2. Submitted To:
Dept. of SST
College of Agriculture,
Vekariya Tarang A.
Reg. No. – 2010116131
College of Agriculture,
Seed production of
6. JUTE is also Known as the Golden Fiber.
Jute is an important natural fibre cash crop just like
cotton crop and grows well in hot and moist climate.
In India, Ganga delta region is excellent for jute
cultivation as this region has fertile
Alluvium soil & favourable temperature along with
Jute is also known as golden fibre.
Alluvial sandy loam, clay loamy soils are best suited for
C. capsularis jute can grow even in standing water
especially towards the latter part of its growth.
C. olitorius jute will not thrive in standing water. The
latter is more drought resistant and is therefore grown
on lighter soils.
8. Field should be ploughed and cross harrowed 5-6 times
followed by planking until a fine seed bed with good tilth is
Soil moisture- 21-45%
In case of acidic soils, liming should be done 4-6 weeks
before sowing at the rate of 7-15 quintal per hectare
9. Seed treatment- captan or ceresan @ 5g per kg of
Sowing time- starts from the month of February and
extends to middle of June in some parts of india
White jute- March- April
Tossa jute- April – May
April sowing gives the best result.
SEED AND SOWING
10. Broadcasting due to small seed size.
Some time vegetative propagation also used for
jute seed production.
11. Jute type
Seed rate (kg/ha)
C. olitorius 5 7 25 x 5 80
C. capsularis 7 10 30 x 5 67
12. It is normally self pollinated crop but 2-3 % natural
crossing is available in c. capsularis and 10-12% in c.
Certified 50 m isolation distance
Foundation 30 m isolation distance
13. MANURES AND
5-8 tones per hectare incorporated one month before sowing
• Nitrogen application :
20-60 kg N per ha for olitorius,
40-80 kg N per ha for capsularis
Usually top dressed in one or two installments at 4 to 5 weeks crop
age when requirement is highest
• Phosphorus and potassium application:
20-40 kg P2O5 per ha, 20-60 kg K2O per ha
14. Roughing for off type plant, disease and pest
infected plants should be carried out three time.
1. 30-40 days of sowing
2. bud or flowering stage
3. capsule formation stage
15. Jute cultivation requires good water resource(500 to
600 mm of water)
and plenty of sunshine.
As soon as sowing is completed, carry out the first
Life irrigation should be given on 5th day after sowing.
Subsequent irrigations should be given with 2 weeks
16. WEED MANAGEMENT
Weed infestation is maximum up to sixth weeks crop age
First weeding- 2-3 weeks after sowing when plants are 7-10 cm
high and thin out extra seedlings to a spacing of 3-4 cm
between two plants
Second weeding- 5-6 weeks crop age when plants are 14-15 cm
high and maintain plant to plant distance of 5-7 cm within a row
Chemical control – application of fluchloralin( Basalin) at the
rate of 1 kg a.i. per ha in 1000 liters of water as pre – plant is
17. Seedling blight
These all above diseases are caused by Macrophomina
Seed treatment for 10 min in a closed container with
captan @ 5 g /kg of seed , apply lime and potash in areas
with red and acid soils , spray bavistin @ 1 g/ litre of
water at the first appearance of symptoms.
18. Anthracnose of Capsularis- c/o –Colletotrichum
Anthracnose of Olitorius- c/o- Colletotrichum
spray the crop twice a week with 0.2% blitox solution.
Stem gall – c/o – Physoderma corchori ( olitorius types
are more susceptible)
Avoid submergence conditions , grow capsularis types in
20. The seed crop is ready for harvest in oct. to nov.
when seed pods become brown.
Harvesting must be done at proper stage of
Delay harvesting may loss in yield due to
In c. capsularis good quality seed is obtained by
harvesting when stem and pods are not dead ripe.so
several hand cuttings are necessary.
In c. olitorius good quality seed is obtained by
harvesting when stem and pods are dead ripe.
Harvesting and threshing:
21. The crop should be harvested with a sharp sickle during the
Bend the plant as little as possible and do not jerk it to avoid
It is advisable to place the bundles on canvases so as to
collect the seed that shatters.
Sun dry bundles before threshing.
Threshing should be done by beating the capsules with sticks.
Precautions should be taken to avoid contact of seed with soil.
This spoils the appearance of seed and may increase the
moisture of seed which cause the problems in storage.
After threshing the seed should be sun dried until they reach a
moisture content below 9%.
22. Green plant weight yield is 45 to 50 tonnes per hectare
Fiber yield is 2.0 to 2.5 tonnes per hectare.
Pod yield and fiber yield:
Capsularis : 4-5 Q./ha
Olitorius : 3 Q./ha
26. It has been developed by crossing between JRO 620 and sudan green.
It has red colour pigment.
Non shattering pods and resistance to premature flowering.
Sowing Time : Mid March to Last April
Seed rate : 2.5-3kg. / acre.
12-14 ft. tall erect, disease tolerant plant.
Stem colour is red before maturity.
130-140 days to ready for harvest.
Best quality olitorius class.
Suitable for row or direct sowing cultivation in medium land.
12-14 qtl./acre yield in proper field management.
JRO - 878 (Chaitali Tosa)
27. JRO 7835 and JRO 524 is another hybrids of jute which is both
green in colour.
JRO 7835 (Basudev) has been developed by crossing between
JRO 635 and sudan green.
JRO 524 (Navin) has been developed by crossing between sudan
green and JRO 635.
29. TOMATO (Lycopersicum esculentus)
Tomato is one of the most important vegetable crops grown extensively in the tropical and
subtropical belts of the world.
It is grown mainly fresh market and to a little extent for processing. Increased attention is now
being bestowed to breeding and production of tomato.
Production of tomato can further be increased if improved cultural practices are combined with
good quality seeds.
Tomato is a typical day neutral plant.
It requires temperature of 15-20° C for fruit setting.
Tomato is self pollinated crop.
Self fertilization is favoured by the position of receptive
stigma within the cone anthers and the normal pendant
position of the flower.
Sow the seeds in raised nursery bed of 20 cm height, in rows of 5
cm gap and covered with sand.
Eight and ten nursery beds will be sufficient to transplant one acre.
Apply 2 kg of DAP 10days before pulling out of seedling.
Transplanting should be done with the seedlings are 20-25 days old,
preferably at evening time.
Spacing is 60 x 45 cm
90 x 60 cm for female parent of hybrids.
60 x 45 cm for male parent of hybrids.
After thorough preparation of a field to fine tilth
Apply 25 tons of FYM per ha.
Apply 100 : 100: 100 Kg of NPK/ha of which, 50% of the N is applied
41. PEST AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT
The major pests attacking tomato crop are leaf eating caterpillars and fruit borers,
which can be controlled by spraying.
The major diseases in tomato are early blight and mosaic virus.
The early blight rot can be controlled by spraying Benlate or Dithane M-45.
The fruits are harvested after full maturity of the fruit when turn in
to red color fruits from first and last one or two harvests should
not be used for seed extraction.
44. SEED EXTRACTION
The fruits from in between 6-7 harvest should be used for seed extraction.
The seed viability is depends on the method on which the seeds were extracted
and hence, it is more important to choose proper methods of seed extraction.
Before seed extraction, the fruits are to be graded for true to type and selection
of medium to large size fruits for getting higher recovery of quality seeds.
45. ACID METHOD OF SEED EXTRACTION
The acid method of seed extraction is the best method for tomato seed extraction.
In this method, the fruits are to be crushed into pulp and taken in a plastic containers (or) cement
And then add 30 ml of commercial Hydrochloric acid per kg of pulp, stir well and allow it for ½ hour.
In between this duration the pulp may be stirred well for one or two times. This facilitates the
separation of seed and pulp.
After ½ hour, the seeds will settle down at the bottom and then the floating fraction is to be
The collected seeds should be washed with water for three or four times.
49. Drying, Grading & Storage
Drying and grading Seeds are to be dried in the shade. It should never be dried in hot sun.
the safe moisture content of the seed for grading is 8 to 9 per cent. Seeds can be graded
using 6/64’’ round perforated sieve.
Storage The seeds dried to safe moisture content after treating either with captan or thiram
@ 2 g/kg can be stored for 15 months in moisture vapour pervious containers, while it can be
stored in moisture vapour proof containers for 30 months.
50. Hybrid seed production
1.Emasculation and Dusting
Emasculation is done before the anthers are mature and the stigma has
become receptive to minimize accidental self pollination.
Thus emasculation is generally done in the evening, between 4 PM and 6 PM
one day before the anthers are expected to dehisce or mature and the stigma
is likely to become fully receptive.
Emasculate the bud by hand with the help of needle and forceps. Remove the
calyx, corolla and staminal column or anthers, leaving gynoecium i.e.,
stigma and style intact in the flower.
Selection of flower
53. Emasculated flowers should be covered immediately with red coloured
paper cover to protect against contamination from foreign pollen and also
for easy identification of emasculated bud during dusting.
Remove the red paper cover of the emasculated bud and dust the pollen
gently over the stigmatic surface using cotton or camel brush, etc.,
Removal of anther cone
Removal of corolla
54. After dusting, the emasculated flowers are again covered
with white or other coloured paper cover for two to three
Pollen collected from one male flower can be used for
dusting 5 to 7 emasculated flowers.
Dusting of pollen
56. Certification of Seeds
Number of Inspections
A minimum of three inspections shall be made as follows:
The first inspection shall be made before flowering on order to verify isolation, volunteer plants, and other
The second inspection shall be made during flowering to check isolation, offtypes and other relevant
The third inspection shall be made at maturity and prior to harvesting to verify true nature of plant and other