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Submitted in Partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of
BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING
MUKESH KUMAR JAISWAL
Submitted to the
Department Of Civil Engineering
BANSAL INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERIN& TECHNOLOGY SITAPUR ROAD
SAFETY BEINGS AT HOME. RIGHTFROMTHE BIRTH, HUMANBEINGS DEVELOP
A SENCE OF SAFETY TO PROTECT THEMSELVES FROMTHE ENVIRONMENT.
SAFETY IS NOTONLYNECESSARY FORTHE INDIVIDUAL BUTALSO FORTHE
THE POPULATIONNOW HAS GROWNUP TO AN ALAMING LEVEL. EARLIER,
WHEN THERE WAS NO MUCH PRESSUREON LAND, MAN WAS FREE TO MOVE
FROMPLACE TO PLACEAT HIS WILL. NOW THECONDITIONIS DIFERENT.
THERE ARE VARIOUS TYPES OF SAFETYMEASURES. PERSONAL SAFETY,
ENVIRONMENTSAFETY, ROAD SAFETY, SAFETYFROM FIRE, BURGLARY, EARTH
QUAKEETC . AT THE MOMENT WE ARE MORE INTERESTED INROAD SAFETY.
TODAYS MODERNWORLD IS FLOODED WITH PLENTYOF MODERNVEHICLES
EITHERCYCLES, SCOOTERS, AUTO RICKSHAWS, CARS, BUSSES. LORRIES,
TRACTORS, ETC. CITYHAS BECOMENARROW AND CONJUSTED . PARKING LOTS
HAS BECOME SCARCE. INSUCH A SITUATIONTHEQUESTIONOF SAFETY
BECOMES PARAMOUNT. LOT OF MODERNGADGETS HAS BEEN INVENTED TO
PROVIDESAFETYTO THE PUBLIC. PUBLICAWARENESS HAS INCREASED. MORE
AND MOREMEASURES ARE TAKEN FOR THEIRSAFETY. SAFETYRULES ARE
FRAMED TO PROVIDEREASONABLESAFETYTO THE ROAD USERS. ROAD
DISCIPLINEIS MOREIMPORTANT. THELAWS SHOULD BEMORE STRINGENT
AND THE ENFORCING AUTHORITIES SHOULDBEVESTED WITH ADEQUATE
POWERS FORENFORCING THERULES.
THE PEDESTRIANS SHOULDFOLLOW THESAFETYRULES BY WALKING INTHE
PAYMENTS, FOLLOW TRAFFICSIGNALS,CROSSING ROAD ONLYATZEBRA
CROSSINGS TO AVOID ACCIDENTS. MOTORISTS SHOULD FIRSTQUALIFY
THEMSELVES BY LEARNING DRIVING AND OBTAINING THEPROPERLICENCES.
RASH, NEGLIGENT, DRUNKENDRIVING SHOULD BEAVOIDED.
FRIENDS, LIFEISMEANTFORLIVING. AS LONG AS WELIVE, LET US LIVEA
DISCIPLINED, DUTYMINDED AND DIGNIFIED LIFE. FOLLOW THERULES . AFTER
ALL THE RULES ARE FOROUR SAFETY.
Advice, Information & Resources. Roads are essential to our everyday
lives. ... The last few decades have demonstrated that effective and
comprehensive road safety strategies can reduce the number of
people killed or injured on the road, despite increasing traffic levels.
ROAD SEFETY:- Road traffic safety refers to the methods and
measures used to prevent road users from being killed or seriously
injured. Typical road users include pedestrians, cyclists, motorists,
vehicle passengers, and passengers of on-road public transport
(mainly buses and trams).
Road traffic safety refers to the methods and measures
used to prevent road users from being killed or seriously
injured. Typical road users
include pedestrians, cyclists, motorists, vehicle
passengers, and passengers of on-road public
transport (mainly buses and trams).
Best-practices in modern road safety strategies focus on
preventing serious injury and death from vehicle crashes
despite human fallibility. (Whereas, previous road safety
paradigms assumed compliance with traffic regulations.) Safe
road design is now about implementing a Safe System
The basic strategy of a Safe System approach is to ensure that
in the event of a crash, the impact energies remain below the
threshold likely to produce either death or serious injury. This
threshold will vary from crash scenario to crash scenario,
depending upon the level of protection offered to the road users
involved. For example, the chances of survival for an
unprotected pedestrian hit by a vehicle diminish rapidly at
speeds greater than 30 km/h, whereas for a properly restrained
motor vehicle occupant the critical impact speed is 50 km/h
(for side impact crashes) and 70 km/h (for head-on crashes).
As sustainable solutions for all classes of road have not been identified,
particularly low-traffic rural and remote roads, a hierarchy of control
should be applied, similar to classifications used to improve occupational
safety and health. At the highest level is sustainable prevention of serious
injury and death crashes, with sustainable requiring all key result areas to
be considered.At the second level is real time risk reduction, which
involves providing users at severe risk with a specific warning to enable
them to take mitigating action. The third level is about reducing the crash
risk which involves applying the road design standards and guidelines
Road traffic crashes are one of the world’s largest public health and injury
prevention problems.The problem is all the more acute because the
victims are overwhelmingly healthy before their crashes. According to
the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 1 million people are
killed on the world’s roads each year. A report published by the WHO in
2004 estimated that some 1.2 million people were killed and 50 million
injured in traffic collisions on the roads around the world each year
was the leading cause of death among children 10–19 years of age. The
report also noted that the problem was most severe in developing
countries and that simple prevention measures could halve the number of
The standard measures used in assessing road safety interventions are
fatalities and killed or seriouslyinjured (KSI)rates, usually per billion (109
passengerkilometres.Countries caught in the old road safety
replace KSI rates with crash rates — for example, crashes
per million vehicle miles.
Vehicle speed within the human tolerances for avoiding serious injury
and death is a key goal of modern road designbecause impact speed
affects the severity of injury to both occupants and pedestrians.For
occupants, Joksch(1993)found the probability of death for drivers in
multi-vehicle accidents increased as the fourth power of impact speed
(often referred to by the mathematical term δv ("delta V"), meaning
change in velocity). Injuries are caused by sudden, severe acceleration
(or deceleration);this is difficult to measure. However, crash
reconstructiontechniques can estimate vehicle speeds before a crash.
Therefore,the change in speed is used as a surrogate for acceleration.
This enabled the Swedish Road Administration to identify the KSI risk
curves using actual crash reconstructiondata which led to the human
tolerances for serious injury and death referencedabove.
Interventions are generally much easier to identify in the modern road
safety paradigm, whose focus is on the human tolerances for serious
injury and death. For example, the elimination of head-on KSI crashes
simply required the installation of an appropriate median crash barrier.
Also, roundabouts, often with speed reducing approaches,encounter
very few KSI crashes.
The old road safety paradigm of purely crash risk is a far more complex
matter. Contributing factors to highway crashes may be related to the
driver (such as driver error, illness, or fatigue), the vehicle (brake,
steering, or throttle failures), or the road itself (lack of sight distance, poor
roadside clear zones, etc.). Interventions may seek to reduce or
compensate forthese factors,or reduce the severity of crashes. A
comprehensive outline of interventions areas can be seen
in management systems for road safety.
In addition to management systems,which apply predominantly to
networks in built-up areas, another class of interventions relates to the
designof roadway networks for new districts. Such interventions explore
the configurations of a network that will inherently reduce the probability
Interventions for the prevention of road traffic injuries are often evaluated;
the Cochrane Library has published a wide variety of reviews of
interventions for the prevention of road traffic injuries]
For road traffic safety purposes itcan be helpful to classify roads into
three usages: built-up urban streets with slower speeds,greater
densities,and more diversity among road users; non built-up rural roads
with higher speeds;and major
highways(motorways/ Interstates/ freeways/ Autobahns, etc.) reserved
for motor-vehicles,and which are often designed to minimize and
attenuate crashes. Most injuries occur on urban streets but most fatalities
on rural roads, while motorways are the safestin relation to distance
traveled. For example, in 2013, German autobahns carried 31% of
motorized road traffic (in travel-kilometres) while accounting for 13% of
Germany's traffic deaths. The autobahn fatality rate of 1.9 deaths per
billion-travel-kilometres compared favorably with the 4.7 rate on urban
streets and 6.6 rate on rural roads.
Buses and coaches
Safety can be improved in various simple ways to reduce the
chance of an accident occurring. Avoiding rushing or standing in
unsafe places on the bus or coach and following the rules on
the bus or coach itself will greatly increase the safety of a
person travelling by bus or coach. Various safety features can
also be implemented into buses and coaches to improve safety
including safety bars for people to hold onto.
The main ways to stay safe when travelling by bus or coach are
Leave your location early so that you do not have to run to
catch the bus or coach.
At the bus stop, always follow the queue.
Do not board or alight at a bus stop other than an official one.
Never board or alight at a red light crossing or unauthorized
Board the bus only after it has come to a halt without rushing
in or pushing others.
Do not sit, stand or travel on the footboard of the bus.
Do not put any part of your body outside a moving or a
While in the bus, refrain from shouting or making noise as it
can distract the driver.
Always hold onto the handrail if standing in a moving bus,
especially on sharp turns.
Always adhere to the bus safety rules.
Basic Rules of the Road
There are certain rules that have been prepared for the benefit of people
and the idea of preparing these rules is not that they should be
understood by the drivers, but it should also be understood by the
cyclists, pedestrians and other people. It is essential to follow all the
rules and regulation and they are clearly listed here. People are
recommended that they should be carefully observing all the rules and
regulation and it is effectual to be careful, considerate and patient.
Traffic signals or stop lights are positioned on the road intersection and
they are used for indicating that whether it is safe to walk or not. People
are recommended that they should follow all the Traffic signs and they
would be required to understand this information that is displayed through
These signs have got the very prominent role to play in the traffic system and they are
made for the safety of people. According to the congress of Indian Roads, these signs
and Traffic symbols have been categorized into 3 different categories are
Road signs in the Republic of India are similar to
those used in some parts of the United Kingdom, except
that they are bilingual.
Most urban roads and state highways have signs in
the state language and English. National highways have
signs in the state language, Hindi and English. There are
different types of signs.
1. Mandatory signs
2. Cautionary signs
3. Additional signs
Mandatory signs are road signs which are used to set the obligations of
all traffic which use a specific area of road. Unlike prohibitory or restrictive
signs, mandatory signs tell traffic what it must do, rather than must not
do. Most mandatory road signs are circular, may use white symbols on a
blue background with white border or black symbols on a white
background with a red border,although the latter is also associated with
Mandatory signs can also be used to issue instructions to all vehicles -
commonexamples include "pass on this side" signs seenat roadworks,
and "compulsoryroundabout" signs seenat mini-roundabouts. Other
signs of the type include "attach snow chains" and "remove snow chains"
seen at the entry and exit points of mountainous areas, and "compulsory
direction for vehicles carrying dangerous loads", used to divert vehicles
carrying explosives or poisonous chemicals away from areas with open
flames such as oil refineries.Minimum speed limits can also be defined
using mandatory road signs, although such signs are rare in most
countries; the U.S., which does not use mandatory signs,instead places
minimum speed limits on the same type of panel as maximum speed
Segregation of roads
Mandatory road signs can be used to allocate certain areas to specific
vehicles - the Vienna Convention explicitly
mentions footpaths,cyclepaths and bridleways, but tramways,bus
lanes, taxi lanes, HOV lanes and snow mobile tracks can also be
designated with mandatory signs. When a specificarea of roadway is
designated with a mandatory sign specifying a vehicle type, all traffic of
this type must use this area if possible.These signs can be combined by
putting one pictogram above the other. If the pictograms are side-by-side
however, with the sign divided by a white vertical line, each type of
vehicle must stay within the lane indicated by the sign. A red line through
a mandatory sign indicates not that a vehicle of a specific type is
prohibited from entering the designated area, but that the area is now
deregulated and any vehicle may use it.
2. Cautionary signs:-
These signs are used to warn the road users of the existence of
certain hazardous condition either on or adjacent to the
roadway, so that the motorists are cautious and take the
desired action. Some of the signs, which fall under this
category, are provided as follows. We offerour customers an
extensive collectionof Cautionary Sign Boards roads, railways and other
public places for the safety of the drivers.
A symbol is a person or a conceptthat represents,stands for or
suggests another idea, visual image, belief,action or material entity.
Symbols take the form of words, sounds, gestures,ideas or visual
images and are used to convey other ideas and beliefs.Forexample, a
red octagon may be a symbolfor "STOP".On a map, a blue line might
representa river. Numerals are symbols for numbers. Alphabeticletters
may be symbols for sounds. Personal names are symbols representing
individuals. A red rose may symbolize love and compassion.The variable
'x', in a mathematical equation, may symbolize the position of a particle in
Scooters and motorcycles
ESSAYS RELATED TO ROAD SAFETY
1. Dangerous Road Users (objectional and bias):-
The seventy years and older group seems to remain static, dispite efforts
to increase road safety. According to the Australian Departmentof Road
Safety, "safety is going to be aimed strongly at our young and elderly
road users.aE• Fortunately we can hope to look forward to safer roads,
but must rememberuntil accidents stop occurring, roads will always be
dangerous!...Statistics confirm that young drivers are likely to cause road
related deaths, more than any other road user.
2.Safety Belt Standard
The Uniform Safety Belt Standard requires all drivers and passengersin
a vehicle to wear safety belts meeting federalmotor vehicle safety
standards. These include applying safety belt laws to all occupants of
motor vehicles on the streets,roads, and highways of the state. Each
driver of a vehicle must have a safety belt that meets the federal motor
vehicle safety standards properlyapplied to his body at all times while
operating a vehicle. ... The driver is not allowed to operate a vehicle
unless every occupant is secured in a safety belt restraint.
3. Car safety features
::Evaluate the effectiveness ofsome safetyfeatures of motor
vehicles::Withmore and more people driving on our roads, it"s
predictable to see increases in the number of accidents and fatalities. ...
As speeding is a commoncharacteristic of today"s roads (and even the
normal 60km/h suburban speed),airbags can fall short of ensuring the
safety of the occupants of the vehicle. ... Bull bars have aroused much
controversy from safety experts in recent times. ... Data from the federal
Office of Road Safety estimated that in 1992,14% of pedestrian deaths
could be attributed to bull bars.
4. Health and Safety in the Workplace
IntroductionThis paper will focus on the importance of workplace health
and safety and why it is important for organizations and businesses to
adopt and promote the health and safety practices.... During the 1980's
workplace safety and health concerns were widespread in the United
States, and it was noted that there was an economic incentive for the
employers in promoting health and safety in the organisation. ... Health
and safety trainings should be conducted as a necessity,to help the
employers and employeesunderstand their roles in promoting and
obtaining workplace health and safe.
I knew these roads well because I drive them at least twice a day, but
today was different.... I immediately slammed on my brakes, but it was
too late as I started to slide off the road, leaving four black marks on the
road behind me. ... I walked away without a single bruise or scratch and
had I not been wearing my safety belt I am 100% sure that I would be
dead. I would have been slammed into my windshield and if that didn"t
kill me, than I"m sure the telephone pole 2 feet in front of me would have.
6. The Wrong Side of the Road
Such injuries are by far the leading public health problem foryoung
people 13-19 years old (Insurance Institute for Highway Safety [IIHS],
2004).... According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration,
there were "191.3 million licensed drivers in the United States in 2001....
Contributing factors such as wet roads or uneven pavement necessitates
that drivers slow down. ... Educating teens on defensive driving
techniques at home and in schoolis the key to ensuring their safety.
Road Safety Rules
Fatalities and accidents on the road occur because someone somewhere
is not paying attention to road safety rules. There are a number of factors
that come into interplay while traveling on the road. There are road safety
rules for drivers to follow as well as the pedestrians and other vehicles.
In this article we will focus on the main road safety rules that everybody
o9nt he road needs to keep in mind.
Road safety rules
Keep to the left
Keep to the left while driving and allow vehicles from the opposite
direction to pass.Most head-on accidents happen as we fail to keep to
the left and stay in the middle of the road. This is one of the most
important road safety rules for drivers.
Slow done on bends and turn
another mistake most people make is to never slow down on turns and
bends.Be all the more cautious when negotiating bends and sharp turns.
Move cautiously and slowly during congestionon roads
This is another very important road safety rule that most of us ignore. We
should move carefully especiallyat the round-abouts and road junctions.
Those on bicycles and two wheelers should never go on the road without
a helmet. Make sure the helmet is of superior quality and strapped
Remain within the speed limit
This is commonsense and a commonone among road safety rules for
drivers. Keep in mind that the speed limit is related to the traffic condition
of the area. If you come within schools and hospitals, just slow down
Maintain the right distance
Often it is seen that collisions occur because adequate distance from the
vehicle in front is not maintained. These are important road safety rules
Understand and follow the road signs
These road safety rules are a must for all to follow, whether walking on
the road or in their vehicles. It can be dangerous for your as well as other
people n the road if you have poor understanding of the road signs.
Keep the above road safety rules in mind while travelling and make the
roads safe for yourself and everyone.
Road Safety Slogans
Road safety is a very important issue in our life. Therefore it is no
surprise to see use of road safety slogans all over at public places, in
officesand other related areas to raise awareness about the issue. You
can send these free road safety slogans vial emails or stick them in your
homes or officesto portray the serious though behind road safety.
Why our roads are the most dangerous place is because mostpeople fail
to realize the value of road safety rules and follow them. The road safety
slogans are a god and an interesting way to catch their attention and
make them think on these issues.A few of these attractive road safety
slogans are very popular and clearly convey the message across to
reduce the incidents of any causalities and accidents.The idea into make
people focus more on the road safety issues.
There could be a very long list of the road safety slogans. Therefore we
are going to list down a couple of the most popular and commonslogans
for road safety.
ad safety, No injury. No road safety, Know injury.
is not automatic, think about it.
- Alive tomorrow.
rve on my curve
Road Safety Tips
There is plenty of advice and info online and offline on road safety tips.
But still it leaves us to ponderas to why there is no decline in the number
of causalities and accidents on the road. Is it because we take all those
rules and road safety tips casually? Well, if so then it is time to set our
priorities right and realize the importance of these tips so as to make for
complete safe traveling on the roads. In this article we will focus on road
safety tips for drivers as well as others on the road.
The road safety tips discussedin this article are commonand perhaps
known to you already. Just go through them to brush up your information.
Road safety tips for drivers while driving