden the server Monitor alerts Scan and apply patches Monitor log Good physical Security Intrusion detection system. Train the technical staff only Serous policy and procedure.
  39. 39. Scan and apply patches
  40. 40. Monitor Logs Monitor Log
  41. 41. Good Physical Security Preimeter Security Computer room security Desktop security Close monitoring of admin’s work area No floppy drive No bootable CD’s
  42. 42. Security Awareness Sharing admin accounts Service accounts Accounts naming conventions Hardening Passwords (Understand NT passwords !) Two-factor authentication
  43. 43. Serious Policy & Procedures Top-down commitment Investment Designed-in security Regular audits Regular penetration Testing Education & awareness