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Mukki seminar

seminar report on highway sefety

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Mukki seminar

  1. 1. A SEMINAR REPORT ON HIGHWAY SEFETY Submitted in Partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Degree of BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Submitted By MUKESH KUMAR JAISWAL (1342200093) Submitted to the Department Of Civil Engineering BANSAL INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERIN& TECHNOLOGY SITAPUR ROAD 2016-17
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION SAFETY BEINGS AT HOME. RIGHTFROMTHE BIRTH, HUMANBEINGS DEVELOP A SENCE OF SAFETY TO PROTECT THEMSELVES FROMTHE ENVIRONMENT. SAFETY IS NOTONLYNECESSARY FORTHE INDIVIDUAL BUTALSO FORTHE SOCIETYONTHE WHOLE. THE POPULATIONNOW HAS GROWNUP TO AN ALAMING LEVEL. EARLIER, WHEN THERE WAS NO MUCH PRESSUREON LAND, MAN WAS FREE TO MOVE FROMPLACE TO PLACEAT HIS WILL. NOW THECONDITIONIS DIFERENT. THERE ARE VARIOUS TYPES OF SAFETYMEASURES. PERSONAL SAFETY, ENVIRONMENTSAFETY, ROAD SAFETY, SAFETYFROM FIRE, BURGLARY, EARTH QUAKEETC . AT THE MOMENT WE ARE MORE INTERESTED INROAD SAFETY. TODAYS MODERNWORLD IS FLOODED WITH PLENTYOF MODERNVEHICLES EITHERCYCLES, SCOOTERS, AUTO RICKSHAWS, CARS, BUSSES. LORRIES, TRACTORS, ETC. CITYHAS BECOMENARROW AND CONJUSTED . PARKING LOTS HAS BECOME SCARCE. INSUCH A SITUATIONTHEQUESTIONOF SAFETY BECOMES PARAMOUNT. LOT OF MODERNGADGETS HAS BEEN INVENTED TO PROVIDESAFETYTO THE PUBLIC. PUBLICAWARENESS HAS INCREASED. MORE AND MOREMEASURES ARE TAKEN FOR THEIRSAFETY. SAFETYRULES ARE FRAMED TO PROVIDEREASONABLESAFETYTO THE ROAD USERS. ROAD DISCIPLINEIS MOREIMPORTANT. THELAWS SHOULD BEMORE STRINGENT AND THE ENFORCING AUTHORITIES SHOULDBEVESTED WITH ADEQUATE POWERS FORENFORCING THERULES.
  3. 3. THE PEDESTRIANS SHOULDFOLLOW THESAFETYRULES BY WALKING INTHE PAYMENTS, FOLLOW TRAFFICSIGNALS,CROSSING ROAD ONLYATZEBRA CROSSINGS TO AVOID ACCIDENTS. MOTORISTS SHOULD FIRSTQUALIFY THEMSELVES BY LEARNING DRIVING AND OBTAINING THEPROPERLICENCES. RASH, NEGLIGENT, DRUNKENDRIVING SHOULD BEAVOIDED. FRIENDS, LIFEISMEANTFORLIVING. AS LONG AS WELIVE, LET US LIVEA DISCIPLINED, DUTYMINDED AND DIGNIFIED LIFE. FOLLOW THERULES . AFTER ALL THE RULES ARE FOROUR SAFETY. Advice, Information & Resources. Roads are essential to our everyday lives. ... The last few decades have demonstrated that effective and comprehensive road safety strategies can reduce the number of people killed or injured on the road, despite increasing traffic levels.
  4. 4. ROAD SEFETY:- Road traffic safety refers to the methods and measures used to prevent road users from being killed or seriously injured. Typical road users include pedestrians, cyclists, motorists, vehicle passengers, and passengers of on-road public transport (mainly buses and trams). Road traffic safety refers to the methods and measures used to prevent road users from being killed or seriously injured. Typical road users include pedestrians, cyclists, motorists, vehicle passengers, and passengers of on-road public transport (mainly buses and trams). Best-practices in modern road safety strategies focus on preventing serious injury and death from vehicle crashes despite human fallibility.[1] (Whereas, previous road safety paradigms assumed compliance with traffic regulations.) Safe road design is now about implementing a Safe System approach: The basic strategy of a Safe System approach is to ensure that in the event of a crash, the impact energies remain below the threshold likely to produce either death or serious injury. This threshold will vary from crash scenario to crash scenario, depending upon the level of protection offered to the road users involved. For example, the chances of survival for an unprotected pedestrian hit by a vehicle diminish rapidly at speeds greater than 30 km/h, whereas for a properly restrained motor vehicle occupant the critical impact speed is 50 km/h (for side impact crashes) and 70 km/h (for head-on crashes).
  5. 5. As sustainable solutions for all classes of road have not been identified, particularly low-traffic rural and remote roads, a hierarchy of control should be applied, similar to classifications used to improve occupational safety and health. At the highest level is sustainable prevention of serious injury and death crashes, with sustainable requiring all key result areas to be considered.At the second level is real time risk reduction, which involves providing users at severe risk with a specific warning to enable them to take mitigating action. The third level is about reducing the crash risk which involves applying the road design standards and guidelines Road traffic crashes are one of the world’s largest public health and injury prevention problems.The problem is all the more acute because the victims are overwhelmingly healthy before their crashes. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 1 million people are killed on the world’s roads each year. A report published by the WHO in 2004 estimated that some 1.2 million people were killed and 50 million injured in traffic collisions on the roads around the world each year[3] and was the leading cause of death among children 10–19 years of age. The report also noted that the problem was most severe in developing countries and that simple prevention measures could halve the number of deaths.[4] The standard measures used in assessing road safety interventions are fatalities and killed or seriouslyinjured (KSI)rates, usually per billion (109 ) passengerkilometres.Countries caught in the old road safety paradigm,[5] replace KSI rates with crash rates — for example, crashes per million vehicle miles. Vehicle speed within the human tolerances for avoiding serious injury and death is a key goal of modern road designbecause impact speed affects the severity of injury to both occupants and pedestrians.For occupants, Joksch(1993)found the probability of death for drivers in multi-vehicle accidents increased as the fourth power of impact speed (often referred to by the mathematical term δv ("delta V"), meaning change in velocity). Injuries are caused by sudden, severe acceleration (or deceleration);this is difficult to measure. However, crash reconstructiontechniques can estimate vehicle speeds before a crash. Therefore,the change in speed is used as a surrogate for acceleration. This enabled the Swedish Road Administration to identify the KSI risk curves using actual crash reconstructiondata which led to the human tolerances for serious injury and death referencedabove.
  6. 6. Interventions are generally much easier to identify in the modern road safety paradigm, whose focus is on the human tolerances for serious injury and death. For example, the elimination of head-on KSI crashes simply required the installation of an appropriate median crash barrier. Also, roundabouts, often with speed reducing approaches,encounter very few KSI crashes. The old road safety paradigm of purely crash risk is a far more complex matter. Contributing factors to highway crashes may be related to the driver (such as driver error, illness, or fatigue), the vehicle (brake, steering, or throttle failures), or the road itself (lack of sight distance, poor roadside clear zones, etc.). Interventions may seek to reduce or compensate forthese factors,or reduce the severity of crashes. A comprehensive outline of interventions areas can be seen in management systems for road safety. In addition to management systems,which apply predominantly to networks in built-up areas, another class of interventions relates to the designof roadway networks for new districts. Such interventions explore the configurations of a network that will inherently reduce the probability of collisions. Interventions for the prevention of road traffic injuries are often evaluated; the Cochrane Library has published a wide variety of reviews of interventions for the prevention of road traffic injuries] For road traffic safety purposes itcan be helpful to classify roads into three usages: built-up urban streets with slower speeds,greater densities,and more diversity among road users; non built-up rural roads with higher speeds;and major highways(motorways/ Interstates/ freeways/ Autobahns, etc.) reserved for motor-vehicles,and which are often designed to minimize and attenuate crashes. Most injuries occur on urban streets but most fatalities on rural roads, while motorways are the safestin relation to distance traveled. For example, in 2013, German autobahns carried 31% of motorized road traffic (in travel-kilometres) while accounting for 13% of Germany's traffic deaths. The autobahn fatality rate of 1.9 deaths per billion-travel-kilometres compared favorably with the 4.7 rate on urban streets and 6.6 rate on rural roads.
  7. 7. Buses and coaches Safety can be improved in various simple ways to reduce the chance of an accident occurring. Avoiding rushing or standing in unsafe places on the bus or coach and following the rules on the bus or coach itself will greatly increase the safety of a person travelling by bus or coach. Various safety features can also be implemented into buses and coaches to improve safety including safety bars for people to hold onto. The main ways to stay safe when travelling by bus or coach are as follows:  Leave your location early so that you do not have to run to catch the bus or coach.  At the bus stop, always follow the queue.  Do not board or alight at a bus stop other than an official one.  Never board or alight at a red light crossing or unauthorized bus stop.  Board the bus only after it has come to a halt without rushing in or pushing others.  Do not sit, stand or travel on the footboard of the bus.  Do not put any part of your body outside a moving or a stationary bus.  While in the bus, refrain from shouting or making noise as it can distract the driver.  Always hold onto the handrail if standing in a moving bus, especially on sharp turns.  Always adhere to the bus safety rules.
  8. 8. Basic Rules of the Road There are certain rules that have been prepared for the benefit of people and the idea of preparing these rules is not that they should be understood by the drivers, but it should also be understood by the cyclists, pedestrians and other people. It is essential to follow all the rules and regulation and they are clearly listed here. People are recommended that they should be carefully observing all the rules and regulation and it is effectual to be careful, considerate and patient. Traffic Signals Traffic signals or stop lights are positioned on the road intersection and they are used for indicating that whether it is safe to walk or not. People are recommended that they should follow all the Traffic signs and they would be required to understand this information that is displayed through color code. Road signals These signs have got the very prominent role to play in the traffic system and they are made for the safety of people. According to the congress of Indian Roads, these signs and Traffic symbols have been categorized into 3 different categories are
  9. 9. TRAFFIC SIGNS Road signs in the Republic of India are similar to those used in some parts of the United Kingdom, except that they are bilingual. Most urban roads and state highways have signs in the state language and English. National highways have signs in the state language, Hindi and English. There are different types of signs. 1. Mandatory signs 2. Cautionary signs 3. Additional signs 1.Mandatory signs;- Mandatory signs are road signs which are used to set the obligations of all traffic which use a specific area of road. Unlike prohibitory or restrictive signs, mandatory signs tell traffic what it must do, rather than must not do. Most mandatory road signs are circular, may use white symbols on a blue background with white border or black symbols on a white background with a red border,although the latter is also associated with prohibitory signs. Mandatory signs can also be used to issue instructions to all vehicles - commonexamples include "pass on this side" signs seenat roadworks, and "compulsoryroundabout" signs seenat mini-roundabouts. Other signs of the type include "attach snow chains" and "remove snow chains" seen at the entry and exit points of mountainous areas, and "compulsory direction for vehicles carrying dangerous loads", used to divert vehicles
  10. 10. carrying explosives or poisonous chemicals away from areas with open flames such as oil refineries.Minimum speed limits can also be defined using mandatory road signs, although such signs are rare in most countries; the U.S., which does not use mandatory signs,instead places minimum speed limits on the same type of panel as maximum speed limits. Segregation of roads Mandatory road signs can be used to allocate certain areas to specific vehicles - the Vienna Convention explicitly mentions footpaths,cyclepaths and bridleways, but tramways,bus lanes, taxi lanes, HOV lanes and snow mobile tracks can also be designated with mandatory signs. When a specificarea of roadway is designated with a mandatory sign specifying a vehicle type, all traffic of this type must use this area if possible.These signs can be combined by putting one pictogram above the other. If the pictograms are side-by-side however, with the sign divided by a white vertical line, each type of vehicle must stay within the lane indicated by the sign. A red line through a mandatory sign indicates not that a vehicle of a specific type is prohibited from entering the designated area, but that the area is now deregulated and any vehicle may use it.
  11. 11. 2. Cautionary signs:- These signs are used to warn the road users of the existence of certain hazardous condition either on or adjacent to the roadway, so that the motorists are cautious and take the desired action. Some of the signs, which fall under this category, are provided as follows. We offerour customers an extensive collectionof Cautionary Sign Boards roads, railways and other public places for the safety of the drivers.
  12. 12. Additional signs:- A symbol is a person or a conceptthat represents,stands for or suggests another idea, visual image, belief,action or material entity. Symbols take the form of words, sounds, gestures,ideas or visual images and are used to convey other ideas and beliefs.Forexample, a red octagon may be a symbolfor "STOP".On a map, a blue line might representa river. Numerals are symbols for numbers. Alphabeticletters may be symbols for sounds. Personal names are symbols representing individuals. A red rose may symbolize love and compassion.The variable 'x', in a mathematical equation, may symbolize the position of a particle in space.  Left arrow  Right arrow  Double arrows  Scooters and motorcycles
  13. 13. ESSAYS RELATED TO ROAD SAFETY 1. Dangerous Road Users (objectional and bias):- The seventy years and older group seems to remain static, dispite efforts to increase road safety. According to the Australian Departmentof Road Safety, "safety is going to be aimed strongly at our young and elderly road users.aE• Fortunately we can hope to look forward to safer roads, but must rememberuntil accidents stop occurring, roads will always be dangerous!...Statistics confirm that young drivers are likely to cause road related deaths, more than any other road user. 2.Safety Belt Standard The Uniform Safety Belt Standard requires all drivers and passengersin a vehicle to wear safety belts meeting federalmotor vehicle safety standards. These include applying safety belt laws to all occupants of motor vehicles on the streets,roads, and highways of the state. Each driver of a vehicle must have a safety belt that meets the federal motor vehicle safety standards properlyapplied to his body at all times while operating a vehicle. ... The driver is not allowed to operate a vehicle unless every occupant is secured in a safety belt restraint. 3. Car safety features ::Evaluate the effectiveness ofsome safetyfeatures of motor vehicles::Withmore and more people driving on our roads, it"s predictable to see increases in the number of accidents and fatalities. ... As speeding is a commoncharacteristic of today"s roads (and even the normal 60km/h suburban speed),airbags can fall short of ensuring the safety of the occupants of the vehicle. ... Bull bars have aroused much controversy from safety experts in recent times. ... Data from the federal Office of Road Safety estimated that in 1992,14% of pedestrian deaths could be attributed to bull bars.
  14. 14. 4. Health and Safety in the Workplace IntroductionThis paper will focus on the importance of workplace health and safety and why it is important for organizations and businesses to adopt and promote the health and safety practices.... During the 1980's workplace safety and health concerns were widespread in the United States, and it was noted that there was an economic incentive for the employers in promoting health and safety in the organisation. ... Health and safety trainings should be conducted as a necessity,to help the employers and employeesunderstand their roles in promoting and obtaining workplace health and safe. 5. SeatbeltSafety I knew these roads well because I drive them at least twice a day, but today was different.... I immediately slammed on my brakes, but it was too late as I started to slide off the road, leaving four black marks on the road behind me. ... I walked away without a single bruise or scratch and had I not been wearing my safety belt I am 100% sure that I would be dead. I would have been slammed into my windshield and if that didn"t kill me, than I"m sure the telephone pole 2 feet in front of me would have. 6. The Wrong Side of the Road Such injuries are by far the leading public health problem foryoung people 13-19 years old (Insurance Institute for Highway Safety [IIHS], 2004).... According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, there were "191.3 million licensed drivers in the United States in 2001.... Contributing factors such as wet roads or uneven pavement necessitates that drivers slow down. ... Educating teens on defensive driving techniques at home and in schoolis the key to ensuring their safety.
  15. 15. Road Safety Rules Fatalities and accidents on the road occur because someone somewhere is not paying attention to road safety rules. There are a number of factors that come into interplay while traveling on the road. There are road safety rules for drivers to follow as well as the pedestrians and other vehicles. In this article we will focus on the main road safety rules that everybody o9nt he road needs to keep in mind. Road safety rules Keep to the left Keep to the left while driving and allow vehicles from the opposite direction to pass.Most head-on accidents happen as we fail to keep to the left and stay in the middle of the road. This is one of the most important road safety rules for drivers. Slow done on bends and turn another mistake most people make is to never slow down on turns and bends.Be all the more cautious when negotiating bends and sharp turns. Move cautiously and slowly during congestionon roads This is another very important road safety rule that most of us ignore. We should move carefully especiallyat the round-abouts and road junctions. Wear helmets Those on bicycles and two wheelers should never go on the road without a helmet. Make sure the helmet is of superior quality and strapped properly. Remain within the speed limit This is commonsense and a commonone among road safety rules for
  16. 16. drivers. Keep in mind that the speed limit is related to the traffic condition of the area. If you come within schools and hospitals, just slow down Maintain the right distance Often it is seen that collisions occur because adequate distance from the vehicle in front is not maintained. These are important road safety rules for drivers. Understand and follow the road signs These road safety rules are a must for all to follow, whether walking on the road or in their vehicles. It can be dangerous for your as well as other people n the road if you have poor understanding of the road signs. Keep the above road safety rules in mind while travelling and make the roads safe for yourself and everyone. Road Safety Slogans Road safety is a very important issue in our life. Therefore it is no surprise to see use of road safety slogans all over at public places, in officesand other related areas to raise awareness about the issue. You can send these free road safety slogans vial emails or stick them in your homes or officesto portray the serious though behind road safety. Why our roads are the most dangerous place is because mostpeople fail to realize the value of road safety rules and follow them. The road safety slogans are a god and an interesting way to catch their attention and make them think on these issues.A few of these attractive road safety slogans are very popular and clearly convey the message across to reduce the incidents of any causalities and accidents.The idea into make people focus more on the road safety issues. There could be a very long list of the road safety slogans. Therefore we are going to list down a couple of the most popular and commonslogans for road safety.
  17. 17. ad safety, No injury. No road safety, Know injury. is not automatic, think about it. - Alive tomorrow. rve on my curve
  18. 18. Road Safety Tips There is plenty of advice and info online and offline on road safety tips. But still it leaves us to ponderas to why there is no decline in the number of causalities and accidents on the road. Is it because we take all those rules and road safety tips casually? Well, if so then it is time to set our priorities right and realize the importance of these tips so as to make for complete safe traveling on the roads. In this article we will focus on road safety tips for drivers as well as others on the road. The road safety tips discussedin this article are commonand perhaps known to you already. Just go through them to brush up your information. Road safety tips for drivers while driving ashed pet

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  • PuneethSajjan

    May. 29, 2017

seminar report on highway sefety

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